Special Issue "Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Morata Website E-Mail
Department of Food Science and Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain
Phone: 0034 91 3365730
Interests: enology; wine technology; winemaking; food technology; emerging preservation technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool.

Prof. Antonio Morata
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • non-Saccharomyces yeasts
  • wine biotechnology
  • sensory quality
  • color stabilization
  • spoilage yeasts

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species in Wine Biotechnology
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030072 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in enology has increased since the beginning of the current century because of the potential improvements they can produce in wine sensory quality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Applications of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in Wine Biotechnology
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030063 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Mp) is a ubiquitous yeast that frequently appears in spontaneous fermentations. The current interest in Mp is supported by the expression of many extracellular activities, some of which enhance the release of varietal aromatic compounds. The low fermentative power [...] Read more.
Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Mp) is a ubiquitous yeast that frequently appears in spontaneous fermentations. The current interest in Mp is supported by the expression of many extracellular activities, some of which enhance the release of varietal aromatic compounds. The low fermentative power of Mp makes necessary the sequential or mixed use with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) to completely ferment grape musts. Mp has a respiratory metabolism that can help to lower ethanol content when used under aerobic conditions. Also, Mp shows good compatibility with Sc in producing a low-to-moderate global volatile acidity and, with suitable strains, a reduced level of H2S. The excretion of pulcherrimin gives Mp some competitive advantages over other non-Saccharomyces yeasts as well as providing some antifungal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
Use of Nonconventional Yeasts for Modulating Wine Acidity
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010027 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent years, in line with consumer preferences and due to the effects of global climate change, new trends have emerged in wine fermentation and wine technology. Consumers are looking for wines with less ethanol and fruitier aromas, but also with a good [...] Read more.
In recent years, in line with consumer preferences and due to the effects of global climate change, new trends have emerged in wine fermentation and wine technology. Consumers are looking for wines with less ethanol and fruitier aromas, but also with a good balance in terms of acidity and mouthfeel. Nonconventional yeasts contain a wide range of different genera of non-Saccharomyces. If in the past they were considered spoilage yeasts, now they are used to enhance the aroma profile of wine or to modulate wine composition. Recent publications highlight the role of non-Saccharomyces as selected strains for controlling fermentations mostly in cofermentation with Saccharomyces. In this article, I have reviewed the ability of some bacteria and non-Saccharomyces strains to modulate wine acidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
A Control Alternative for the Hidden Enemy in the Wine Cellar
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010025 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the principal spoilage yeast in the winemaking industry. To avoid its growth, wine is supplemented with SO2, which has been questioned due to its potential harm to health. For this reason, studies are being focused [...] Read more.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the principal spoilage yeast in the winemaking industry. To avoid its growth, wine is supplemented with SO2, which has been questioned due to its potential harm to health. For this reason, studies are being focused on searching for, ideally, natural new antifungals. On the other hand, it is known that in wine production there are a variety of microorganisms, such as yeasts and bacteria, that are possible biological controls. Thus, it has been described that some microorganisms produce antimicrobial peptides, which might control yeast and bacteria populations. Our laboratory has described the Candida intermedia LAMAP1790 strain as a natural producer of antimicrobial compounds against food spoilage microorganisms, as is B. bruxellensis, without affecting the growth of S. cerevisiae. We have demonstrated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound and its low molecular mass (under 10 kDa). This is the first step to the possible use of C. intermedia as a selective bio-controller of the contaminant yeast in the winemaking industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
The Yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii: An Interesting But Difficult-To-Use Tool for Winemaking
Fermentation 2018, 4(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4040094 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Torulaspora delbrueckii is probably the non-Saccharomyces yeast that is currently most used for winemaking. Multiple advantages have been claimed for it relative to conventional S. cerevisiae strains. However, many of these claimed advantages are based on results in different research studies that [...] Read more.
