Special Issue "Healthcare and Special Needs Patients"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue welcomes manuscripts that can contribute the knowledge necessary to better understand the pathology, etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management of oral pathologies in special needs patients. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities. Preventive strategies in special needs patients should be implemented to reduce oral problems, due to the negative consequences for individuals and communities in terms of pain and suffering, functional impairments, and reduced quality of life. Psychosocial factors, such as improved awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward dental health care in both children and adult special needs patients, are included in general health status improvements. The published findings should lead to improving the prevention and management of medical disorders affecting the oral and maxillofacial areas of these kind of patients adopting multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Iole Vozza
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health prevention
  • oral health management
  • special needs patients
  • oral education

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Ultrashort Implants, Alternative Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Mandibular Atrophies in Fragile Subjects: A Retrospective Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020175 - 06 Feb 2021
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using ultrashort implants in the rehabilitation of jaws of fragile patients. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the survival rate of full-arch prosthetic rehabilitation on ultrashort implants, length 4 mm, 4 mm [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using ultrashort implants in the rehabilitation of jaws of fragile patients. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the survival rate of full-arch prosthetic rehabilitation on ultrashort implants, length 4 mm, 4 mm in diameter in the premolar and canine area and 4.5 mm in diameter in the molar area, with the insertion torque of 60 Nw and immediate loading. Nineteen patients were evaluated for 3 years clinically and radiographically. The significant majority of the patients at the 3 year follow-up (T4) presented a stable and functional implant-supported prothesis, and the survival rate of the implants was 85%, with a loss of 16 implants on 114 implants. The combination of the innovative implant surfaces and the correct project of the prostheses, with the related implant connection, determined a different timing in the therapy, allowing to obtain an immediate loading, which is currently demanded by patients. This and recent reports on short and ultrashort implant usage in atrophic jaws offer a good solution in critical cases. In conclusion, within the limits of the study, the full-arch rehabilitation with immediate loading on ultrashort implants showed good results with few postoperative complications and related low biological cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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Open AccessArticle
The Evaluation of Further Complications after the Extraction of the Third Molar Germ: A Pilot Study in Paediatric Dentistry
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020121 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Some authors suggest germectomy to prevent the impaction of mandibular third molars, which can cause anterior crowding. The aim of the study, conducted with 2 years of follow-up, was to clarify when the extraction of the germ of the third molar is optimal, [...] Read more.
Some authors suggest germectomy to prevent the impaction of mandibular third molars, which can cause anterior crowding. The aim of the study, conducted with 2 years of follow-up, was to clarify when the extraction of the germ of the third molar is optimal, together with possible post-operative complications. A new surgical approach was performed through the application of a combined suture, which can provide better wound healing. The study was performed on 25 patients with a mean age of 15.44 ± 2.06. Based on orthodontic and surgical indications, 46 germectomies were performed. Follow-ups were conducted after 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 1 year and 2 years. All procedures were carried out by the same operator and were standardized. Data analysis was conducted using R-Software. Statistical evaluation used the chi-squared test and the Monte Carlo test. The level of significance was set as 0.05. Results showed that out of 46 germectomies, the prevalence of complications was 4.2% for two patients (8%). Both complications were observed in male patients. In the first case, the patient (at Nolla stage 7) showed delayed onset infections after four weeks; in the second case, the patient (at Nolla stage 6) showed bleeding immediately after surgery and suture. With reference to delayed onset infections, no statistically significant association was found among gender (χ2 = 0.719; p = 0.396), germ development stage (χ2 = 2.595; p = 0.658) or Winter’s classifications (χ2 = 0.046; p = 0.829); similarly, no significant associations were found among bleeding, gender (χ2 = 0.719; p = 0.396), germ development stage (χ2 = 2.595; p = 0.658) or Winter’s classification (χ2 = 0.046; p = 0.829). From our results, it is also possible to state that post-operative complications following germectomy of the mandibular third molar germ in adolescence occur in a significantly reduced percentage of patients, so this oral surgery treatment becomes a reliable surgical technique in adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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Open AccessArticle
New 3D Cone Beam CT Imaging Parameters to Assist the Dentist in Treating Patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040546 - 10 Dec 2020
