Special Issue "Advanced Power Conversion Technologies"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Sergio Busquets-Monge

Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power electronics, multilevel converters, electric vehicles
Guest Editor
Dr. Jean-Christophe Crebier

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory, 38031 Grenoble, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power electronics, system integration
Guest Editor
Dr. Salvador Alepuz

Tecnocampus Mataró-Maresme, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08302 Mataró, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: multilevel conversion and ac power conversion applied to renewable energy systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power Electronics is an enabling and ubiquitous technology, which is key in achieving current societal goals such as increasing the use of renewable energies, fostering the use of electric transportation systems, and moving towards more flexible and resilient power grids.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight original power conversion techniques that could enable further advances in power electronics, such as novel power converter topologies, novel power converter modulations, novel power converter controls, and novel power converter design and manufacturing approaches producing higher efficiency, higher power density, lower cost, and/or higher reliability. Refinements of existing techniques that introduce significant benefits are also welcome.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Multilevel and multicell power converter topologies
  • Advanced power-converter modulation techniques
  • Advanced power-converter controls
  • Modular power-converter design approaches

Dr. Sergio Busquets-Monge
Dr. Jean-Christophe Crebier
Dr. Salvador Alepuz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • multilevel power converter topologies 
  • multicell power converter topologies
  • power converter modulation
  • power converter control 
  • modular power converter design

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Design of a ZVT Resonant Boost Converter Using an Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040466
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a new zero voltage transition (ZVT) resonant boost converter is proposed. A typical boost converter generates switching losses at turning on and turning off, and these losses cause a reduction in the efficiency of the whole system. This proposed ZVT [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new zero voltage transition (ZVT) resonant boost converter is proposed. A typical boost converter generates switching losses at turning on and turning off, and these losses cause a reduction in the efficiency of the whole system. This proposed ZVT resonant boost converter utilizes a soft switching method, using an auxiliary circuit with a resonant inductor, capacitor, and two auxiliary switches. Therefore, it can reduce switching losses more so than the conventional hard switching converter. Also, the conduction period of the resonant inductor current is reduced by using a modified circuit. An experiment is conducted with the converter, which steps up the voltage from 200 V to 380 V and its switching frequency and output power are 30 kHz and 4 kW, respectively. It is confirmed that the experimental results and simulation results are the same and the validity of this proposed converter is verified. The conventional converter and proposed converter are analyzed by comparing the experimental results of two converters under the same conditions. It is confirmed that all switches can achieve soft switching and the proposed converter improves on the conventional converter by measuring the efficiency of two converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Impedance-Source DC-to-AC/DC Converter
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040438
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
This article presents a novel impedance-source-based direct current (DC)-to-alternating current (AC)/DC converter (Z-Source DAD Converter). The Z-Source DAD converter converts the input DC voltage into AC or DC with buck or boost in the load voltage. This Z-Source DAD conversion circuit is a [...] Read more.
This article presents a novel impedance-source-based direct current (DC)-to-alternating current (AC)/DC converter (Z-Source DAD Converter). The Z-Source DAD converter converts the input DC voltage into AC or DC with buck or boost in the load voltage. This Z-Source DAD conversion circuit is a single-stage power conversion system. This converter circuit converts the input DC voltage into variable-magnitude output DC voltage or converts the DC voltage into a variable-magnitude output AC voltage. The higher voltage magnitude in boost mode can be controlled by controlling the shoot-through (ST) state timing of the converter. MATLAB-Simulink simulation and microcontroller-based hardware circuit results are presented to demonstrate power conversion with the buck and boost features of the Z-Source DAD converter for both types of output voltages. The simulation and experimental results show that the Z-Source DAD converter converts the given DC supply into AC or DC with buck or boost in the output load voltage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Scalable Single-Phase Multi-Functional Inverter for Integration of Rooftop Solar-PV to Low-Voltage Ideal and Weak Utility Grid
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030302
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
Integration of rooftop solar-PV (RTSPV) systems and extensive use of nonlinear loads in the low-voltage distribution system (LVDS) leads to poor power quality (PQ). Therefore, it is necessary to address the issues leading to poor PQ at the point of common coupling of [...] Read more.
