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State of the Art of Natural Antioxidants: Extraction, Detection and Biofunctions

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 15353

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: ultrasonic sonochemistry; phytochemistry; bioactive molecules; molecular biology; physicochemistry; spectroscopy; nutrition

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: smart agriculture; sensors in agriculture; UAV; precision agriculture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: agricultural informatization; refined management of tea gardens; research and development of production and processing equipment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More comprehensive studies on the mechanism of action of antioxidants are still needed to classify them into different groups according to their exact mode of action. Moreover, knowledge of the precise action mechanisms of many recently discovered natural compounds is still incomplete. Several different classifications of natural compounds are not totally satisfactory. Thus, both in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the direct and indirect modes of action through using advanced technological methods could easily push this area towards the successful selection of these agents. These analytical technologies could be the next generation for drawing chemical images of plant and animal tissues’ biofunctional impacts and could visualize these biomolecules’ activities. The objective of this Special Issue is to demonstrate the different potential applications of the antioxidants, providing a comprehensive overview of efficient applications in different fields. For instance, these compounds have made significant contributions in the fields of nanotechnology, phytomedicine, food chemistry, bioresource technology, and phytoremedation. In conclusion, this Special Issue could play an important role in maximizing the extraction functionality and detection potential in all the mentioned fields from the analytical chemistry point of view through antioxidants’ very simple applications in extraction, determination, and evaluation.

Topics of interest for this Topic Collection include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Molecular mechanisms of action of organic and inorganic molecules, especially if giving support to visualization approaches using advanced technologies like sensors and biosensors, for example, identifying enzyme biomarkers;

  • Methodologies to investigate chemical hazardous pollutant relationships of antioxidant compounds;

  • Onsite technologies for detection, extraction, and other purposes related to food, environmental, biomedical, biotechnological, and biosystem chemical composition;

  • All other emerging technologies like electrochemical measurements, spectroscopy, biosensors, and other analytical methods for phytochemicals’ measurements and their bioactivities are also welcomed. 

Dr. Mostafa Gouda
Prof. Dr. Yong He
Dr. Alaa El-Din A. Bekhit
Prof. Dr. Xiaoli Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • phytochemistry
  • bioactive molecules
  • biotechnology
  • biomolecules
  • analytical chemistry
  • food chemistry
  • phytomedicine

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Emerging Technologies for Detecting the Chemical Composition of Plant and Animal Tissues and Their Bioactivities: An Editorial
by Mostafa Gouda, Yong He, Alaa El-Din Bekhit and Xiaoli Li
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092620 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Integrating physical and chemical technologies for the characterization and modification of plants and animal tissues has been used for several decades to improve their detection potency and quality [...] Full article

