Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species

A special issue of Fishes (ISSN 2410-3888). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 16082

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Aquaculture Center, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Interests: sustainability; SDGs; bioeconomy; circular economy; aquaculture production systems; nutrient budget

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratório de Carcinicultura, Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Aquicultura Sustentável, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Palotina, Paraná, Brazil
Interests: shrimp farming; aquaculture management; aquaculture nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquaculture is undoubtedly a critical sector for satisfying the needs of a growing human population and meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030. Nevertheless, some current paradigms should be changed to match the sustainable production of aquatic organisms. To improve sustainability, the linear economy model should move to the circular economy, and low-trophic-level species should replace high-trophic-level species monoculture. Combining species with complementary ecosystemic functions and requirements in the same culture allows for more efficient production systems. In this way, developing integrated multi-spatial, multi-niche, or multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) may be a solution. Innovative systems associating autotrophic organisms, microbes, and suspension- and deposit-feeders with manufactured-diet-fed species may improve the efficiency of using natural resources and circularity. On the other hand, farming low-trophic species in monoculture and integrated culture is more environmentally efficient than farming high-trophic-level ones.

This Special Issue aims to publish high-quality research on innovative integrated aquaculture systems developed in marine or inland waters, as well as on the biology and farming of low-trophic species suitable for sustainable aquaculture. We consider low-trophic species the primary producers, as well as herbivorous, detritus feeders, and other animals fed mainly on plankton and benthic invertebrates. Studies focused on all value chain elements of aquaculture are appropriate. We welcome the submission of original research articles or short communications and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Wagner C. Valenti
Prof. Dr. Eduardo Luis Ballester
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • integrated aquaculture
  • IMTA
  • circular aquaculture
  • low-trophic aquaculture

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Stocking Density and Diet of Two Oyster (Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea gigas) Seeds in Fluidized Bed Bottle Nursery System
by Simone Sühnel, Francisco José Lagreze-Squella, Gabriel Nandi Corrêa, Jaqueline Araújo, Glauber de Souza, João Paulo Ramos Ferreira, Francisco Carlos da Silva, Carlos Henrique Araújo de Miranda Gomes and Claudio Manoel Rodrigues de Melo
Fishes 2024, 9(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9050183 - 17 May 2024
Abstract
Crassostrea is the most farmed oyster genus worldwide and has significant economic and social impacts with environmental benefits. Hatchery oyster seed production is a highly costly phase, and a fluidized nursery system can help reduce this cost and reduce seed production time. The [...] Read more.
Crassostrea is the most farmed oyster genus worldwide and has significant economic and social impacts with environmental benefits. Hatchery oyster seed production is a highly costly phase, and a fluidized nursery system can help reduce this cost and reduce seed production time. The present study evaluated the survival and growth of two oyster species (Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea gigas) in a fluidized bed bottle nursery system. With C. gasar, two experiments were performed; one tested three stocking densities and the other three bialgae diets. With C. gigas, one experiment with a bialgae and monoalgae in an initial bottle occupation of 8.8% produced more seeds per bottle, but an initial bottle occupation of 2.2% produced bigger seeds. Also, the experiment with C. gasar and with C. gigas tested diets did not affect seed survival, but the diets with bialgae I. galbana and N. oculate promoted more seed growth. The fluidized bed bottle nursery system developed for this study was adequate for the seeds of the oysters C. gasar and C. gigas in the nursery phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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21 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Circularity Assessment in Aquaculture: The Case of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) Systems
by Daniel Checa, Brett M. Macey, John J. Bolton, Marissa Brink-Hull, Pauline O’Donohoe, Alessandro Cardozo, Luis Henrique Poersch and Inmaculada Sánchez
Fishes 2024, 9(5), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9050165 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Aquaculture is a strategic sector that aims to meet the increased demands for healthy food for current and future populations. However, this progression needs to be sustainable, which can potentially be achieved by the implementation of circular practices. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems [...] Read more.