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Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of the work is to identify some imaging parameters in osteogenesis imperfecta to assist the dentist in the diagnosis, planning, and orthodontic treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) using 3D cone beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and the Double Energy X-ray [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of the work is to identify some imaging parameters in osteogenesis imperfecta to assist the dentist in the diagnosis, planning, and orthodontic treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) using 3D cone beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and the Double Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) technique. (2) Methods: 14 patients (9 males and 5 females; aged mean ± SD 15 ± 1.5) with a clinical-radiological diagnosis of OI were analyzed and divided into mild and moderate to severe forms. The patients’ samples were compared with a control group of 14 patients (8 males and 6 females; aged mean ± SD 15 ± 1.7), free from osteoporotic pathologies. (3) Results: The statistical analysis allowed us to collect four datasets: in the first dataset (C1 sick population vs. C1 healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the second dataset (C2 sick population vs. C2 healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the third dataset (parameter X of the sick population vs. parameter X of the healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the fourth dataset the bone mineralometry (BMD) value detected by the DEXA technique compared to the C2 value of the OI affected population only) the Welch–Satterthwaite test showed a p-value < 0.0001. (4) Conclusions: The research has produced specific imaging parameters that assist the dentist in making diagnostic decisions in OI patients. This study shows that patients with OI have a characteristic chin-bearing symphysis, thinned, and narrowed towards the center, configuring it with a constant “hourglass” appearance, not reported so far in the literature by any author. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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Open AccessArticle
The Characteristics of Adjacent Anatomy of Mandibular Third Molar Germs: A CBCT Pilot Study in Patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040372 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 457
Abstract
(1) Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the anatomical features of lower third molar and its adjacent anatomical connections in type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients through cone beam computed tomography (cbct). (2) Methods: The study was conducted among 25 [...] Read more.
(1) Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the anatomical features of lower third molar and its adjacent anatomical connections in type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients through cone beam computed tomography (cbct). (2) Methods: The study was conducted among 25 patients, 13 patients with type I OI and 12 control patients (individuals with no disorders and no treatment); average age was 15.44 ± 2.06, 23 third molar germs for each group. The germs have been compared to the parameters using the Mann-Whitney test. A chi-square test was also used to investigate the correlation between the status case/control and tooth development stage. (3) Results: Mann-Whitney test showed significant differences between cases and controls: diameter of the tooth germ in toto (U = 93.5; p < 0.001), tooth development stage, (U = 145; p < 0.01), roots length (U = 44.5; p < 0.01), cementoenamel junction diameter (U = 157.5; p < 0.05), size of the pulp chamber (U = 95.5; p < 0.05). Type I OI is not associated with the relationship between the germ of mandibular third molar and alveolar canal on axial plane (χ2 = 4.095; p = 0.129), and parasagittal (χ2 = 4.800; p = 0.091). The association between type I OI and relationship with the germ of mandibular third molar and alveolar canal on the coronal plane has been significant (χ2 = 9.778; p < 0.05) as the perforation of the lingual cortical bone in the region of mandibular third molar tooth germ (χ2 = 11.189; p < 0.01). (4) Conclusions: The results confirm the cbct accuracy in the evaluation of bone density in type I OI patients giving also the opportunity to study the tridimensional anatomy of germs and the adjacent anatomical structures in order to avoid any perioperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Laser Photobiomodulation (PBM)—A Possible New Frontier for the Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020134 - 29 Jan 2021
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Abstract
The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is particularly complex due to its aggressive behavior, location, the patient’s age, and its spread at diagnosis. In recent years, photobiomodulation (PBM) has been introduced in different medical fields; however, its application, in patients suffering [...] Read more.
The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is particularly complex due to its aggressive behavior, location, the patient’s age, and its spread at diagnosis. In recent years, photobiomodulation (PBM) has been introduced in different medical fields; however, its application, in patients suffering from OSCC for palliative support or to induce analgesia, has been hotly debated due to the possibility that the cell growth stimuli induced by PBM could lead to a worsening of the lesions. The aim of this study is to review the literature to observe the available data investigating the effect of PBM on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. A review was conducted on the PubMed and Scopus databases. A total of twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore included for quality assessment and data extraction. The analysis showed that the clinical use of PBM is still only partially understood and is, therefore, controversial. Some authors stated that it could be contraindicated for clinical use in patients suffering from SCC, while others noted that it could have beneficial effects. According to the data that emerged from this review, it is possible to hypothesize that there are possibilities for PBM to play a beneficial role in treating cancer patients, but further evidence about its clinical efficacy and the identification of protocols and correct dosages is still needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare and Special Needs Patients)
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