Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 19461

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Wood Engineering, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
Interests: wood composite material; lighter wood particles; the physics of wood; the quality of composites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor Assistant
Wood Processing and Design of Wooden Products, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
Interests: wood science; non-human forest products; dendrocronology; classification and exploitation of forest resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor Assistant
Department of Wood Processing and Design od Wood Products, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania
Interests: furniture; lignocellulosic composites; wood; design; wood civilization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will deal with the forestry and wood processing aspects. In particular, in the field of forestry, the Special Issue invites research on genetics, forest roads, biomass, and main and byproducts of forests, log exploitation, primary processing of round wood, quality of exploited, wood and the role of forest and forest ecosystem on the environment. Regarding the wood processing part, this Special Issue will receive works on cutting round wood in timber and veneers, wood processing to obtain furniture, parquet, doors and windows, wood biomass including briquettes and pellets, thermochemical treatments of wood, antique wood, finishing processes, restoration activities of cultural heritage objects, and wood-based composites.

  • tree genetics
  • forest management
  • forest roads
  • forest exploitation
  • forest biomass and by-products
  • forest environment
  • primary log processing
  • timber and veneers technologies
  • furniture, parquet, and doors technologies
  • wood biomass
  • briquettes and pellets
  • wood finishing and coatings
  • wood restoration, preservation and conservation
  • thermo-chemical wood treatments
  • wood composites
  • wooden cultural heritage object
  • antique wood

Prof. Dr. Aurel Lunguleasa
Prof. Dr. Florin Dinulica
Prof. Dr. Camelia Cosereanu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • forest biomass
  • forest byproducts
  • forest environment
  • timber
  • veneer
  • furniture
  • briquettes
  • pellets
  • wooden cultural heritage object
  • wood restoration

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 12401 KiB  
Article
Influence of the External Environment on the Moisture Spectrum of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) KARST.)
by Martin Lexa, Roman Fojtík, Viktor Dubovský, Miroslav Sedlecký, Aleš Zeidler and Adam Sikora
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071342 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The fluctuation of relative humidity and temperature in the surrounding environments of wood products is an important parameter influencing their mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the complex relationship between the moisture content and mechanical properties of wood as [...] Read more.
The fluctuation of relative humidity and temperature in the surrounding environments of wood products is an important parameter influencing their mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the complex relationship between the moisture content and mechanical properties of wood as a critical aspect in the design of durable and reliable structures. Over a period of 669 days, a simulated type of experiment was conducted, during which the moisture content and external temperature were continuously measured in a compact profile of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) KARST.). The data were processed using quadratic and cubic models to establish a predictive model. It was found that the quadratic models slightly outperformed the cubic models when considering time lags greater than six days. The final model demonstrated a significant improvement in explaining the variance of the dependent variable compared to the basic model. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that understanding the relationship between the moisture content and temperature of wood samples plays an important role in wood’s efficient use, particularly for timber constructions. This understanding is vital for accurately predicting the mechanical characteristics of wood, which, in turn, contributes to the development of more durable and reliable structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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12 pages, 2825 KiB  
Article
European Beech Log Sawing Using the Small-Capacity Band Saw: A Case Study on Time Consumption, Productivity and Recovery Rate
by Răzvan V. Câmpu and Rudolf A. Derczeni
Forests 2023, 14(6), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14061137 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
In rural, isolated areas, sawmills are often equipped with one or more small-capacity hand-fed band saws. Even in this situation, the productivity of the band saw must be viewed through the factors that influence it, namely the characteristics of logs and the optimization [...] Read more.