Aquaculture is a strategic sector that aims to meet the increased demands for healthy food for current and future populations. However, this progression needs to be sustainable, which can potentially be achieved by the implementation of circular practices. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems promote the incorporation of circular principles. Nevertheless, the lack of harmonized definitions and standards impedes the quantification of these circular attributes. This study aims to explore the potential principles embedded in IMTA and the existing alternatives to quantify circularity. Two basic pillars (nutrient management and resource use efficiency) were identified as the most relevant circularity attributes for IMTA systems and were quantified through aquaculture-specific indicators. Bioremediation indicators, together with the efficiency indicators in terms of feed, water, energy, and infrastructure materials used, were selected to evaluate the circularity performance of four IMTA trials in three aquaculture facilities in Ireland, Brazil, and South Africa. Salmon, white shrimp, tilapia, abalone, and sea urchins were studied and cultivated together in various combinations with several low-trophic species in these IMTA trials to evaluate the improvement in circularity compared with corresponding monoculture conditions. The results showed an increase in circularity of up to 90% in terms of water recirculation, as well as bioremediation, which was improved by 80%–90%, providing evidence for the potential role of IMTA in the circularity transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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17 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
Natural Food Intake and Its Contribution to Tambaqui Growth in Fertilized and Unfertilized Ponds
by Adriana Ferreira Lima, Anderson Guilherme Pereira dos Reis, Vladimir Eliodoro Costa and Wagner Cotroni Valenti
Fishes 2024, 9(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9040139 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Natural food available in ponds can complement formulated feed in fed aquaculture. This study elucidated the natural food intake and its contribution to tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) growth in fertilized and unfertilized ponds, using stable isotope and stomach contents analyses. Additionally, it [...] Read more.
Natural food available in ponds can complement formulated feed in fed aquaculture. This study elucidated the natural food intake and its contribution to tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) growth in fertilized and unfertilized ponds, using stable isotope and stomach contents analyses. Additionally, it described the impact of fertilization management on natural food availability, fish performance, and production costs. Tambaqui juveniles (93.8 ± 15.0 g) were stocked (0.55 fish/m2) in fertilized (Fert) and unfertilized (NoFert) ponds (600 m2) for a culture period of 10 months in quadruplicate. A lower food conversion ratio was observed in Fert ponds. The main natural food items ingested by tambaqui were insects, vegetables, and cladocerans. Plankton contributed 39.4% and 10.7% of muscle formation in Fert and NoFert ponds, respectively. Pond fertilization (2.45 g of nitrogen and 0.80 g of phosphorus per square meter every two weeks) did not significantly affect fish growth, survival, or productivity but had a slightly influence on water quality parameters. However, fertilization increased the zooplankton density (through phytoplankton) in the water, thereby increasing autochthonous food availability for tambaqui consumption. This species demonstrates the ability to alternate between natural food sources and commercial feed without compromising its development. Consequently, tambaqui exhibits suitability for farming within restorative and integrated aquaculture systems as well as intensive systems reliant on commercial feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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10 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Intensification of Amazon River Prawn Hatchery
by Michelle Pinheiro Vetorelli, Laurindo André Rodrigues, Janaina Mitsue Kimpara and Wagner C. Valenti
Fishes 2024, 9(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9030082 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
The effects of the intensification on the performance of the Amazon River prawn hatchery carried out in a simple recirculation system were investigated. Newly hatched larvae were stocked in 120 L tanks at 80, 100, 120 and 140 larvae L−1 in a [...] Read more.
The effects of the intensification on the performance of the Amazon River prawn hatchery carried out in a simple recirculation system were investigated. Newly hatched larvae were stocked in 120 L tanks at 80, 100, 120 and 140 larvae L−1 in a closed recirculating system. The experiment used a randomized block design with five replicates. An exponential equation was adjusted to express the relationship between the stocking density and productivity (postlarvae L−1). The development, larval quality, survival and postlarval (PL) dry weight did not significantly differ among the treatments (p > 0.05). When 80 larvae were stocked, the productivity (54 ± 11 PL L−1) was lower than those at higher densities (p < 0.05). Stocking 120 and 140 larvae L−1 resulted in higher productivities (75 ± 18 and 80 ± 17 PL L−1, respectively) with a lower use of Artemia nauplii to produce each postlarvae (~1200 Artemia nauplii PL−1). The maximum mean M. amazonicum postlarval production estimated by the exponential model was 93 PL L−1. This means that despite the increase in stocking density, productivity tends to stabilize. The results showed that M. amazonicum tolerates high intensification in recirculating hatchery systems based on a crushed shell bed biofilter, and the intensification optimizes Artemia use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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0 pages, 7297 KiB  
Article
Reproductive Conditioning of the Peruvian Scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Different Environments
by Rafael Octavio Crisóstomo, Renzo Pepe-Victoriano, Sheda Méndez-Ancca, Abel Walter Zambrano-Cabanillas, Olegario Marín-Machuca, Hernan Mauricio Perez, Víctor Yana-Mamani and Mario Ruiz-Choque
Fishes 2024, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes9010009 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Obtaining viable Argopecten purpuratus seeds faces challenges, especiallyci the unpredictability of the marine environment and high production costs in hatcheries. However, improving the method of "Broodstock Conditioning In Hatcheries" is key to ensure permanent seed supplies by minimizing the dependence on marine conditions [...] Read more.
