Special Issue "Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation"

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022 | Viewed by 6522

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Xueren Yin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: fruit development and quality; fruit postharvest biology and technology; fruit tree and environmental responses; plant hormones and their interactions; molecular biology
Prof. Dr. Qinggang Zhu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
Interests: fruit postharvest biology and technology; plant hormones and their interactions
Dr. Wenqiu Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: fruit development and quality; fruit postharvest biology and technology; genomics; small RNA; long-non coding RNA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit quality is determined by both genetic (species/cultivars) and environmental factors. From both applied and basic research, the quality traits, for a specific cultivar, could be significantly altered by preharvest (developmental) and post-harvest treatments/technologies. Thus, in addition to the genetic differences, the pre-/post-harvest regulations on fruit quality have been guiding most of the related research, which should eventually benefit quality improvement. In the past decade, mechanisms of fruit quality formation and regulation have gained rapid advances, from physiology to molecular aspects. Furthermore, many key genes/transcription factors related to quality changes have been identified and their functions, likewise, revealed. However, there are still many basic theoretical problems that need to be solved urgently—the post-harvest fruit quality maintenance mechanism and the mature and senescence regulation network are still incomplete, the interaction mechanism between environmental conditions and endogenous factors is not clear, and the similarities, differences, and laws of different types of fruit quality maintenance regulation methods are still unclear. In addition, it is notable that the unbalances among the various quality traits (i.e., anthocyanin metabolism has gained the most focus) and fruit species, and, apart from transcriptional regulatory, other mechanisms such as translation regulation, translation modification and microRNA, should receive more attention. The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the recent advances in fruit quality formation and regulation. This Special Issue will mainly focus on pre-/post-harvest regulations on fruit quality and aims to cover various quality traits, including (but not limited to) flavor, aroma, texture and color.

Prof. Dr. Xueren Yin
Prof. Dr. Qinggang Zhu
Dr. Wenqiu Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Fruit quality
  • Fruit color
  • Fruit aroma
  • Fruit texture
  • Transcriptomic and metabolomics
  • Developmental regulation on fruit quality
  • Post-harvest regulation on fruit quality.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Fruit Weight and Fruit Locule Number in Bell Pepper on Industrial Waste and Quality of Roasted Pepper
Horticulturae 2022, 8(5), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050455 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide, shows great differences between its diverse varieties. These differences affect the fruit type, size and shape. Food preservation techniques prolong the availability of sweet pepper. Roasted pepper is a product [...] Read more.
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide, shows great differences between its diverse varieties. These differences affect the fruit type, size and shape. Food preservation techniques prolong the availability of sweet pepper. Roasted pepper is a product marketed with the European recognition of Protected Geographical Indication ‘Pimiento Asado del Bierzo’. The objective of this work was to analyse the effect of the fruit weight and fruit locule number of the industrial fresh pepper on quality and roasted pepper yield. Large trilocular fruits and large tetralocular fruits reached higher roast yield and uniformity than small trilocular fruits. Regardless of fruit locule number and fruit weight, the overall quality of all the samples of roasted pepper was categorised as very good. Large tetralocular and large trilocular fruits are the most appropriate peppers for industrial purposes, whereas small trilocular fruits should be intended for the fresh product market. This easy method of sorting bell pepper fruit attending to fruit weight will decrease the amount of pepper waste in the industrial roasting process (around 18%), while maintaining the high overall quality of the final product. Moreover, the faster peeling of large peppers will also contribute to increasing the productivity of the industrial processing of roasted pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Article
Effects of Girdling and Foliar Fertilization with K on Physicochemical Parameters, Phenolic and Volatile Composition in ‘Hanxiangmi’ Table Grape
Horticulturae 2022, 8(5), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8050388 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Aroma is one of the most important indicators of grape quality. Girdling and foliar fertilization with K (K2O) are common agronomic practices applied to improve berry quality in grape production. However, little is known about its effect on the accumulation and [...] Read more.
Aroma is one of the most important indicators of grape quality. Girdling and foliar fertilization with K (K2O) are common agronomic practices applied to improve berry quality in grape production. However, little is known about its effect on the accumulation and biosynthesis of the entire aromatic profile. Our study was aimed to explore the influences of girdling and foliar fertilization with K (alone or in combination) on the general properties, phenolic composition, volatile free aroma compounds, spatial and temporal expression of terpene-related genes and sensory properties in ‘Hanxiangmi’ table grape. In this study, we found that girdling and foliar fertilization with K (alone or in combination) facilitated fruit enlargement and increased the accumulation of phenolic compounds in skin. The combination treatment of girdling and foliar fertilization with K significantly promoted the concentrations of total soluble solids (TSS) in the pulp and proanthocyanidins in the berry skin, and had a lower titratable acidity (TA) compared to those of the control. In contrast, girdling treatment alone increased the concentrations of titratable acidity. Volatile free aroma composition analysis revealed that the combination treatment increased the volatile compounds and concentrations significantly, most notably in terpenes, such as nerol, citronellol and linalool. Spatial and temporal expression analysis showed that the expression level of VvDXS was significantly correlated with linalool and total terpenes concentrations, as a result of which, we speculated that VvDXS is the candidate gene for the regulation of important grape terpenes. We hope that our results can direct farmers to better apply girdling and foliar fertilization with K in grape production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Article
Metabolic Profiling of Organic Acids Reveals the Involvement of HuIPMS2 in Citramalic Acid Synthesis in Pitaya
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020167 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Pitayas are rich in organic acids, especially citramalic acid, which is significantly higher than the plants. However, the mechanism of citramalic acid biosynthesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, organic acid compositions and contents, as well as expression patterns of key [...] Read more.