Research

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12 pages, 2154 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Assessments of Six Species of Edible Coastal Algae Collected from Tabuk Region in Saudi Arabia
by Hala M. Bayomy and Eman S. Alamri
Molecules 2024, 29(3), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29030639 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
In the first study focusing on the Red Sea’s Tabuk coast, six edible species of the most common algae were collected to evaluate their approximate composition using AOAC methods, amino acids using ion-exchange chromatography, minerals using atomic absorption spectroscopy, phenolic compounds using the [...] Read more.
In the first study focusing on the Red Sea’s Tabuk coast, six edible species of the most common algae were collected to evaluate their approximate composition using AOAC methods, amino acids using ion-exchange chromatography, minerals using atomic absorption spectroscopy, phenolic compounds using the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. All the data were significantly (p < 0.05) different among all the studied species. The data indicated that the protein content ranged from 9.25% for A. nodosum to 20.06% for H. musciformis. C. racemosa had the highest lipid content of 7.57%. Phosphors varied from 68.2 mg/100 g for A. nodosum to 406 mg/100 g for D. simplex. The largest amounts of calcium (2458 mg/100 g) and iron (29.79 mg/100 g) were found in C. racemosa. The total essential amino acids ranged between 38.16 and 46.82% for A. nodosum and D. simplex, respectively. F. vesiculosus had the maximum content of phenolic compounds (11.06 mg GAE/g). A. nodosum had the highest antioxidant capacity (1.78 mg TE/g). The research concluded that algae are the main effort toward sustainable agriculture to meet the world’s food needs. that algae may be used to improve food naturally. To satisfy the criteria for sustainable food, which is one of the pillars of NEOM, numerous studies are required to investigate the natural products available in the Red Sea. Full article
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26 pages, 5408 KiB  
Article
Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi with Great Antioxidant Ability and the Potential Application in Yogurt
by Yujie Wang, Yue Zou, Qiong Fang, Ruizhang Feng, Jihong Zhang, Wanhai Zhou and Qin Wei
Molecules 2024, 29(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29010150 - 26 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
Brasenia schreberi is a widely consumed aquatic plant, yet the knowledge regarding its bioactive components, particularly polysaccharides, remains limited. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the extraction process of polysaccharides from B. schreberi using the response surface method (RSM). Additionally, we characterized the [...] Read more.
Brasenia schreberi is a widely consumed aquatic plant, yet the knowledge regarding its bioactive components, particularly polysaccharides, remains limited. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the extraction process of polysaccharides from B. schreberi using the response surface method (RSM). Additionally, we characterized the polysaccharides using various methods and assessed their antioxidant capabilities both in vitro and in vivo, employing cell cultures and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, these polysaccharides were incorporated into a unique yogurt formulation. Our findings demonstrated that hot water extraction was the most suitable method for extracting polysaccharides from B. schreberi, yielding samples with high sugar content, significant antioxidant capacity, and a well-defined spatial structure. Moreover, pectinase was employed for polysaccharide digestion, achieving an enzymolysis rate of 10.02% under optimized conditions using RSM. Notably, the results indicated that these polysaccharides could protect cells from oxidative stress by reducing apoptosis. Surprisingly, at a concentration of 250 μg/mL, the polysaccharides significantly increased the survival rate of C. elegans from 31.05% to 82.3%. Further qPCR results revealed that the polysaccharides protected C. elegans by up-regulating the daf-16 gene and down-regulating mTOR and insulin pathways, demonstrating remarkable antioxidant abilities. Upon addition to the yogurt, the polysaccharides significantly enhanced the water retention, viscosity, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. These outcomes underscore the potential of polysaccharides from B. schreberi as a valuable addition to novel yogurt formulations, thereby providing additional theoretical support for the utilization of B. schreberi. Full article
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15 pages, 26108 KiB  
Article
Molecular Genomic Study of Inhibin Molecule Production through Granulosa Cell Gene Expression in Inhibin-Deficient Mice
by Hira Sajjad Talpur, Zia ur Rehman, Mostafa Gouda, Aixing Liang, Iqra Bano, Mir Sajjad Hussain, FarmanUllah FarmanUllah and Liguo Yang
Molecules 2022, 27(17), 5595; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27175595 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Inhibin is a molecule that belongs to peptide hormones and is excreted through pituitary gonadotropins stimulation action on the granulosa cells of the ovaries. However, the differential regulation of inhibin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on granulosa cell tumor growth in mice inhibin-deficient females [...] Read more.
Inhibin is a molecule that belongs to peptide hormones and is excreted through pituitary gonadotropins stimulation action on the granulosa cells of the ovaries. However, the differential regulation of inhibin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on granulosa cell tumor growth in mice inhibin-deficient females is not yet well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of inhibin and FSH on the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles at the premature antral stage. This study stimulated immature wild-type (WT) and Inhibin-α knockout (Inha−/−) female mice with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and examined hCG-induced gene expression changes in granulosa cells. Also, screening of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed in the two groups under study. In addition, related modules to external traits and key gene drivers were determined through Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. The results identified a number of 1074 and 931 DEGs and 343 overlapping DEGs (ODEGs) were shared in the two groups. Some 341 ODEGs had high relevance and consistent expression direction, with a significant correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9145). Additionally, the gene co-expression network of selected 153 genes showed 122 nodes enriched to 21 GO biological processes (BP) and reproduction and 3 genes related to genomic pathways. By using principal component analysis (PCA), the 14 genes in the regulatory network were fixed and the cumulative proportion of fitted top three principal components was 94.64%. In conclusion, this study revealed the novelty of using ODEGs for investigating the inhibin and FSH hormone pathways that might open the way toward gene therapy for granulosa cell tumors. Also, these genes could be used as biomarkers for tracking the changes in inhibin and FSH hormone from the changes in the nutrition pattern. Full article