Obtaining viable Argopecten purpuratus seeds faces challenges, especiallyci the unpredictability of the marine environment and high production costs in hatcheries. However, improving the method of "Broodstock Conditioning In Hatcheries" is key to ensure permanent seed supplies by minimizing the dependence on marine conditions and by maximizing economic viability in hatcheries. In an effort to overcome these barriers, broodstock were conditioned into two different environments: (a) Natural Environment: Natural marine conditions located in Bahía Inglesa, Atacama Region, Chile. (b) Hatchery: Laboratory conditions to achieve gonadal maturation, spawning induction, fertilization and larval development. The purpose of this research was to evaluate how the type of reproductive conditioning affects the reproductive potential and nutritional quality of the progeny. Both methods were successful at inducing the necessary maturity for reproduction, obtaining viable gametes and larvae. On the other hand, it was observed that in the natural environment, the oocytes and D larvae reached a greater size and nutritional value, being the most significant differences with (p < 0.05): the size of the D larvae reached figures of 95.8 ± 3.1 μm and 91.2 ± 2.7 μm in the environment and hatchery, respectively; the lipid content in dry mass was 25.2 ± 3.1 mg g1 and 13.5 ± 1.9 mg g1 for the natural environment and hatchery, respectively. Although quality indicators in hatcheries were slightly lower compared to the natural environment, the possibility of conditioning A. purpuratus broodstock independently of environmental variability highlights the importance of further optimizing broodstock conditioning aspects in hatcheries that would allow more predictable and sustainable production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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20 pages, 5339 KiB  
Article
Biological Responses of Oyster Crassostrea gasar Exposed to Different Concentrations of Biofloc
by Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa, Andrezza Carvalho, Mariana Holanda, Jorge Santos, Lucélia Borges, Bruna Guterres, Je Nam Junior, Virginia Fonseca, Larissa Muller, Luis Romano, Silvia Botelho, Marcelo Pias, Juliane Ventura and Luís H. Poersch
Fishes 2023, 8(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8120586 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Oysters have the potential to be a part of more sustainable farming systems, such as multitrophic systems integrated into biofloc systems, due to their filtration activity, which enables them to act as organic consumers. However, the stress experienced by animals in a system [...] Read more.
Oysters have the potential to be a part of more sustainable farming systems, such as multitrophic systems integrated into biofloc systems, due to their filtration activity, which enables them to act as organic consumers. However, the stress experienced by animals in a system with a high organic load can compromise their productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological responses of Crassostrea gasar oysters when exposed to different concentrations of total suspended solids in biofloc systems. The oysters were exposed to four different concentrations of solids for 28 days. Hall effect sensors were installed on the outside of the shells to detect the movement of the oyster valves. Also, biochemical and histological analyses were conducted to assess the biological responses of the oysters to exposure to varying levels of solids. A difference in valve opening detected by the Hall sensors was observed from the second week of culture, indicating a relationship between shell closure and higher concentrations of suspended solids present in the system. In terms of biochemical analysis, a significant increase in lipid damage was observed in treatments with medium and high levels of total suspended solids compared with the control group. Conversely, no changes were observed in the gill structure of the oysters caused by the concentrations of suspended solids in the system when compared with the control. According to the analyses of gill activity and biochemistry, it is suggested that C. gasar should be cultured with total suspended solids at less than 200 mg/L. Oysters cultivated in a biofloc system keep their shells closed when subjected to high concentrations of total suspended solids; concentrations of total suspended solids below 200 mg/L do not induce oxidative stress, changes in behavior or histological alterations in C. gasar oysters cultivated in a biofloc system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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19 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Comparative Description and Analysis of Oyster Aquaculture in Selected Atlantic Regions: Production, Market Dynamics, and Consumption Patterns
by Johannes A. Iitembu, Daniel Fitzgerald, Themistoklis Altintzoglou, Pierre Boudry, Peter Britz, Carrie J. Byron, Daniel Delago, Sophie Girard, Colin Hannon, Marcia Kafensztok, Francisco Lagreze, Jefferson Francisco Alves Legat, Angela Puchnick Legat, Adriane K. Michaelis, Ingelinn Eskildsen Pleym, Simone Sühnel, William Walton and Åsa Strand
Fishes 2023, 8(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8120584 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
In the face of an increasing world population and a subsequent need for an increase in sustainable and healthy food production, low trophic species, such as oysters, emerge as a promising alternative. However, regional variations in oyster production techniques, market dynamics, and consumption [...] Read more.
