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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Morpholine in Peel and Pulp of Apples and Oranges by Gas Chromatography−Mass Spectrometry

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Korea
Department of Plant Life and Environmental Science, Hankyong National University, Anseong 17579, Korea
Department of Food Science, Sun Moon University, Asan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31460, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 746;
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
Morpholine salts of fatty acids have been used in wax coatings on the surfaces of fruit and vegetable commodities in China and the United States, etc. However, morpholine usage was prohibited in many other countries because of safety concerns. We optimized analytical methods to determine morpholine in the peel and pulp of fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This morpholine analysis method was applied to real samples of apples, citrus fruits, and vegetables from Korea, China, and the U.S. The method was validated using apple and citrus fruit peels and pulp. The method detection limit (MDL) was 1.3–3.3 µg/kg. The recovery rates of morpholine were 88.6–107.2% over a fortified level of 10–400 µg/kg. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.4–9.4% and 1.5–2.8%, respectively. The morpholine concentrations were n.d. (not detected)–11.19 and n.d. (not detected)–12.82 µg/kg in apple and citrus peels, respectively. Morpholine was not detected in citrus or apple pulp samples or in vegetable samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: morpholine; peel; food additives; apples; citrus; oranges; GC-MS morpholine; peel; food additives; apples; citrus; oranges; GC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

An, K.; Kim, I.; Lee, C.; Moon, J.-K.; Suh, H.-J.; Lee, J. Quantification of Morpholine in Peel and Pulp of Apples and Oranges by Gas Chromatography−Mass Spectrometry. Foods 2020, 9, 746.

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