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16 pages, 3831 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Combining Post-Harvest Calcium Nanoparticles with a Salicylic Acid Treatment on Cucumber Tissue Breakdown via Enzyme Activity during Shelf Life
by Mohamed F. M. Abdelkader, Mohamed H. Mahmoud, Lo’ay A. A., Mohamed A. Abdein, Khaled Metwally, Shinya Ikeno and Samar M. A. Doklega
Molecules 2022, 27(12), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123687 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
In the present study, an experiment was carried out on the postharvest of cucumber fruit during a 14-day shelf life. The aim was to assess the impact of calcium nanoparticles (CaNPs) blended with different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) on the shelf life [...] Read more.
In the present study, an experiment was carried out on the postharvest of cucumber fruit during a 14-day shelf life. The aim was to assess the impact of calcium nanoparticles (CaNPs) blended with different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) on the shelf life of cucumbers during the seasons of 2018 and 2019. The investigation further monitored the influences of CaNPs-SA on some physical properties of cucumber, including the percentage weight loss, color, and fruit firmness. In addition, chemical properties, such as total soluble solids (SSC%), total acidity (TA%), total soluble sugars, and chlorophyll pigmentation of the fruit skin, were assessed during a 14-day shelf lifeCell wall degradation enzymes (CWEAs) such as polygalacturonase (PG), cel-lulase (CEL), xylanase (XYL), and pectinase (PT) were also researched. In addition, the generation rates of H2O2 and O2•− were calculated, as well as the reduction of DPPH. The lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and cell membrane permeability (IL%) of cell wall composites were also determined. CaNPs-SA at 2 mM suppressed CWEAs, preserved fruit quality, reduced weight loss throughout the shelf-life period, and reduced the percent leakage value. At this concentration, we also found the lowest levels of MDA and the highest levels of DPPH. Full article
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19 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Gum Arabic and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with Salicylic Acid on Peach Fruit (Prunus persica) Shelf Life
by Mohamed A. Taher, A. A. Lo’ay, Mostafa Gouda, Safaa A. Limam, Mohamed F. M. Abdelkader, Samah O. Osman, Mohammad Fikry, Esmat F. Ali, Sayed. Y. Mohamed, Hoda A. Khalil, Diaa O. El-Ansary, Sherif F. El-Gioushy, Hesham S. Ghazzawy, Aly M. Ibrahim, Mahmoud F. Maklad, Mohamed A. Abdein and Dalia M. Hikal
Molecules 2022, 27(8), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27082595 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2767
Abstract
Peaches are grown in many Egyptian orchards for local and global fresh market sales. The interior fruit tissue breakdown (IFTB), often resulting in decayed peaches, is a severe problem during marketing. Therefore, to minimize FTB of peaches, in this study, gum arabic (GA) [...] Read more.
Peaches are grown in many Egyptian orchards for local and global fresh market sales. The interior fruit tissue breakdown (IFTB), often resulting in decayed peaches, is a severe problem during marketing. Therefore, to minimize FTB of peaches, in this study, gum arabic (GA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were mixed with different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0, 1, and 2 mM) and were applied as edible coating to extend the shelf life of peach fruits. Mature peaches were selected and harvested when peaches reached total soluble solid content (SSC: 8.5%) and fruit firmness of about 47 N. Fruits were coated and stored at room temperature (26 ± 1 °C and air humidity 51 ± 1%) for 10 days during two seasons: 2020 and 2021. Fruit coated with GA/PVP-SA 2 mM showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in degrading enzyme activities (CWDEs), such as lipoxygenase (LOX), cellulase (CEL), and pectinase (PT), compared to uncoated and coated fruits during the shelf-life period. Hence, cell wall compartments were maintained. Consequently, there was a reduction in browning symptoms in fruits by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities. Thus, the fruit skin browning index showed almost no symptoms. The lipid peroxidation process and ionic permeability declined as well. The result suggests that, by applying GA/PVP-SA 2 mM as an edible coating, fruit tissue breakdown can be minimized, and the shelf life of peach can be extended up to 10 days without symptoms of tissue breakdown. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 6312 KiB  
Review
The Recent Development of Acoustic Sensors as Effective Chemical Detecting Tools for Biological Cells and Their Bioactivities
by Mostafa Gouda, Hesham S. Ghazzawy, Nashi Alqahtani and Xiaoli Li
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124855 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3803
Abstract
One of the most significant developed technologies is the use of acoustic waves to determine the chemical structures of biological tissues and their bioactivities. In addition, the use of new acoustic techniques for in vivo visualizing and imaging of animal and plant cellular [...] Read more.
One of the most significant developed technologies is the use of acoustic waves to determine the chemical structures of biological tissues and their bioactivities. In addition, the use of new acoustic techniques for in vivo visualizing and imaging of animal and plant cellular chemical compositions could significantly help pave the way toward advanced analytical technologies. For instance, acoustic wave sensors (AWSs) based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) were used to identify the aromas of fermenting tea such as linalool, geraniol, and trans-2-hexenal. Therefore, this review focuses on the use of advanced acoustic technologies for tracking the composition changes in plant and animal tissues. In addition, a few key configurations of the AWS sensors and their different wave pattern applications in biomedical and microfluidic media progress are discussed. Full article
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