In the face of an increasing world population and a subsequent need for an increase in sustainable and healthy food production, low trophic species, such as oysters, emerge as a promising alternative. However, regional variations in oyster production techniques, market dynamics, and consumption patterns create challenges for both the global and local industry’s growth. In this study, a descriptive qualitative analysis of oyster markets across seven Atlantic regions was carried out. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was found to be farmed in most Atlantic regions except the US but is classified as invasive in Sweden and potentially invasive in South Africa. Other farmed and/or harvested species include native species (C. gasar and C. rhizophorae) in Brazil, the American cupped oyster (C. virginica) in the US, and the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) in France, Sweden, and the US. In Irish farms, Pacific oysters are primarily for export to European markets. The marine aquaculture sectors of Sweden, South Africa, and Namibia, as well as Brazil’s farming for C. gasar, were found to be underdeveloped. This study also observed a variation in licensing, property rights, and regulatory frameworks. Financial challenges for small businesses, ecological implications of seed production techniques, biosecurity risks, and public health considerations are emphasized as critical areas for attention. This study offers valuable insights into the selected markets and can serve as a useful resource for policymakers, aquaculture practitioners, and stakeholders in optimizing global shellfish industry strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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13 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Different Carbon Sources on Water Quality, Growth Performance, Hematology, Immune, and Antioxidant Status in Cultured Nile Tilapia with Biofloc Technology
by Khalid Hussain Rind, Syed Sikandar Habib, Javed Ahmed Ujan, Francesco Fazio, Saira Naz, Aima Iram Batool, Mujeeb Ullah, Sobia Attaullah, Khayyam Khayyam and Khalid Khan
Fishes 2023, 8(10), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8100512 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
The biofloc technology system (BFT) is considered to be one of the sustainable aquaculture systems, which is based on the principle of nutrient recycling with the addition of a carbon source to give dominance to heterotrophic microorganisms. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
The biofloc technology system (BFT) is considered to be one of the sustainable aquaculture systems, which is based on the principle of nutrient recycling with the addition of a carbon source to give dominance to heterotrophic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane molasses and tapioca flour as carbon sources on the water quality, growth, hematology, immune status, and non-specific antioxidant status of Oreochromis juveniles. Methodologically, the experiment was carried out for 10 weeks on 225 juvenile Nile tilapia with initial body weights of 47.0 ± 1.3 g that were randomly distributed in 09 tanks (1000 L) with a stocking density of 25 tilapias per tank; the treatments were: BFT + SM (S molasses), BFT + TF tapioca flour (TF), and a control with no carbon source added. The control group was fed 100% feed, while the BFT experimental groups were fed microbial flocs along with 75% feed. The results revealed that the water quality parameters were affected by the carbon sources, but were adequate for normal fish welfare, and the biofloc volume was higher (28.94) with the TF carbon source. The growth performance, such as weight gain (98.61), survival (99.01), and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.69), was recorded in BFT + TF. Significant improvements in WBCs, HCT, HB, lymphocytes, plasma proteins, albumin, and non-specific immune factors (lysozyme activity, immunoglobulins levels, and ACH50) were observed in biofloc-reared fish with tapioca flour as the carbon source compared to the control and sugarcane molasses groups. Moreover, significant increases in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found in the biofloc-reared fish with different carbon sources. In conclusion, the use of BFT + TF was found to affect improving the water quality, growth, hematology, immunity, and antioxidant status of juvenile Tilapia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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15 pages, 2158 KiB  
Article
Effects of Snail Bellamya purificata Farming at Different Stocking Densities on the Algal and Fungal Communities in Sediment
by Yiran Hou, Mengmeng Zhou, Rui Jia, Wei Sun, Yanhong Yang, Xiongjian Huang, Bing Li and Jian Zhu
Fishes 2023, 8(10), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8100488 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
The snail Bellamya purificata is recognized as a potential bio-remediation species, and is commonly employed in polyculture to enhance resource utilization efficiency and realize culture environment regulation. In order to enrich the microbiome studies on elucidating the ecological effects of snail B. purificata [...] Read more.
