Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds in Fruit and Vegetables: Extraction, Identification and Healthy Effects"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Rosário Bronze
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET), Apartado 127, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal; Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: food; health prevention; quality; security; phytochemicals; bioacessibility; bioavailability; bioactivity
Dr. Ana Matias
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET), Av. Da República-EAN, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: integration of green separation processes to recover high added-value compounds from natural raw materials; alternative biomass for the development of improved natural bio-products with health-promoting properties, in particular, anti-inflammatory activity
Dr. Teresa Serra
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET), Av. Da República-EAN, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: food bioactives; functional foods; cell-based assays; health benefits, colon cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet, as they are an important source of bioactive compounds. In order to understand the health benefits of these foods, it is mandatory to know their composition. However, these types of food are quite difficult to analyze because they are complex and contain different concentrations of various families of bioactive compounds. Adequate extraction procedures must be adopted in order to obtain characterization data that reflect the bioacessibility of these compounds. The identification of the bioactive compounds is also mandatory to understand their functional mechanisms, how they can be absorbed by the human body, distributed to their targets, exert their effects, and be metabolized and excreted. Clinical intervention studies in humans and the use of different analytical methodologies and statistical tools can provide information on biological samples, in particular, about the biomarkers related to food consumption and the effects of food consumption on disease biomarkers, enabling to make conclusions about the health benefits of consuming vegetables and fruits.

Prof. Maria do Rosário Bronze
Dr. Ana Matias
Dr. Teresa Serra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Vegetables phytochemical composition
  • Fruits phytochemical composition
  • Extraction
  • Human intervention studies
  • Biomarkers of food intake
  • ADME of phytochemicals
  • Health benefits
  • Effect on biomarkers of diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Inhibitory Effect of 1,5-Dimethyl Citrate from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages
Foods 2020, 9(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030269 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae; commonly known as “sea buckthorn” and “vitamin tree”), is a spiny deciduous shrub whose fruit is used in foods and traditional medicines. The H. rhamnoides fruit (berry) is rich in vitamin C, with a level exceeding that found in [...] Read more.
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae; commonly known as “sea buckthorn” and “vitamin tree”), is a spiny deciduous shrub whose fruit is used in foods and traditional medicines. The H. rhamnoides fruit (berry) is rich in vitamin C, with a level exceeding that found in lemons and oranges. H. rhamnoides berries are usually washed and pressed to create pomace and juice. Today, the powder of the aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides berries are sold as a functional food in many countries. As part of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive constituents from natural resources, we aimed to isolate and identify those from the fruits of H. rhamnoides. Phytochemical analysis of the extract of H. rhamnoides fruits led to the isolation and identification of six compounds, namely, a citric acid derivative (1), a phenolic (2), flavonoids (3 and 4), and megastigmane compounds (5 and 6). Treatment with compounds 16 did not have any impact on the cell viability of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. However, pretreatment with these compounds suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the isolated compounds, compound 1 was identified as the most active, with an IC50 of 39.76 ± 0.16 μM. This value was comparable to that of the NG-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor with an IC50 of 28.48 ± 0.05 μM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that compound 1 inhibited the LPS-induced expression of IKKα/β (IκB kinase alpha/beta), I-κBα (inhibitor of kappa B alpha), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65, iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, LPS-stimulated cytokine production was detected using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compound 1 decreased interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, the mechanism of action of 1 included the suppression of LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting IKKα/β, I-κBα, NF-κB p65, iNOS, and COX-2, and the activities of IL-6 and TNF-α. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Autohydrolysis of Lentinus edodes for Obtaining Extracts with Antiradical Properties
Foods 2020, 9(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010074 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The autohydrolysis of Lentinus edodes was proposed for the extraction of components with antioxidant properties. Operation under non-isothermal conditions was evaluated and compared with isothermal heating. The influence of process severity was assessed in the range of 0.18 to 4.89 (temperature between 50 [...] Read more.