Pitayas are rich in organic acids, especially citramalic acid, which is significantly higher than the plants. However, the mechanism of citramalic acid biosynthesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, organic acid compositions and contents, as well as expression patterns of key genes related to organic acid metabolism were analyzed during fruit maturation of four different pitaya cultivars i.e., ‘Guanhuabai’ (GHB), ‘Guanhuahong’ (GHH), ‘Wucihuanglong’ (WCHL), and ‘Youcihuanglong’ (YCHL). The total organic acid contents increased first and then declined during fruit maturation. The main organic acids were citramalic acid during the early stages of GHB, GHH, and WCHL pitayas, and dominated by malic acid as fruit maturation. In comparison, citric acid and malic acid were main organic acid for ‘YCHL’ pitaya. Citramalate synthase (IPMS) was involved in the synthesis of citramalic acid, and three types of HuIPMS i.e., HuIPMS1, HuIPMS2, and HuIPMS3, were obtained in our study. Highest expression levels of HuIPMS1 were detected in sepals, while HuIPMS2 and HuIPMS3 exhibited preferential expression in tender stems and ovaries. The expression levels of HuIPMS2 and HuIPMS3 were positively correlated with the content of citramalic acid in the four pitaya cultivars. HuIPMS2 was a chloroplast-localized protein, while HuIPMS3 presented a cytoplasmic-like and nuclear subcellular localization. These findings provide an important basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism that leads to citramalic acid metabolism during pitaya fruit maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Article
Degreening, Softening and Chilling Sensitivity of Early Harvested ‘Zesy002’ Kiwifruit under Elevated Temperature Conditioning in a Controlled Atmosphere
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020125 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Commercially produced volumes of Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’ (Zespri® SunGold Kiwifruit, Tauranga, New Zealand) are increasing rapidly. One approach to managing the harvest logistics is to start the harvest season earlier by harvesting fruit before they have fully degreened on the [...] Read more.
Commercially produced volumes of Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’ (Zespri® SunGold Kiwifruit, Tauranga, New Zealand) are increasing rapidly. One approach to managing the harvest logistics is to start the harvest season earlier by harvesting fruit before they have fully degreened on the vine. However, there are risks: the fruit are chilling-sensitive and they may soften excessively while degreening at elevated temperatures off the vine. Degreening and softening were investigated for ‘Zesy002’ kiwifruit harvested before fully degreened, and then allowed to degreen for 2 or 4 weeks at 10 °C in air or in a controlled atmosphere (CA; 2% oxygen/2% carbon dioxide). Fruit were then stored in air or CA at 1 °C up to 16 weeks from harvest, after which they were assessed for chilling injury. The main findings were that holding fruit in CA rather than air at 10 °C caused slower degreening, delayed the change to rapid softening, and also delayed the loss of chilling sensitivity. It is concluded that if ‘Zesy002’ fruit are to be degreened in CA, then either a longer conditioning period in CA, or more advanced fruit, should be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Communication
Metalaxyl Resistance of Phytophthora palmivora Causing Durian Diseases in Thailand
Horticulturae 2021, 7(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7100375 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Thailand is the leading producer and exporter of durians worldwide. Serious diseases in durians include root rot, stem rot, and fruit rot, which are caused by Phytophthora palmivora, P. nicotianae, and Pythium cucurbitacearum, respectively. Thai farmers have applied fungicides for [...] Read more.
Thailand is the leading producer and exporter of durians worldwide. Serious diseases in durians include root rot, stem rot, and fruit rot, which are caused by Phytophthora palmivora, P. nicotianae, and Pythium cucurbitacearum, respectively. Thai farmers have applied fungicides for more than 20 years to control rot, but it remains difficult to control. Thus, the monitoring of fungicide-resistance development in pathogens is important for disease management. Pathogens were isolated from naturally infected durians between 2016 and 2017 in southern Thailand. The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S regions of rDNA were used for the identification of their species. Seventeen out of twenty isolates were confirmed to be P. palmivora. All the isolates were tested for mycelium-growth sensitivity to metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, and dimethomorph. The results showed that nine isolates were resistant to metalaxyl with the 50% effective concentration (EC50) higher than 100 mg L−1. By contrast, all the isolates were sensitive to both azoxystrobin and dimethomorph, with EC50 < 1 mg L−1. Metalaxyl-resistant isolates were not controlled (−25.6% to 22.2%) by the treatment of the detached leaves of ‘Monthong’ durian with 100 mg L−1 metalaxyl prior to inoculation, but all the metalaxyl-sensitive and moderately metalaxyl-resistant isolates were better controlled (33.0% to 62.6%). These results clearly indicate that metalaxyl-resistant strains are present in the populations of P. palmivora in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
Article
Effects of Fruit Load on Sugar/Acid Quality and Puffiness of Delayed-Harvest Citrus
Horticulturae 2021, 7(7), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7070189 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Delayed harvesting technology is believed to improve the citrus fruit flavor, but improper tree fruit load under delayed harvest might cause puffiness and reduce fruit quality. In order to find out an optimum tree fruit load level to obtain better flavor quality as [...] Read more.