In rural, isolated areas, sawmills are often equipped with one or more small-capacity hand-fed band saws. Even in this situation, the productivity of the band saw must be viewed through the factors that influence it, namely the characteristics of logs and the optimization of the stages and activities carried out. Therefore, time consumption, the structure of working time and the recovery rate in sawing logs into lumber provide important information for users. The structure of the sawing operation for a work team made up of an operator and an assistant was divided into six work stages. The sawing pattern used involves sawing the log up to approximately half of the diameter, then rolling the log with 180° and continuing the sawing, aiming to obtain lumber with a thickness of 40 and 50 mm from the central part of the log. The productivity was 2.45 m3·h−1, the recovery rate was 70.84% and the working time real-use coefficient was 0.37. Research has highlighted the positive correlation between working time and the middle diameter of the logs (R2 = 0.84). The feeding speed was also determined along with the quality of cuts, which was expressed by the thickness uniformity of the lumber and the presence of cutting teeth traces on the newly created surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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20 pages, 2332 KiB  
Article
Some Properties of Briquettes and Pellets Obtained from the Biomass of Energetic Willow (Salix viminalis L.) in Comparison with Those from Oak (Quercus robur)
by Veronica Dragusanu (Japalela), Aurel Lunguleasa, Cosmin Spirchez and Cezar Scriba
Forests 2023, 14(6), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14061134 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Fast-growing species have been increasingly developed in recent years, and among them, those cultivated to obtain combustible woody biomass have shown rapid development. The purpose of this research study is to highlight the properties of the briquettes and pellets obtained from energetic willow [...] Read more.
Fast-growing species have been increasingly developed in recent years, and among them, those cultivated to obtain combustible woody biomass have shown rapid development. The purpose of this research study is to highlight the properties of the briquettes and pellets obtained from energetic willow compared to the briquettes and pellets obtained from oak biomass. Methodologies have been based on international standards and were used to find the physical, mechanical, and calorific properties of the two types of briquettes and pellets. The results did not highlight a significant difference between the two categories of briquettes and pellets obtained from the two hardwood species (energetic willow and oak). Characteristics such as the calorific value were 20.7 MJ/kg for native pellets and 21.43 MJ/kg for torrefied pellets of energetic willow, as well as the compressive strength of 1.02 N/mm2, surpassed the same characteristics of briquettes and pellets obtained from oak biomass. Other characteristics of energetic willows, such as energetic density of 18.0 × 103 MJ/m3, splitting strength of 0.08 N/mm2, shear strength of 0.86 N/mm2, and abrasion of 1.92%, were favorably related to the oak biomass. The ecological analysis highlighted the high potential of the ecological willow in a period when the quantities of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by human activities are very high, and its sequestration by existing forests is insufficient. As a general conclusion of this research study, it can be stated that the two categories of briquettes and pellets obtained from the woody biomass of the energetic willow and oak species have similar characteristics, which can be used separately or together in ecological and sustainable combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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20 pages, 4745 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing and Testing the Panels with a Transverse Texture Obtained from Branches of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)
by Alin M. Olarescu, Aurel Lunguleasa, Loredana Radulescu and Cosmin Spirchez
Forests 2023, 14(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040665 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
As a result of the imbalances in the forestry market and the increased demand for wood products worldwide, the resource of branches resulting from the exploitation of a forest has attracted special attention from researchers, in order to use these secondary resources judiciously [...] Read more.
As a result of the imbalances in the forestry market and the increased demand for wood products worldwide, the resource of branches resulting from the exploitation of a forest has attracted special attention from researchers, in order to use these secondary resources judiciously and obtain an added value superior to classic uses. In this context, the current research took into consideration the use of spruce branches to obtain panels with a transverse structure. The work methodology has focused on the process of obtaining panels with a transverse texture and on determining the physical–mechanical properties of the created panels. The results regarding the panel density (determined as a ratio between mass and volume of specimens) showed about 693 kg/m3, static bending resistance parallel to the face of 5.5 N/mm2, resistance of adhesion of 5.6 N/mm2, shear strength parallel to face of 4.1 N/mm2, and screw pull-out resistance perpendicular to the face of 31.3 N/mm2, highlighting that the properties were in accordance with the European standards and that the panels obtained were suitable for obtaining furniture products with a special aesthetic aspect. As a general conclusion of the research, it can be stated that spruce branches are a sustainable wood resource with great possibilities to add more value in the form of panels with a traverse texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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14 pages, 3881 KiB  
Article
Physical and Acoustical Properties of Wavy Grain Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Used for Musical Instruments
by Florin Dinulica, Adriana Savin and Mariana Domnica Stanciu
Forests 2023, 14(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020197 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
The wood used in the construction of musical instruments is carefully selected, being the best quality wood from the point of view of the wood structure. However, depending on the anatomical characteristics of the wood, the resonance of wood is classified into quality [...] Read more.