The autohydrolysis of Lentinus edodes was proposed for the extraction of components with antioxidant properties. Operation under non-isothermal conditions was evaluated and compared with isothermal heating. The influence of process severity was assessed in the range of 0.18 to 4.89 (temperature between 50 and 250 °C), up to 80% (d.b.) The influence of process severity during the autohydrolysis of Lentinus edodes was assessed in the range −0.3 to 4.89 (temperature between 50 and 250 °C). Up to 80% (d.b.) of the initial raw material could be solubilized at 210 °C. The different behavior of the saccharide and phenolic fractions was observed with the treatment temperature. Whereas the highest concentration of the saccharide components (mainly glucooligosaccharides) was found at 210 °C, the maximum phenolic yield was identified at 250 °C. The phenolic content and the antiradical properties of the extract showed a continuous increase with the temperature range studied, and at 250 °C, showed antiradical properties comparable to synthetic antioxidants. Autohydrolysis liquid fractions were used as solvents in the formulation of bioactive starch-based hydrogels, identifying a positive correlation between the gel softening and the extracts’ bioactivity features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Lignan Compound Content and Bioactivity of Raw Omija and Sugared Omija in Serum of Sprague Dawley Rat
Foods 2019, 8(9), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090373 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study evaluated the lignan contents of raw omija (R) and sugared omija (S), byproducts discarded after the use of raw omija, by HPLC and determined their bioactivity by feeding rats R and S for eight weeks. S retained 63% more lignan than [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the lignan contents of raw omija (R) and sugared omija (S), byproducts discarded after the use of raw omija, by HPLC and determined their bioactivity by feeding rats R and S for eight weeks. S retained 63% more lignan than R. Body weight gains in the raw omija-fed group (RO) and sugared omija-fed group (SO) decreased significantly compared to that of the control group (CON, p < 0.05). Glucose and aspartate aminotransferase levels in the serum of the experimental groups were lower than those in CON, especially in SO (p < 0.05). The amount of atrial natriuretic peptide in RO decreased significantly compared to that in CON (p < 0.05). The renin activity in RO increased and that in SO decreased compared to the same in CON (p > 0.05). Therefore, it was suggested that sugared omija contains lignan compounds and potentially contributes to bioactivity in that it decreases blood glucose levels and blood pressure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Soaking Process’ Impact in Common Beans Phenolic Composition: Contribute from the Unexplored Portuguese Germplasm
Foods 2019, 8(8), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080296 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Despite the common beans’ nutritional and phytochemical value, in Portugal its consumption decreased more than 50% in the last decade. The present study aimed to characterize phenolic composition of the Portuguese traditional varieties and corresponding soaked seed fractions (including soaking water). With such [...] Read more.
Despite the common beans’ nutritional and phytochemical value, in Portugal its consumption decreased more than 50% in the last decade. The present study aimed to characterize phenolic composition of the Portuguese traditional varieties and corresponding soaked seed fractions (including soaking water). With such purpose, the phenolic composition (total content of soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins) and in vitro antioxidant activity were evaluated in the raw whole flour of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. The phenolic composition of the soaked fractions was respectively compared to the raw flour. Phenolic compounds’ identification and relative quantification were achieved by UPLC-TripleTOF-MS for one representative variety and their fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in colored varieties and the brown market class highlighted as the richest one. The loss of phenolic compounds to the soaking water was highly dependent on variety. The predominant phenolic compounds’ classes were flavan-3-ols (soaking water and coats), flavonols (coats), and phenolic acids (cotyledons). This characterization study showed the diversity on the phenolic composition of Portuguese varieties and the need to adjust the soaking and peeling processes to the variety (considering the possible loss of potential health promoter compounds, e.g., phenolic compounds). Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phytochemicals in Daucus carota and Their Health Benefits—Review Article
Foods 2019, 8(9), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090424 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Carrots are a multi-nutritional food source. They are an important root vegetable, rich in natural bioactive compounds, which are recognised for their nutraceutical effects and health benefits. This review summarises the occurrence, biosynthesis, factors affecting concentration, and health benefits of phytochemicals found in [...] Read more.
Carrots are a multi-nutritional food source. They are an important root vegetable, rich in natural bioactive compounds, which are recognised for their nutraceutical effects and health benefits. This review summarises the occurrence, biosynthesis, factors affecting concentration, and health benefits of phytochemicals found in Daucus carota. Two hundred and fifty-five articles including original research papers, books, and book chapters were analysed, of which one hundred and thirty articles (most relevant to the topic) were selected for writing the review article. The four types of phytochemicals found in carrots, namely phenolics, carotenoids, polyacetylenes, and ascorbic acid, were summarised. These chemicals aid in the risk reduction of cancer and cardiovascular diseases due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, plasma lipid modification, and anti-tumour properties. Numerous factors influence the amount and type of phytochemicals present in carrots. Genotype (colour differences) plays an important role; high contents of α and β-carotene are present in orange carrots, lutein in yellow carrots, lycopene in red carrots, anthocyanins in the root of purple carrots, and phenolic compounds abound in black carrots. Carotenoids range between 3.2 mg/kg and 170 mg/kg, while vitamin C varies from 21 mg/kg to 775 mg/kg between cultivars. Growth temperatures of carrots influence the level of the sugars, carotenoids, and volatile compounds, so that growing in cool conditions results in a higher yield and quality of carrots, while higher temperatures would increase terpene synthesis, resulting in carrots with a bitter taste. It is worthwhile to investigate the cultivation of different genotypes under various environmental conditions to increase levels of phytochemicals and enhance the nutritional value of carrot, along with the valorisation of carrot by-products. Full article
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