Delayed harvesting technology is believed to improve the citrus fruit flavor, but improper tree fruit load under delayed harvest might cause puffiness and reduce fruit quality. In order to find out an optimum tree fruit load level to obtain better flavor quality as well as reduce puffiness in delayed-harvest citrus under protected cultivation, experiments were conducted in the present study between 2019 and 2020 to determine the effect of different fruit loads and fruit-bearing per single branch on the soluble sugars and organic acids metabolism in the peel and flesh, the anatomical structure of the matured fruit peel, and fruit texture-related indexes. The results suggested significant negative correlations between leaf N level and flesh sucrose and glucose contents, and between branch P level and flesh citric acid contents; no significant correlation between NPK levels and flesh texture; relatively lower leaf N and branch P under relatively higher load can increase flesh sucrose and glucose accumulation and slow down citric acid degradation to the greater extent, thus optimizing the sugar/acid ratio of fruits during delayed harvest. The lignification of parenchyma cells closely around peel secretory cavities due to ascorbic acid deficiency might be the primary cause for puffiness under low-load treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Article
Transcriptome Co-Expression Network Analysis Identifies Key Genes and Regulators of Sweet Cherry Anthocyanin Biosynthesis
Horticulturae 2021, 7(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060123 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Anthocyanin is the key factor that results in the attractive color of sweet cherry fruits. However, information regarding sweet cherry coloration and the potential mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis is limited. In this study, we found that the anthocyanin accumulation varied in sweet cherry [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin is the key factor that results in the attractive color of sweet cherry fruits. However, information regarding sweet cherry coloration and the potential mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis is limited. In this study, we found that the anthocyanin accumulation varied in sweet cherry flesh and peel, while the anthocyanin content increased sharply in the dark red (DR) stage. Correlations between anthocyanin concentrations and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), constructed with Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), indicated that two structural genes (Pac4CL2, PacANS) and 11 transcription factors (PacbHLH13/74, PacDIV, PacERF109/115, PacGATA8, PacGT2, PacGTE10, PacMYB308, PacPosF21, and PacWRKY7) had similar expression patterns with the changes in anthocyanin content. Additionally, real-time PCR verified all of these gene expression patterns and revealed that PacANS exhibited the highest transcription level. In order to search for potential regulators for anthocyanin biosynthesis, a dual-luciferase assay was performed to investigate the regulatory activities of 11 transcription factors on the PacANS promoter. The results revealed that two novelty bHLHs, PacbHLH13 and PacbHLH74, can trans-activate the PacANS promoter and they might be the candidate genes for regulating anthocyanin synthesis in sweet cherry fruits. The present findings provide a novel viewpoint with regard to anthocyanin biosynthesis mechanisms and the regulatory transcriptional network of fruit coloration in sweet cherries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Article
Cultivation Conditions Change Aroma Volatiles of Strawberry Fruit
Horticulturae 2021, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7040081 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Volatile compounds principally contribute to flavor of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. Besides to genetics, cultivation conditions play an important role in fruit volatile formation. Compared to soil culture as control, effects of substrate culture on volatile compounds of two strawberry [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds principally contribute to flavor of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. Besides to genetics, cultivation conditions play an important role in fruit volatile formation. Compared to soil culture as control, effects of substrate culture on volatile compounds of two strawberry cultivars (‘Amaou’ and ‘Yuexin’) were investigated. GC-MS analysis revealed significant difference in volatile contents of ‘Amaou’ strawberry caused by substrate culture. No significant effect was observed for cultivar ‘Yuexin’. For ‘Amaou’ strawberry from soil culture produced higher volatile contents compared with substrate culture. This difference is contributed by high contents of esters, lactones, ketones, aldehydes, terpenes, hydrocarbons, acids, furans and phenols in ‘Amaou’ strawberry fruit from soil culture. Furanones, beta-linalool, trans-Nerolidol and esters are major contributor to strawberry aroma, whose contents are higher in soil culture planted fruit when compared to substrate culture. Moreover, strawberry fruit from soil culture had higher transcripts related to volatile biosynthesis were observed, including FaQR, FaOMT, FaNES1, FaSAAT and FaAAT2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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