Torulaspora delbrueckii is probably the non-Saccharomyces yeast that is currently most used for winemaking. Multiple advantages have been claimed for it relative to conventional S. cerevisiae strains. However, many of these claimed advantages are based on results in different research studies that are contradictory or non-reproducible. The easiest way to explain these discrepancies is to attribute them to the possible differences in the behaviour of the different strains of this yeast that have been used in different investigations. There is much less knowledge of the physiology, genetics, and biotechnological properties of this yeast than of the conventional yeast S. cerevisiae. Therefore, it is possible that the different results that have been found in the literature are due to the variable or unpredictable behaviour of T. delbrueckii, which may depend on the environmental conditions during wine fermentation. The present review focusses on the analysis of this variable behaviour of T. delbrueckii in the elaboration of different wine types, with special emphasis on the latest proposals for industrial uses of this yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
The Multiple and Versatile Roles of Aureobasidium pullulans in the Vitivinicultural Sector
Fermentation 2018, 4(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4040085 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The saprophytic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans has been well documented for over 60 years in the microbiological literature. It is ubiquitous in distribution, being found in a variety of environments (plant surfaces, soil, water, rock surfaces and manmade surfaces), and with a worldwide [...] Read more.
The saprophytic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans has been well documented for over 60 years in the microbiological literature. It is ubiquitous in distribution, being found in a variety of environments (plant surfaces, soil, water, rock surfaces and manmade surfaces), and with a worldwide distribution from cold to warm climates and wet/humid regions to arid ones. Isolates and strains of A. pullulans produce a wide range of natural products well documented in the international literature and which have been regarded as safe for biotechnological and environmental applications. Showing antagonistic activity against plant pathogens (especially post-harvest pathogens) is one of the major applications currently in agriculture of the fungus, with nutrient and space competition, production of volatile organic compounds, and production of hydrolytic enzymes and antimicrobial compounds (antibacterial and antifungal). The fungus also shows a positive role on mycotoxin biocontrol through various modes, with the most striking being that of binding and/or absorption. A. pullulans strains have been reported to produce very useful industrial enzymes, such as β-glucosidase, amylases, cellulases, lipases, proteases, xylanases and mannanases. Pullulan (poly-α-1,6-maltotriose biopolymer) is an A. pullulans trademark product with significant properties and biotechnological applications in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Poly (β-l-malic acid), or PMA, which is a natural biopolyester, and liamocins, a group of produced heavy oils and siderophores, are among other valuable compounds detected that are of possible biotechnological use. The fungus also shows a potential single-cell protein source capacity with high levels of nucleic acid components and essential amino acids, but this remains to be further explored. Last but not least, the fungus has shown very good biocontrol against aerial plant pathogens. All these properties are of major interest in the vitivinicultural sector and are thoroughly reviewed under this prism, concluding on the importance that A. pullulans may have if used at both vineyard and winery levels. This extensive array of properties provides excellent tools for the viticulturist/farmer as well as for the oenologist to combat problems in the field and create a high-quality wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
Oenological Impact of the Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera Yeast Genus on Wines—A Review
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030076 - 10 Sep 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Apiculate yeasts of the genus Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera are the main species present on mature grapes and play a significant role at the beginning of fermentation, producing enzymes and aroma compounds that expand the diversity of wine color and flavor. Ten species of [...] Read more.
Apiculate yeasts of the genus Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera are the main species present on mature grapes and play a significant role at the beginning of fermentation, producing enzymes and aroma compounds that expand the diversity of wine color and flavor. Ten species of the genus Hanseniaspora have been recovered from grapes and are associated in two groups: H. valbyensis, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarum, H. opuntiae, H. thailandica, H. meyeri, and H. clermontiae; and H. vineae, H. osmophila, and H. occidentalis. This review focuses on the application of some strains belonging to this genus in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae that demonstrates their positive contribution to winemaking. Some consistent results have shown more intense flavors and complex, full-bodied wines, compared with wines produced by the use of S. cerevisiae alone. Recent genetic and physiologic studies have improved the knowledge of the Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera species. Significant increases in acetyl esters, benzenoids, and sesquiterpene flavor compounds, and relative decreases in alcohols and acids have been reported, due to different fermentation pathways compared to conventional wine yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Advances in the Study of Candida stellata
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030074 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Candida stellata is an imperfect yeast of the genus Candida that belongs to the order Saccharomycetales, while phylum Ascomycota. C. stellata was isolated originally from a must overripe in Germany but is widespread in natural and artificial habitats. C. stellata is [...] Read more.
