Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2022) | Viewed by 11400

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, ul. B. Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: electrodialysis and electromembrane processes; industrial wastewater treatment; desalination; recovery of raw materials from waste water; hybrid and integrated membrane systems
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Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology (SUT), B. Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: membrane desalination
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)—Barcelona TECH, Campus Diagonal, Besòs, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: membranes; resource recovery; waste to product; acid water; seawater; nanofiltration; electrodialysis; liquid–liquid membrane contactors; ion-exchange resins; agro-food recovery
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Guest Editor
1. Chemical Engineering Department, School of Industrial Engineering (EEI), University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2. Chemical Engineering Department, Escuela de Ingeniería de Barcelona Este (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)-BarcelonaTECH, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: bioactive ingredients; surface-active compounds; natural products; cosmetic formulations; green technology; waste valorization; fermentation; Lactobacillus species; probiotic and prebiotic properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Economic development and population growth increase the need for natural resources. As many of the raw materials are non-renewable, this puts a strain on the environment. One of the possible solutions is to recover the resources from the industrial waste waters. Electromembrane processes, which are based on the use of ion-exchange membranes placed in the electric field, can be used either directly for obtaining materials from waste, or as a part of integrated or hybrid systems designed for resource recovery.

This Special Issue of Membranes, with the theme “Advances in electromembrane processes for resource recovery”, aims at publishing the latest advances in the application of electromembrane processes in resource recovery. The topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Application of electrodialysis in recovery of minerals from saline waste waters;
  • Recovery of specific ions by selective membrane capacitive deionization;
  • Application of electromembrane processes in recovering heavy metals in the electroplating industry;
  • Recovery of organic acids and bases using bipolar membranes.