Integration of rooftop solar-PV (RTSPV) systems and extensive use of nonlinear loads in the low-voltage distribution system (LVDS) leads to poor power quality (PQ). Therefore, it is necessary to address the issues leading to poor PQ at the point of common coupling of the LVDS. In this article, a multi-band hysteresis current control (MB-HCC) for the multi-functional inverter (MFI) is proposed which improves the efficiency of the MFI and also enhances the PQ of the LVDS. The MB-HCC uses simple switching logic and outperforms in its multi-functional tasks such as active power injection and power conditioning. MB-HCC offers better efficiency over variable double-band HCC (VDB-HCC) as it operates at a lower switching frequency. The performance of the proposed system is simulated by using MATLAB/Simulink and validated by OPAL-RT based real-time simulation studies. During the variation of solar irradiation, the proposed MFI has an average efficiency of 98.5% under the ideal grid and 97.34% under the distorted grid. Moreover, the percentage of Total Harmonic Distortion under ideal and distorted grid conditions is brought down to below 5%, and also, reactive power compensation maintains unity power factor operation complying with the IEEE-519-2014 and 1547 standards. These results substantiate the hypothesis of scalability of the single-phase MB-HCC-based MFI for an LVDS contributing to economy and ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Sufficient Condition-Based Stability Analysis of a Power Converter Applied Switching Transient Waveform Modification Using Kharitonov’s Theorem
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020245
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
The rapid switching action of power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) causes high-level electromagnetic interference (EMI) in power converters. The switching transient waveform modification method realized by closed-loop gate drive has been recognized as an effective high-frequency EMI reduction approach. However, feedback control of [...] Read more.
The rapid switching action of power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) causes high-level electromagnetic interference (EMI) in power converters. The switching transient waveform modification method realized by closed-loop gate drive has been recognized as an effective high-frequency EMI reduction approach. However, feedback control of power MOSFET in the saturation region would introduce stability problems. This paper presents a sufficient condition-based stability analysis of all the operating points during turn-off using Kharitonov’s theorem. Firstly, a small-signal MOSFET model during turn-off was used to derive the closed-loop system transfer function. The nonlinear capacitances and the rest constant parameters of the small-signal model were determined based on the device characteristics and the expected outcome of the drain-source voltage. Then we split the turn-off switching transient into several subintervals, during which the system characteristic equation became an interval polynomial due to the nonlinear capacitances. Finally, Kharitonov’s theorem was applied in each subinterval to evaluate the stability, thereby achieving the overall system stability analysis during turn-off. Experiments were conducted to investigate the system’s stability and the results confirmed the validity of the proposed analysis. This work presents an implementable design guideline for the applied switching transient waveform modification of power converters via closed-loop gate drive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Nonisolated Three-Port DC–DC Converter with Continuous Input and Output Currents Based on Cuk Topology for PV/Fuel Cell Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020214
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
A nonisolated three-port DC–DC converter based on Cuk topology (NI-TPC) to handle the renewable sources (RS) is proposed in this paper. This converter includes two unidirectional input ports accommodating both a fuel cell (FC) and photovoltaic (PV) cell; and one output port with [...] Read more.
A nonisolated three-port DC–DC converter based on Cuk topology (NI-TPC) to handle the renewable sources (RS) is proposed in this paper. This converter includes two unidirectional input ports accommodating both a fuel cell (FC) and photovoltaic (PV) cell; and one output port with DC load. Due to the inductors at all the ports, it claims the advantage of continuous input and output currents. Additionally, it uses less number of switches, diodes and inductors compared with conventional ‘n-1’ separate Cuk converters. Synthesis procedure for a generalized n-port DC–DC structure is explained. The derivation law based on conventional Cuk converter, operating principle, design calculation, and analysis are presented in detail, and then the analysis is validated through simulation and a 100W prototype, verifying the performance of the proposed NI-TPC converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Small-Signal Stability Analysis of Multi-Terminal DC Grids
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020130
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a detailed small-signal analysis and an improved dc power sharing scheme for a six terminal dc grid. The multi-terminal DC (MTDC) system is composed of (1) two voltage-source converters (VSCs) entities operating as rectification stations; (2) two VSCs operating as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a detailed small-signal analysis and an improved dc power sharing scheme for a six terminal dc grid. The multi-terminal DC (MTDC) system is composed of (1) two voltage-source converters (VSCs) entities operating as rectification stations; (2) two VSCs operating as inverting stations; (3) two dc/dc conversion stations; and (4) an interconnected dc networking infrastructure. The small-signal state-space sub-models of the individual entities are developed and integrated to formulate the state-space model of the entire system. Using the modal analysis, it is shown that the most critical modes are associated with the power sharing droop coefficients of the rectification stations, which are constrained by the steady-state operational requirements. Therefore, a second degree-of-freedom compensation scheme is proposed to improve the dynamic response of the MTDC system without influencing the steady-state operation. Time domain simulation results are presented to validate the analysis and show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A 10 kW ZVS Integrated Boost Dual Three-Phase Bridge DC–DC Resonant Converter for a Linear Generator-Based Wave-Energy System: Design and Simulation
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010115
Received: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The design and performance analysis of a 10 kW three-phase DC–DC LCL-type resonant converter having a built-in boost function were carried out. This high-power converter is proposed for its application in grid-interfacing a linear generator (LG)-based wave-energy system. Fixed-frequency control is used, and [...] Read more.