Candida stellata is an imperfect yeast of the genus Candida that belongs to the order Saccharomycetales, while phylum Ascomycota. C. stellata was isolated originally from a must overripe in Germany but is widespread in natural and artificial habitats. C. stellata is a yeast with a taxonomic history characterized by numerous changes; it is either a heterogeneous species or easily confused with other yeast species that colonize the same substrates. The strain DBVPG 3827, frequently used to investigate the oenological properties of C. stellata, was recently renamed as Starmerella bombicola, which can be easily confused with C. zemplinina or related species like C. lactis-condensi. Strains of C. stellata have been used in the processing of foods and feeds for thousands of years. This species, which is commonly isolated from grape must, has been found to be competitive and persistent in fermentation in both white and red wine in various wine regions of the world and tolerates a concentration of at least 9% (v/v) ethanol. Although these yeasts can produce spoilage, several studies have been conducted to characterize C. stellata for their ability to produce desirable metabolites for wine flavor, such as acetate esters, or for the presence of enzymatic activities that enhance wine aroma, such as β-glucosidase. This microorganism could also possess many interesting technological properties that could be applied in food processing. Exo and endoglucosidases and polygalactosidase of C. stellata are important in the degradation of β-glucans produced by Botrytis cinerea. In traditional balsamic vinegar production, C. stellata shapes the aromatic profile of traditional vinegar, producing ethanol from fructose and high concentrations of glycerol, succinic acid, ethyl acetate, and acetoin. Chemical characterization of exocellular polysaccharides produced by non-Saccharomyces yeasts revealed them to essentially be mannoproteins with high mannose contents, ranging from 73–74% for Starmerella bombicola. Numerous studies have clearly proven that these macromolecules make multiple positive contributions to wine quality. Recent studies on C. stellata strains in wines made by co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have found that the aroma attributes of the individual strains were apparent when the inoculation protocol permitted the growth and activity of both yeasts. The exploitation of the diversity of biochemical and sensory properties of non-Saccharomyces yeast could be of interest for obtaining new products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Non-Saccharomyces Yeast on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030073 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The interest in non-Saccharomyces yeast for use in sparkling wine production has increased in recent years. Studies have reported differences in amino acids and ammonia, volatile aroma compounds (VOCs), glycerol, organic acids, proteins and polysaccharides. The aim of this review is to [...] Read more.
The interest in non-Saccharomyces yeast for use in sparkling wine production has increased in recent years. Studies have reported differences in amino acids and ammonia, volatile aroma compounds (VOCs), glycerol, organic acids, proteins and polysaccharides. The aim of this review is to report on our current knowledge concerning the influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast on sparkling wine chemical composition and sensory profiles. Further information regarding the nutritional requirements of each of these yeasts and nutrient supplementation products specifically for non-Saccharomyces yeasts are likely to be produced in the future. Further studies that focus on the long-term aging ability of sparkling wines made from non-Saccharomyces yeast and mixed inoculations including their foam ability and persistence, organic acid levels and mouthfeel properties are recommended as future research topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Control and Potential Uses in Winemaking Processes
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030071 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are becoming important because most of them are considered as spoilage species in winemaking processes, among them the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This species is frequently isolated at the end of the fermentation process and/or during storage of the wine, [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are becoming important because most of them are considered as spoilage species in winemaking processes, among them the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This species is frequently isolated at the end of the fermentation process and/or during storage of the wine, i.e., it can to grow in the presence of high levels of ethanol. Besides, this species is adaptable to unfavorable conditions such as high concentrations of SO2 and is characterized by its capacity to produce high amounts of undesirable metabolites as acetoin, ethyl acetate or acetic acid. To the present, physical (gamma irradiation and continuous pulsed electric fields), chemical (inhibitory compounds such as chitosan and dimethyl dicarbonate) and biological (antagonistic biocontrol by killer yeasts) treatments have been developed in order to control the growth of this spoilage yeast in wines and other fruit derivatives. Therefore, this review is focused on the most relevant studies conducted to control contamination by S. ludwigii. Moreover, potential applications of S. ludwigii in alternative winemaking techniques, for example for ageing-on-lees and stabilization of red wines, and improvement of aromatic profile are also examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Schizosaccharomyces pombe: A Promising Biotechnology for Modulating Wine Composition
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030070 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
There are numerous yeast species related to wine making, particularly non-Saccharomyces, that deserve special attention due to the great potential they have when it comes to making certain changes in the composition of the wine. Among them, Schizosaccharomyces pombe stands out [...] Read more.
