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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Raw Vegetables Retailed in Romania

1
Department of Molecular Sciences, Division of Microbiology, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur Street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Department of Molecular Sciences, Division of Medical Genetics, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur Street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Department of Medical Education, Division of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur Street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
I.A.C. and A.M.B. contributed equally to this study.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121726
Received: 8 November 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 24 November 2020
(1) Background: As β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales are no longer exclusively associated with the health care system, investigating the potential risk they pose to the integrity of the environment and food safety has become of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales isolates from retailed raw vegetables and to determine if household washing is an effective method of lowering bacterial load; (2) Methods: Seasonal vegetables (n = 165) were acquired from supermarkets (n = 2) and farmer markets (n = 2) in Romania. Following sample processing and isolation, identification of Enterobacterales was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex was used to ascertain the presence of the main ESBL, AmpC, and Carbapenemase genes. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were determined by extended antibiograms. Enterobacteriaceae colony-forming units (CFU) counts were compared between vegetable types; (3) Results: Beta-lactamase producing bacteria were observed on 7.9% of vegetables, with 5.5% displaying ESBL/AmpC phenotype and 2.4% identified as Carbapenemase producers. The most frequently detected β-lactamase genes were blaSHV (n = 4), followed by blaCTX-M and blaTEM (each with n = 3). Phenotypic antibiotic resistance analysis showed that 46% of isolates were multiple drug resistant, with aminoglycosides (38.5%) the most prevalent non-β-lactam resistance, followed by first-generation quinolones (38.5%). (4) Conclusions: The present study has described for the first time the presence of β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in fresh produce retailed in Romania. View Full-Text
Keywords: ESBL production; AmpC β-lactamase; carbapenemase; Enterobacterales; fresh vegetables; household washing; food safety ESBL production; AmpC β-lactamase; carbapenemase; Enterobacterales; fresh vegetables; household washing; food safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Colosi, I.A.; Baciu, A.M.; Opriș, R.V.; Peca, L.; Gudat, T.; Simon, L.M.; Colosi, H.A.; Costache, C. Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Raw Vegetables Retailed in Romania. Foods 2020, 9, 1726.

AMA Style

Colosi IA, Baciu AM, Opriș RV, Peca L, Gudat T, Simon LM, Colosi HA, Costache C. Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Raw Vegetables Retailed in Romania. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1726.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Colosi, Ioana A.; Baciu, Alina M.; Opriș, Răzvan V.; Peca, Loredana; Gudat, Tristan; Simon, Laura M.; Colosi, Horațiu A.; Costache, Carmen. 2020. "Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Raw Vegetables Retailed in Romania" Foods 9, no. 12: 1726.

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