The wood used in the construction of musical instruments is carefully selected, being the best quality wood from the point of view of the wood structure. However, depending on the anatomical characteristics of the wood, the resonance of wood is classified into quality classes. For example, sycamore maple wood with curly grains is appreciated by luthiers for its three-dimensional optical effect. This study highlights the statistical correlations between the physical and anatomical characteristics of sycamore maple wood and its acoustic and elastic properties, compared to the types of wood historically used in violins. The methods used were based on the determination of the acoustic properties with the ultrasound method, the color of the wood with the three coordinates in the CIELab system and the statistical processing of the data. The sycamore maple wood samples were divided into anatomical quality classes in accordance with the selection made by the luthiers. The results emphasized the multiple correlations between density, brightness, degree of red, width of annual rings, acoustic and elastic properties, depending on the quality classes. In conclusion, the work provides a valuable database regarding the physical–acoustic and elastic properties of sycamore maple wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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27 pages, 1461 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Smart Factories and Innovative Industry 4.0 Technologies—A Case Study of Different-Sized Companies in the Furniture Industry in Central Europe
by Luboš Červený, Roman Sloup and Tereza Červená
Forests 2022, 13(12), 2171; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13122171 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
New innovative technologies of Industry 4.0 are the key to the future development of the furniture industry, which is outdated because of its atypical production and small-series production. For applying the novel trends of Industry 4.0 to the furniture sector, the methodical support [...] Read more.
New innovative technologies of Industry 4.0 are the key to the future development of the furniture industry, which is outdated because of its atypical production and small-series production. For applying the novel trends of Industry 4.0 to the furniture sector, the methodical support of managers, the key users of these technologies, is essential. As there is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation of Industry 4.0, this study focuses on the evaluation of the current status of furniture companies in terms of production structure and Industry 4.0 benefits/threats with the aim of proposing methodological solutions for the implementation of this trend across different-sized enterprises. Data are collected using conduct-structured interviews with project managers who describe their own experience with Industry 4.0 implementation in central Europe. All interviews are analyzed using qualitative content analysis. According to the stakeholders, innovative production and non-production technologies are essential for their enterprises. Application of such technologies increases the efficiency of the whole operation by 30%–50% over the five years since the first innovations were introduced, especially in enterprises with atypical production and large enterprises. This study should serve as the tool for adapting the environmental changes and promoting the innovation approaches of the Industry 4.0 strategies on the central European level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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19 pages, 5124 KiB  
Article
Investigation on Phoenix dactylifera/Calotropis procera Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites
by Mohammad Hassan Mazaherifar, Hamid Zarea Hosseinabadi, Camelia Coșereanu, Camelia Cerbu, Maria Cristina Timar and Sergiu Valeriu Georgescu
Forests 2022, 13(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13122098 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
This paper presents the investigations conducted on three types of fibre-reinforced epoxy-resin hybrid composites with different structures, manufactured using midrib long fibres of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Calotropis procera fibres. The two types of fibres were formed into flat sheets, [...] Read more.