Dr. Krzysztof Mitko
Prof. Dr. Marian Turek
Dr. Mònica Reig
Dr. Xanel Vecino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrodialysis
  • electrodeionization
  • electrodialysis metathesis
  • bipolar membrane electrodialysis
  • membrane capacitive deionization
  • selective electrodialysis
  • electro-electrodialysis
  • microbial desalination cell
  • resource recovery
  • circular economy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 786 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Investigation of the Phenomenon of Space Charge Breakdown in Electromembrane Systems
by Anna Kovalenko, Natalia Chubyr, Aminat Uzdenova and Makhamet Urtenov
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111047 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
At present, it is customary to consider the overlimit operating modes of electromembrane systems to be effective, and electroconvection as the main mechanism of overlimiting transfer. The breakdown of the space charge is a negative, “destructive” phenomenon, since after the breakdown the size [...] Read more.
At present, it is customary to consider the overlimit operating modes of electromembrane systems to be effective, and electroconvection as the main mechanism of overlimiting transfer. The breakdown of the space charge is a negative, “destructive” phenomenon, since after the breakdown the size and number of electroconvective vortices are significantly reduced, which leads to a decrease in mass transfer. Therefore, electromembrane desalination processes must be carried out before space charge breakdown occurs. Thus, the actual problem arises of determining at which potential jumps a breakdown of the space charge occurs at a given concentration of the solution. Electromembrane systems are used for desalination at electrolyte solution concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mol/m3. In a theoretical study of increasing the efficiency of the desalination process, mathematical modeling is used in the form of a boundary value problem for the system of Nernst–Planck and Poisson (NPP) equations, which refers to “hard” problems that are difficult to solve numerically. This is caused by the appearance of a small parameter at the derivative in the Poisson equation in a dimensionless form, and, correspondingly, a boundary layer at ion-exchange membranes, where concentrations and other characteristics of the desalination process change exponentially. It is for this reason that the numerical study of the boundary value problem is currently obtained for initial concentrations of the order of 0.01 mol/m3. The paper proposes a new numerical–analytical method for solving boundary value problems for the system of Nernst–Planck and Poisson equations for real initial concentrations, using which the phenomenon of space charge breakdown (SCB) in the cross section of the desalination channel in potentiostatic and potentiodynamic modes is studied. The main regularities of the appearance and interaction of charge waves, up to their destruction (breakdown), are established. A simple formula is proposed for engineering calculations of the potential jump depending on the concentration of the solution, at which the breakdown of the space charge begins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery)
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17 pages, 3153 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Pretreatment Methods for Salinity Gradient Power Generation Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) Systems
by Jaehyun Ju, Yongjun Choi, Sangho Lee, Chan-gyu Park, Taemun Hwang and Namjo Jung
Membranes 2022, 12(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12040372 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
With the increasing concern about climate change and the energy crisis, the use of reverse electrodialysis (RED) to utilize salinity gradient power (SGP) has drawn attention as one of the promising renewable energy sources. However, one of the critical issues in RED processes [...] Read more.
With the increasing concern about climate change and the energy crisis, the use of reverse electrodialysis (RED) to utilize salinity gradient power (SGP) has drawn attention as one of the promising renewable energy sources. However, one of the critical issues in RED processes is membrane fouling and channel blockage, which lead to a decrease in the power density. Thus, this study aims to improve our understanding of SGP generation by using RED by investigating the effect of pretreatment on the RED performance. Experiments were conducted by using a laboratory-scale experimental setup for RED. The low-salinity and high-salinity feed solutions were brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) brine from a wastewater reclamation plant, and a NaCl solution simulating seawater desalination brine. Several pretreatments were applied to the RED process, such as cartridge filter (CF), microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), activated filter media (AFM), and granular activated carbon (GAC). The results indicate that the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the power density were similar, except for in the NF pretreatment, which removed the dissolved ions to increase the net SGP. However, the pressure in the RED stack was significantly affected by the pretreatment types. The excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) quantified the organic compounds that are related to the stack pressure. These results suggest that the removal of both colloidal and organic matters by pretreatments is crucial for improving the RED performance by reducing the pressure that is increased in the RED stack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery)
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15 pages, 8273 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies of Recirculatory Microbial Desalination Cell–Microbial Electrolysis Cell Coupled Systems
by Desmond Ato Koomson, Jingyu Huang, Guang Li, Nicholas Miwornunyuie, David Ewusi-Mensah, Williams Kweku Darkwah and Prince Atta Opoku
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090661 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
The recirculatory microbial desalination cell–microbial electrolysis cell (MDC–MEC) coupled system is a novel technology that generates power, treats wastewater, and supports desalination through eco-friendly processes. This study focuses on the simultaneous efficient removal of Fe2+ and Pb2+ in the MEC and [...] Read more.
The recirculatory microbial desalination cell–microbial electrolysis cell (MDC–MEC) coupled system is a novel technology that generates power, treats wastewater, and supports desalination through eco-friendly processes. This study focuses on the simultaneous efficient removal of Fe2+ and Pb2+ in the MEC and ammonium ions in the MDC. It also evaluates the performances of dual-chambered MEC (DCMEC) and single-chambered MEC (SCMEC), coupled with MDC with Ferricyanide as catholyte (MDCF) in heavy metals (Pb2+ and Fe2+) removal, in addition to the production of voltage, current, and power within a 48-h cycle. The SCMEC has a higher Pb2+ (74.61%) and Fe2+ (85.05%) removal efficiency during the 48-h cycle than the DCMEC due to the simultaneous use of microbial biosorption and the cathodic reduction potential. The DCMEC had a higher current density of 753.62 mAm−2 than that of SCMEC, i.e., 463.77 mAm−2, which influences higher desalination in the MDCF than in the SCMEC within the 48-h cycle. The MDCF produces a higher voltage (627 mV) than Control 1, MDC (505 mV), as a power source to the two MECs. Stable electrolytes’ pH and conductivities provide a conducive operation of the coupled system. This study lays a solid background for the type of MDC–MEC coupled systems needed for industrial scale-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery)
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12 pages, 6629 KiB  
Article
Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Using an Electrodialysis Process
by Agnieszka Miśkiewicz, Agnieszka Nowak, Jędrzej Pałka and Grażyna Zakrzewska-Kołtuniewicz
Membranes 2021, 11(5), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050324 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
In this work, the possibility of using electrodialysis for the treatment of liquid low-level radioactive waste was investigated. The first aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of the process parameters on the treatment of model solutions with different compositions. Subsequent [...] Read more.
In this work, the possibility of using electrodialysis for the treatment of liquid low-level radioactive waste was investigated. The first aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of the process parameters on the treatment of model solutions with different compositions. Subsequent experimental tests were conducted using solutions containing selected radionuclides (60Co and 137Cs), which are potential contaminants of effluents from nuclear power plants, as well as components often found in waste generated from industrial and medical radioisotope applications. The results of the experiments performed on real radioactive waste confirmed that electrodialysis was a suitable method for the treatment of such effluents because it ensured high levels of desalination and rates of decontamination. The most important parameters impacting the process were the applied voltage and electrical current. Moreover, this research shows that the application of the ED process enables the separation of non-ionic organic contaminants of LLW, which are unfavorable in further stages of waste predisposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery)
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13 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Towards Water, Sodium Chloride and Natural Organic Matter Recovery from Ion Exchange Spent Brine
by Maryam Haddad, Laurent Bazinet and Benoit Barbeau
Membranes 2021, 11(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040262 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
Despite the tremendous success of the application of anion exchange resins (IX) in natural organic matter (NOM) removal over conventional removal methods, the considerable amount of brine spent during its regeneration cycle makes its sustainability questionable. This polluting saline stream can be challenging [...] Read more.
Despite the tremendous success of the application of anion exchange resins (IX) in natural organic matter (NOM) removal over conventional removal methods, the considerable amount of brine spent during its regeneration cycle makes its sustainability questionable. This polluting saline stream can be challenging to manage and costly to discharge. Alternatively, and with the recent shift in perception of resource recovery, the produced spent brine can no longer be seen as a polluting waste but as an unconventional source of water, minerals and nutrients. In this research, for the first time, we evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated monovalent selective electrodialysis (MSED) and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system in IX spent brine desalination and resource recovery. Of particular interest were the effects of operating time on the characteristics of the monovalent permselective ion exchange membranes, the impact of the DCMD stack configuration on minimizing heat loss to the ambient environment and the efficacy of the recovered NaCl in the regenerating cycle of the exhausted IXs. Our findings demonstrated that although the recovered NaCl from the stand-alone MSED can restore nearly 60% ion exchange capacity of the exhausted IXs, coupling MSED with DCMD led to minimizing the consumption of fresh NaCl (in the IX regeneration cycle) significantly, the potential application of NOM in agriculture and diminishing the risk of the IX spent brine disposal. In addition, the initial characteristics of the ion permselective membranes were maintained after 24 h of MSED and the transmembrane flux was increased when the feed/hot compartment (in the DCMD stack) was encapsulated on two outer ends with coolant/permeate compartments as a result of less heat loss to the ambient environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electromembrane Processes for Resource Recovery)
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