The design and performance analysis of a 10 kW three-phase DC–DC LCL-type resonant converter having a built-in boost function were carried out. This high-power converter is proposed for its application in grid-interfacing a linear generator (LG)-based wave-energy system. Fixed-frequency control is used, and the converter was designed to operate with a lagging power factor. It is shown that all switches turn on with zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for wide input voltage and load variations. This results in reduced switching losses and stresses, which is very important in large-power applications. The performance of the converter was studied through PSIM simulation software. Theoretical and simulation results are presented for comparison. Power-loss break-down analysis of the designed converter was carried out and the summary of results is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Current Mode Controller with Fast Response Characteristics for Super Capacitor Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010112
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
A wide-bandwidth current-controller is required for the fast charging and discharging of applications containing super capacitors. To accomplish this, peak current mode is generally used due to the speed of its response characteristics. On the other hand, peak current mode control must be [...] Read more.
A wide-bandwidth current-controller is required for the fast charging and discharging of applications containing super capacitors. To accomplish this, peak current mode is generally used due to the speed of its response characteristics. On the other hand, peak current mode control must be provided with a slope compensation function to restrain sub-harmonic oscillations. However, if the controlled output voltage is varied, the slope must be changed accordingly. Nonetheless, it is not easy to change the slope for every change in output voltage. Another solution involves the slope being set at the maximum value, which results in a slow response. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid mode controller was proposed that uses a peak current and a newly-specified valley current. Using the proposed hybrid mode control, sub-harmonic oscillation did not occur for duty cycles larger than 0.5 and response times were fast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Step-Down Partial Power DC-DC Converters for Two-Stage Photovoltaic String Inverters
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010087
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems composed by two energy conversion stages are attractive from an operation point of view. This is because the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) range is extended, due to the voltage decoupling between the PV system and the dc-link. Nevertheless, the [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems composed by two energy conversion stages are attractive from an operation point of view. This is because the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) range is extended, due to the voltage decoupling between the PV system and the dc-link. Nevertheless, the additional dc-dc conversion stage increases the volume, cost and power converter losses. Therefore, central inverters based on a single-stage converter, have been a mainstream solution to interface large-scale PV arrays composed of several strings connected in parallel made by the series connections of PV modules. The concept of partial power converters (PPC), previously reported as a voltage step-up stage, has not addressed in depth for all types of PV applications. In this work, a PPC performing voltage step-down operation is proposed and analyzed. This concept is interesting from the industry point of view, since with the new isolation standards of PV modules are reaching 1500 V, increasing both the size of the string and dc-link voltage for single-stage inverters. Since grid connection remains typically at 690 V, larger strings impose more demanding operation for single-stage central inverters (required to operate at lower modulation indexes and demand higher blocking voltage devices), making the proposed step-down PPC an attractive solution. Theoretical analysis and an experimental test-bench was built in order to validate the PPC concept, the control performance and the improvement of the conversion efficiency. The experimental results corroborate the benefits of using a PPC, in terms of increasing the system efficiency by reducing the processed power of the converter, while not affecting the system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Model-Based Latency Compensation for Network Controlled Modular Multilevel Converters
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010022
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
The use of an internal digital communication network enhances the scalability, implementation and maintenance of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC). However, it also introduces delays that limit the sampling frequency and the controller dynamic performance. In this paper, we propose a model-based predictor to [...] Read more.
The use of an internal digital communication network enhances the scalability, implementation and maintenance of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC). However, it also introduces delays that limit the sampling frequency and the controller dynamic performance. In this paper, we propose a model-based predictor to compensate for the loop delay and overcome these limitations. Two benefits of this approach are possible: either designers can increase the sampling rate and control performance or employ a slower communication protocol/technology. In this paper, we present the mathematical description of the model-based predictor, assess the parameter sensitivity, and show matching simulation and experimental results that validate it. As constraints introduced by the use of digital communications are overcome, the results achieved encourage engineers to adopt a network into the design of Modular Multilevel Converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
AC Mains Synchronization Loop for Precalculated- Based PFC Converters Using the Output Voltage Measure
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Common implementations of power factor correction include sensors for the input and output voltages and the input current. Many alternatives have been considered to reduce the number of sensors, especially the current sensor. One strategy is to precalculate the duty cycles that must [...] Read more.