This paper presents the investigations conducted on three types of fibre-reinforced epoxy-resin hybrid composites with different structures, manufactured using midrib long fibres of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Calotropis procera fibres. The two types of fibres were formed into flat sheets, without adding other chemicals or resins, and employed as reinforcing layers in the structure of the multi-layered laminate composites. Three-layer and five-layer epoxy-reinforced laminates were manufactured from the sheets of date-palm fibres and Calotropis sheets bonded with laminar epoxy resin. Water resistance investigation and mechanical testing under tensile, bending and impact loads were conducted in the research in order to evaluate and compare the performance of the resulting composites. Emphasis was put on the effect of various factors, such as the type of reinforcement material and the number of plies in the laminate on the mechanical behavior of the composites. The interpretation of those results was supported by the stereo-microscopic investigation of the adhesion between the layers of the composites, and the vertical density profile (VDP), which showed the repartition of the density on the composite thickness depending on the layer material. The results of the mechanical performance of the composites showed lower values of tensile strength, tensile modulus of elasticity and impact resistance and an increase of water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) for the five-layer composites compared to the three-layer composites. Contrarily, the addition of Calotropis fibres improved the flexural strength and the flexural modulus of elasticity. The alkali treatment of the Calotropis fibres improved the mechanical performance of the composites compared to the ones made with untreated fibres, because of an apparent increase in cellulose content and free hydroxyl groups revealed by FTIR spectra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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19 pages, 4658 KiB  
Article
Some Methods for the Degradation-Fragility Degree Determination and for the Consolidation of Treatments with Paraloid B72 of Wood Panels from Icon-Type Heritage Objects
by Anamaria Avram, Constantin Ștefan Ionescu and Aurel Lunguleasa
Forests 2022, 13(5), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050801 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
The main objective of this paper is to develop methods for assessing the deterioration of wooden panels of iconic heritage objects and the effectiveness of consolidation treatments, methods that are easy to apply to the field of wood restoration. During the research, four [...] Read more.
The main objective of this paper is to develop methods for assessing the deterioration of wooden panels of iconic heritage objects and the effectiveness of consolidation treatments, methods that are easy to apply to the field of wood restoration. During the research, four evaluation methods were identified, respectively: the density method, the excessive porosity method, the Brinell hardness method, and the Mark hardness method. Each method was exemplified on five wooden panels (icons), and when needed, degraded specimens were used and/or treated with Paraloid B72. One of the main conclusions of the research is that, although all methods are minimally invasive and do not require cutting of these heritage objects, the applicability of each is done depending on the type of degradation, often requiring a combined analysis between two or several methods. Additionally, the classification of the cultural good in one of the five degrees of embrittlement-degradation help to design a technological flow regarding the treatments of consolidation/restoration of the heritage object. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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21 pages, 36212 KiB  
Article
Three Adhesive Recipes Based on Magnesium Lignosulfonate, Used to Manufacture Particleboards with Low Formaldehyde Emissions and Good Mechanical Properties
by Gabriela Balea (Paul), Aurel Lunguleasa, Octavia Zeleniuc and Camelia Coşereanu
Forests 2022, 13(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050737 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Adhesives represent an important part in the wood-based composite production, and taking into account their impact on the environment and human health, it is a challenge to find suitable natural adhesives. Starting from the current concerns of finding bio-adhesives, this paper aims to [...] Read more.
