Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds from Food Waste: Bioprocessing and Technological Advancement"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Applications of Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alaa El-Din A Bekhit
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Interests: muscle biochemistry; meat quality, bioactive compounds from food by-products, enzymatic hydrolysis; new product development; ethnic food; halal food
Dr. John Birch
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Otago, Department of Food Science, Dunedin, New Zealand

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Generation of food by-products or food waste is unavoidable in commercial food production. While extensive efforts have been made to transform these downstream waste materials into animal feed and organic fertilizers, interest in adding value, capture of maximum nutritional value of the resource, as well as the discovery of potential health benefits that can be gained from extraction of bioactives, is growing. Several novel and environment-friendly technologies have made the utilization and extraction of antioxidants a worthy activity that can potentially lead to commercial reality.

This Special Issue would welcome original research and reviews of literature examining the use of novel and emerging technologies that can maximise the quantitative and qualitative extraction of antioxidants. A wide interest for the waste materials (meat, seafood, wine, dairy, agricultural waste, cereal processing, fermentation, nuts processing, brewery, coffee, oilseed processing). Contributions addressing the following topics are welcome:

  • Use of emerging technologies for the extraction of antioxidants;
  • Modelling studies and economical cost-benefit analysis;
  • Identification of antioxidants from waste;
  • Reviews examining waste utilisation from inedible waste sources for antioxidant recovery (systematic reviews and meta-analyses);
  • Solvent free and green technologies.

Dr. Alaa El-Din Ahmed Bekhit and Dr. John Birch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Membrane Processes to Recover Natural Antioxidant Compounds for Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications or Functional Foods
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060072 - 23 May 2018
Abstract
Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts [...] Read more.
Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes. With specific focus on using technologies based on the application of ultra and nanofiltration membranes, the polyphenols fraction was extracted after an initial flocculation step. The nano-filtration permeate showed a reduction of about 95% of the organic load. The polyphenols recovery after two filtration steps was about 65% w/v. The nanofiltration retentate, dried using the spray dryer technique, was tested for cell viability after oxidative stress induction on human keratinocytes model in vitro and an improved cell reparation in the presence of this polyphenolic compound was demonstrated in scratch assays assisted through time lapse video-microscopy. The polyphenols recovered from these treatments may be suitable ingredients in cosmeceuticals and possibly nutraceutical preparations or functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable By-Products to Fortify Spreadable Cheese
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050061 - 25 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. [...] Read more.
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. Results revealed that total phenolic content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of samples containing grape pomace significantly increased, followed by broccoli, artichoke, corn bran, and tomato peel by-products, compared to the control cheese. Specifically, cheeses containing white and red grape pomace recorded high phenolic content (2.74 ± 0.04 and 2.34 ± 0.15 mg GAEs/g dw, respectively) compared to the control (0.66 mg GAEs/g dw). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040059 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the [...] Read more.
Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (w/w). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040052 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040048 - 25 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol [...] Read more.
The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05) impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Brewer’s Spent Grain: Optimization and Kinetics Modeling
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040045 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The kinetics of polyphenol extraction from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), using a batch system, ultrasound assistance, and microwave assistance and the evolution of antioxidant capacity of these extracts over time, were studied. The main parameters of extraction employed in the batch system were [...] Read more.
The kinetics of polyphenol extraction from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), using a batch system, ultrasound assistance, and microwave assistance and the evolution of antioxidant capacity of these extracts over time, were studied. The main parameters of extraction employed in the batch system were evaluated, and, by applying response surface analysis, the following optimal conditions were obtained: Liquid/solid ratio of 30:1 mL/g at 80 °C, using 72% (v/v) ethanol:water as the solvent system. Under these optimized conditions, ultrasound assistance demonstrated the highest extraction rate and equilibrium yield, as well as shortest extraction times, followed by microwave assistance. Among the mathematical models used, Patricelli’s model proved the most suitable for describing the extraction kinetics for each method tested, and is therefore able to predict the response values and estimate the extraction rates and potential maximum yields in each case. Full article
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