Common implementations of power factor correction include sensors for the input and output voltages and the input current. Many alternatives have been considered to reduce the number of sensors, especially the current sensor. One strategy is to precalculate the duty cycles that must be applied to every ac main, so the system only needs to synchronize them with the input voltage, and include a simple output voltage loop. The main problem with this approach is the sensibility to any synchronization error, because the input current is not measured, so its evolution is not continuously corrected. This paper shows how the synchronization error alters the current and the power factor, and it proposes several methods to detect and correct this error. All methods use the output voltage ADC, which is already used to control the output voltage, so the cost of the system is not increased. This technique can also be applied to any current sensorless PFC converter, because they are usually affected by leading or lagging currents, so the synchronization can be modified to reduce these effects. Results show that the implementation of this synchronization loop keeps a high-power factor under a wide synchronization error range, while the added logic is not significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Soft Switching DC Converter for Medium Voltage Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120449
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
A dc-dc converter with asymmetric pulse-width modulation is presented for medium voltage applications, such as three-phase ac-dc converters, dc microgrid systems, or dc traction systems. To overcome high voltage stress on primary side and high current rating on secondary side, three dc-dc circuits [...] Read more.
A dc-dc converter with asymmetric pulse-width modulation is presented for medium voltage applications, such as three-phase ac-dc converters, dc microgrid systems, or dc traction systems. To overcome high voltage stress on primary side and high current rating on secondary side, three dc-dc circuits with primary-series secondary-parallel structure are employed in the proposed converter. Current doubler rectifiers are used on the secondary side to achieve low ripple current on output side. Asymmetric pulse-width modulation is adopted to realize soft switching operation for power switches for wide load current operation and achieve high circuit efficiency. Current balancing cells with magnetic component are used on the primary side to achieve current balance in each circuit cell. The voltage balance capacitors are also adopted on primary side to realize voltage balance of input split capacitors. Finally, the circuit performance is confirmed and verified from the experiments with a 1.44 kW prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameter Identification of DC-DC Converters under Steady-State and Transient Conditions Based on White-Box Models
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120393
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a white-box approach for identifying the parameters of DC-DC buck and boost switch mode power converters. It is based on discretizing the differential equations that describe the dynamic behavior of the converters. From the discretized equations and experimental data, the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a white-box approach for identifying the parameters of DC-DC buck and boost switch mode power converters. It is based on discretizing the differential equations that describe the dynamic behavior of the converters. From the discretized equations and experimental data, the parameters of the converters are identified, thus obtaining both the values of the passive components and the transfer function coefficients of the controller. To this end, steady state and transient experimental signals are analyzed, including the input and output voltages and the inductor and output currents. To determine the accuracy of the proposed method, once the parameters are identified, a simulation with the identified parameters of the converter is run and compared with experimental signals. Such results show the accuracy and feasibility of the approach proposed in this work, which can be extended to other converters and electrical and electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Different Optimization Methods for Resonance Half-Bridge Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120368
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract
The LLC resonance half-bridge converter is one of the most popular DC-DC converters and could easily inspire researchers to design a high-efficiency and high-power-density converter. LLC resonance converters have diverse operation modes based on switching frequency and load that cause designing and optimizing [...] Read more.
The LLC resonance half-bridge converter is one of the most popular DC-DC converters and could easily inspire researchers to design a high-efficiency and high-power-density converter. LLC resonance converters have diverse operation modes based on switching frequency and load that cause designing and optimizing procedure to vary in different modes. In this paper, different operation modes of the LLC half-bridge converter that investigate different optimization procedures are introduced. The results of applying some usual optimization methods implies that for each operation mode some specific methods are more appropriate to achieve high efficiency. To verify the results of each optimization, numerous simulations are done by Pspice and MATLAB and the efficiencies are calculated to compare them. Finally, to verify the result of optimization, the experimental results of a laboratory prototype are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Solid State Transformers Topologies, Controllers, and Applications: State-of-the-Art Literature Review
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110298
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the global trend to produce clean electrical energy, the penetration of renewable energy sources in existing electricity infrastructure is expected to increase significantly within the next few years. The solid state transformer (SST) is expected to play an essential role in future [...] Read more.
With the global trend to produce clean electrical energy, the penetration of renewable energy sources in existing electricity infrastructure is expected to increase significantly within the next few years. The solid state transformer (SST) is expected to play an essential role in future smart grid topologies. Unlike traditional magnetic transformer, SST is flexible enough to be of modular construction, enabling bi-directional power flow and can be employed for AC and DC grids. Moreover, SSTs can control the voltage level and modulate both active and reactive power at the point of common coupling without the need to external flexible AC transmission system device as per the current practice in conventional electricity grids. The rapid advancement in power semiconductors switching speed and power handling capacity will soon allow for the commercialisation of grid-rated SSTs. This paper is aimed at introducing a state-of-the-art review for SST proposed topologies, controllers, and applications. Additionally, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis along with a brief review of market drivers for prospective commercialisation are elaborated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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