Adhesives represent an important part in the wood-based composite production, and taking into account their impact on the environment and human health, it is a challenge to find suitable natural adhesives. Starting from the current concerns of finding bio-adhesives, this paper aims to use magnesium lignosulfonate in three adhesive recipes for particleboard manufacturing. First, the adhesive recipes were established, using oxygenated water to oxidize magnesium lignosulfonate (Recipe 1) and adding 3% polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) crosslinker (Recipe 2) and a mixture of 2% polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate with 15% glucose (Recipe 3). The particleboard manufacturing technology included operations for sorting particles and adhesive recipes, pressing the mats, and testing the mechanical strengths and formaldehyde emissions. The standardized testing methodology for formaldehyde emissions used in the research was the method of gas analysis. Tests to determine the resistance to static bending and internal cohesion for all types of boards and recipes were also conducted. The average values of static bending strengths of 0.1 N/mm2, 0.38 N/mm2, and 0.41 N/mm2 were obtained for the particleboard manufacturing with the three adhesive recipes and were compared with the minimal value of 0.35 N/mm2 required by the European standard in the field. Measuring the formaldehyde emissions, it was found that the three manufacturing recipes fell into emission classes E1 and E0. Recipes 2 and 3 were associated with good mechanical performances of particleboards, situated in the required limits of the European standards. As a main conclusion of the paper, it can be stated that the particleboards made with magnesium-lignosulphonate-based adhesive, with or without crosslinkers, can provide low formaldehyde emissions and also good mechanical strengths when crosslinkers such as pMDI and glucose are added. In this way magnesium lignosulfonate is really proving to be a good bio-adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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15 pages, 3857 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Approach to Build Insulated External Timber Frame Walls for Passive Houses Using Natural and Waste Materials
by Sergiu-Valeriu Georgescu, Daniela Șova, Mihaela Campean and Camelia Coșereanu
Forests 2022, 13(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13040522 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
This paper presents structures of timber-framed walls designed for passive houses, using natural and waste resources as insulation materials, such as wool, wood fibers, ground paper, reeds (Phragmites communis), and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) wastes. The insulation systems of stud walls [...] Read more.
This paper presents structures of timber-framed walls designed for passive houses, using natural and waste resources as insulation materials, such as wool, wood fibers, ground paper, reeds (Phragmites communis), and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) wastes. The insulation systems of stud walls composed of wool–ABS composite boards and five types of fillers (wool, ABS, wood fibers, ground paper, and reeds) were investigated to reach U-value requirements for passive houses. The wall structures were designed at a thickness of 175 mm, including gypsum board for internal wall lining and oriented strand board (OSB) for the exterior one. The testing protocol of thermal insulation properties of wall structures simulated conditions for indoor and outdoor temperatures during the winter and summer seasons using HFM-Lambda laboratory equipment. In situ measurements of U-values were determined for the experimental wall structures during winter time, when the temperature differences between outside and inside exceeded 10 °C. The results recorded for the U-values between 0.20 W/m2K and 0.35 W/m2K indicate that the proposed structures are energy-efficient walls for passive houses placed in the temperate-continental areas. The vapour flow rate calculation does not indicate the presence of condensation in the 175 mm thick wall structures, which proves that the selected thermal insulation materials are not prone to degradation due to condensation. The research is aligned to the international trend in civil engineering, oriented to the design and construction of low-energy buildings on the one hand and the use of environmentally friendly or recycled materials on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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17 pages, 5377 KiB  
Article
Calorific Characteristics of Larch (Larix decidua) and Oak (Quercus robur) Pellets Realized from Native and Torrefied Sawdust
by Aurel Lunguleasa, Cosmin Spirchez and Alin M. Olarescu
Forests 2022, 13(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020361 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the calorific characteristics of two biomasses from larch and oak sawdust in the form of native or torrefied pellets. Some calorific features of these two kinds of biomasses, such as ash content, higher and lower calorific values, calorific [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the calorific characteristics of two biomasses from larch and oak sawdust in the form of native or torrefied pellets. Some calorific features of these two kinds of biomasses, such as ash content, higher and lower calorific values, calorific density and many others were highlighted, allowing for a comparison between oak and larch torrefied/not torrefied pellets. Installations and methods used for the process of torrefaction and for highlighting some of the calorific features were also evaluated. As a result of experiments, it was demonstrated that the larch and oak pellets were different in terms of density, but that after thermal treatment, the calorific values of both increased considerably. The investigations evidenced some increases in calorific value, up to 15.8%, for both the larch and oak sawdust/pellets. One of the main conclusions of this research was that, even though the role of biomass has diminished considerably in the last few decades, its role as a sustainable fuel remains relevant. Its use will become more widespread when the world’s population understands that fossil fuels are depletable and that they must be replaced by renewable fuels such as biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novelties in Wood Engineering and Forestry)
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