The snail Bellamya purificata is recognized as a potential bio-remediation species, and is commonly employed in polyculture to enhance resource utilization efficiency and realize culture environment regulation. In order to enrich the microbiome studies on elucidating the ecological effects of snail B. purificata farming, we assessed the effect of B. purificata farming activities, at varying stocking densities, on the algal and fungal communities in sediment. Four experimental groups were established in our study, each corresponding to a different stocking density: 0, 234.38, 468.75, and 937.5 g/m2, represented as CON, LD, MD, and HD, respectively. High-throughput sequencing based on ITS and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was employed to analyze the variations in algal and fungal communities under B. purificata farming activities at different stocking densities. B. purificata farming activities had no significant effect on the alpha diversities of fungal and algal communities, but significantly altered the compositions of fungal and algal communities in sediments, especially B. purificata farming activity at low stocking density. B. purificata farming activities at low stocking density could significantly increase the relative abundances of fungal genera Paraconiothyrium and Penicillium compared with the CON group. The promoting effect diminished with increasing density. B. purificata farming activities at low or medium stocking density also could enhance the relative abundances of algal genera Microchloropsis, Scenedesmus, and Auxenochlorella. Hence, B. purificata farming activity at low stocking density might be the optimum density to enhance resource utilization efficiency and minimize environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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12 pages, 5751 KiB  
Article
Exploring Biofouling Control by the California Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus californicus) in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) with Organic Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
by Emaline M. Montgomery, Barb L. Cannon and Christopher M. Pearce
Fishes 2023, 8(9), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8090430 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
The growth of biofouling on aquaculture infrastructure is a universal challenge. Standard industry practices to remove biofouling in finfish aquaculture typically include in situ net cleaning via power washing. Since those cleaning practices can be potentially harmful to fish-gill health and expensive, development [...] Read more.
The growth of biofouling on aquaculture infrastructure is a universal challenge. Standard industry practices to remove biofouling in finfish aquaculture typically include in situ net cleaning via power washing. Since those cleaning practices can be potentially harmful to fish-gill health and expensive, development of other non-toxic biofouling controls is an industry priority. Deposit-feeding sea cucumbers are potentially well suited for biofouling control due to their feeding mechanism, but remain relatively untested in this capacity. We examined the use of California sea cucumbers (Apostichopus californicus) to control biofouling on cages containing adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a commercial farming operation. Four cage types were established: cages with salmon and sea cucumbers, cages with salmon only, cages with sea cucumbers only, and cages without either species. Results showed that the sea cucumbers actively fed on biofouling when salmon were absent (~16% cleaner on average) but preferred to consume uneaten feed/faeces at the bottom of the cages, neglecting the biofouling, when the salmon were present. It is hypothesized that biofouling control in cages with salmon may be possible with an increased density of sea cucumbers. This is the first study to examine the use of sea cucumbers as a direct net biofouling control agent with adult fish. Our results will be beneficial for industry to develop standard operating procedures for using California sea cucumbers as a biofouling control and could contribute to the development of a management framework for sea cucumber/salmon integrated multi-tropic aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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16 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
Influence of Total Suspended Solids on the Growth of the Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca Integrated with the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in a Biofloc System
by Andrezza Carvalho, Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa, Mariana Holanda, Luís H. Poersch and Gamze Turan
Fishes 2023, 8(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030163 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
A biofloc system is rich in nutrients, which favors the cultivation of macroalgae, but the influence of the system on the performance of macroalgae is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the feasibility of introducing the macroalgae Ulva lactuca into [...] Read more.
A biofloc system is rich in nutrients, which favors the cultivation of macroalgae, but the influence of the system on the performance of macroalgae is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the feasibility of introducing the macroalgae Ulva lactuca into the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei in a biofloc system. The first experiment evaluated the influence of 400 mg L−1 and 30 mg L−1 solids concentration of the system in biofloc and von Stosch culture medium on macroalgae growth. In the second experiment, the densities of 1, 2, and 3 g L−1 of U. lactuca were cultivated in an integrated system with shrimp and monoculture treatment. Both experiments had 35 days of cultivation. There was no significant difference in macroalgae growth between the treatments with biofloc and von Stosch culture medium. In the integrated culture, the density of 1 g L−1 showed better nutrient absorption. Shrimp performance was not affected by macroalgae cultivation. In conclusion, the solids did not affect the growth of the macroalgae, and it could be cultivated in a biofloc system for nitrate uptake in integrated culture with shrimp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Aquaculture and Monoculture of Low-Trophic Species)
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