There are numerous yeast species related to wine making, particularly non-Saccharomyces, that deserve special attention due to the great potential they have when it comes to making certain changes in the composition of the wine. Among them, Schizosaccharomyces pombe stands out for its particular metabolism that gives it certain abilities such as regulating the acidity of wine through maloalcoholic fermentation. In addition, this species is characterized by favouring the formation of stable pigments in wine and releasing large quantities of polysaccharides during ageing on lees. Moreover, its urease activity and its competition for malic acid with lactic acid bacteria make it a safety tool by limiting the formation of ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines in wine. However, it also has certain disadvantages such as its low fermentation speed or the development of undesirable flavours and aromas. In this chapter, the main oenological uses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe that have been proposed in recent years will be reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: Control Strategies and Applications in Food and Winemaking
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030069 - 22 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The genus Zygosaccharomyces is generally associated to wine spoilage in the winemaking industry, since a contamination with strains of this species may produce re-fermentation and CO2 production in sweet wines. At the same time, this capacity might be useful for sparkling wines [...] Read more.
The genus Zygosaccharomyces is generally associated to wine spoilage in the winemaking industry, since a contamination with strains of this species may produce re-fermentation and CO2 production in sweet wines. At the same time, this capacity might be useful for sparkling wines production, since this species may grow under restrictive conditions, such as high ethanol, low oxygen, and harsh osmotic conditions. The spoilage activity of this genus is also found in fruit juices, soft drinks, salad dressings, and other food products, producing besides package expansion due to gas production, non-desired compounds such as ethanol and esters. Despite these drawbacks, Zygosaccharomyces spp. produces high ethanol and acetoin content in wines and may play an important role as non-Saccharomyces yeasts in differentiated wine products. Control strategies, such as the use of antimicrobial peptides like Lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), the use of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) or non-thermal sterilization techniques may control this spoilage genus in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Challenges of the Non-Conventional Yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus in Winemaking
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030068 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nowadays it is widely accepted that non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which prevail during the early stages of alcoholic fermentation, contribute significantly to the character and quality of the final wine. Among these yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala, Hansenula anomala, Candida pelliculosa) has [...] Read more.
Nowadays it is widely accepted that non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which prevail during the early stages of alcoholic fermentation, contribute significantly to the character and quality of the final wine. Among these yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala, Hansenula anomala, Candida pelliculosa) has gained considerable importance for the wine industry since it exhibits interesting and potentially exploitable physiological and metabolic characteristics, although its growth along fermentation can still be seen as an uncontrollable risk. This species is widespread in nature and has been isolated from different environments including grapes and wines. Its use together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed culture fermentations has been proposed to increase wine particular characteristics. Here, we review the ability of W. anomalus to produce enzymes and metabolites of oenological relevance and we discuss its potential as a biocontrol agent in winemaking. Finally, biotechnological applications of W. anomalus beyond wine fermentation are briefly described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessReview
Lachancea thermotolerans Applications in Wine Technology
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030053 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Lachancea (kluyveromyces) thermotolerans is a ubiquitous yeast that can be naturally found in grapes but also in other habitats as soil, insects and plants, extensively distributed around the world. In a 3-day culture, it shows spherical to ellipsoidal morphology appearing in single, paired [...] Read more.
Lachancea (kluyveromyces) thermotolerans is a ubiquitous yeast that can be naturally found in grapes but also in other habitats as soil, insects and plants, extensively distributed around the world. In a 3-day culture, it shows spherical to ellipsoidal morphology appearing in single, paired cells or short clusters. It is a teleomorph yeast with 1–4 spherical ascospores and it is characterized by a low production of volatile acidity that helps to control global acetic acid levels in mixed or sequential inoculations with either S. cerevisiae or other non-Saccharomyces species. It has a medium fermentative power, so it must be used in sequential or mixed inoculations with S. cerevisiae to get dry wines. It shows a high production of lactic acid able to affect strongly wine pH, sometimes decreasing wine pH by 0.5 units or more during fermentation. Most of the acidification is produced at the beginning of fermentation facilitating the effect in sequential fermentations because it is more competitive at low alcoholic degree. This application is especially useful in warm areas affected by climatic change. pH reduction is produced in a natural way during fermentation and prevents the addition of tartaric acid, that produces tartrate precipitations, or the use of cation exchangers resins highly efficient reducing pH but with undesirable effects on wine quality. Production of lactic acid is done from sugars thus reducing slightly the alcoholic degree, especially in strains with high production of lactic acid. Also, an improvement in the production of 2-phenylethanol and glycerol has been described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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Open AccessComment
Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030068 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
The bulk of the sugar fermentation in grape juice, in order to produce wine is carried out by yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, mainly S [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species)
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