Special Issue "Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jesús C. Hernandez
Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering department, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, s/n, 23071, Jaen, Spain
Interests: power electronics; photovoltaic systems; microgrids; electric vehicles; power quality; power systems simulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power generation architecture is rapidly shifting from being centralized to being decentralized. Instead of depending on only one energy source, a wide range of types can now be used. This will eventually lead to the widespread penetration of power electronics based on non-synchronous or renewable power generation. These grid-interactive power converters will significantly enhance the flexibility, controllability, and efficiency of conventional power systems. Smart control strategies can thus enable energy management capabilities as well as the provision of ancillary services to the grid from renewable power. Nevertheless, maintaining a reliable and safe power system poses significant challenges

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality contributions that address current issues related to more sustainable, safer, and more resilient power systems. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Renewable energy conversion;
  • Emerging renewable energy technology;
  • Power conditioning devices for the grid integration of renewable energy sources;
  • Centralized and distributed energy storage systems for reliable and secure power systems (batteries, supercapacitor, hydrogen, flywheel, pumped hydro storage, etc.);
  • Renewable energy policies (market design);
  • Power quality problems with renewable energy sources;
  • Computations methods for assessing the power grid resilience and safety with renewable energy sources;
  • Intermittent renewable energy sources: assessing and control strategies;
  • Impact of the increasing demand of electric vehicle charging;
  • Energy management systems for grid-connected renewable energy sources;
  • The provision of ancillary services to the grid from renewable energy sources;
  • Monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of grid-connected renewable energy sources.

Dr. J. C. Hernandez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
LC Impedance Source Bi-Directional Converter with Reduced Capacitor Voltages
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071062 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
This paper proposes an LC (Inductor and Capacitor) impedance source bi-directional DC–DC converter by redesigning after rearranging the reduced number of components of a switched boost bi-directional DC–DC converter. This new converter with a conventional modulation scheme offers several unique features, such as [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an LC (Inductor and Capacitor) impedance source bi-directional DC–DC converter by redesigning after rearranging the reduced number of components of a switched boost bi-directional DC–DC converter. This new converter with a conventional modulation scheme offers several unique features, such as a) a lower number of components and b) reduced voltage stress on the capacitor compared to existing topologies. The reduction of capacitor voltage stress has the potential of improving the reliability and enhancing converter lifespan. An analysis of the proposed converter was completed with the help of a mathematical model and state-space averaging models. The converter performance under different test conditions is compared with the conventional bi-directional DC–DC converter, Z-source converter, discontinuous current quasi Z-source converter, continuous current quasi Z-source converter, improved Z-source converter, switched boost converter, current-fed switched boost converter, and quasi switched boost converter in the Matlab Simulink environment. MATLAB/Simulink results demonstrate that the proposed converter has lesser components count and reduced capacitors’ voltage stresses when compared to the topologies mentioned above. A 24 V to 18 V LC-impedance source bi-directional converter and a conventional bidirectional converter are built to investigate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed topology. Experimental results reveal that capacitor voltage stresses, in the case of proposed topology are reduced by 75.00% and 35.80% in both boost and buck modes, respectively, compared to the conventional converter circuit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nonlinear Voltage Control for Three-Phase DC-AC Converters in Hybrid Systems: An Application of the PI-PBC Method
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050847 - 20 May 2020
Abstract
In this paper, a proportional-integral passivity-based controller (PI-PBC) is proposed to regulate the amplitude and frequency of the three-phase output voltage in a direct-current alternating-current (DC-AC) converter with an LC filter. This converter is used to supply energy to AC loads in hybrid [...] Read more.
In this paper, a proportional-integral passivity-based controller (PI-PBC) is proposed to regulate the amplitude and frequency of the three-phase output voltage in a direct-current alternating-current (DC-AC) converter with an LC filter. This converter is used to supply energy to AC loads in hybrid renewable based systems. The proposed strategy uses the well-known proportional-integral (PI) actions and guarantees the stability of the system by means of the Lyapunov theory. The proposed controller continues to maintain the simplicity and robustness of the PI controls using the Hamiltonian representation of the system, thereby ensuring stability and producing improvements in the performance. The performance of the proposed controller was validated based on simulation and experimental results after considering parametric variations and comparing them with classical approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Storage System to Augment LVRT Capability of SCIG-Based Wind Turbines and Frequency Regulation of Hybrid Power System
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020239 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
Fixed speed wind turbine-squirrel cage induction generator (FSWT-SCIG)-based wind farms (WFs) are increasing significantly. However, FSWT-SCIGs have no low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and frequency control capabilities, which creates a significant problem on power system transient and steady-state stability. This paper presents a new [...] Read more.
Fixed speed wind turbine-squirrel cage induction generator (FSWT-SCIG)-based wind farms (WFs) are increasing significantly. However, FSWT-SCIGs have no low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and frequency control capabilities, which creates a significant problem on power system transient and steady-state stability. This paper presents a new operational strategy to control the voltage and frequency of the entire power system, including large-scale FSWT-SCIG-based WFs, by using a battery storage system (BSS). The proposed cascaded control of the BSS is designed to provide effective quantity of reactive power during transient periods, to augment LVRT capability and real power during steady-state periods in order to damp frequency fluctuations. The cascaded control technique is built on four proportional integral (PI) controllers. The droop control technique is also adopted to ensure frequency control capability. Practical grid code is taken to demonstrate the LVRT capability. To evaluate the validity of the proposed system, simulation studies are executed on a reformed IEEE nine-bus power system with three synchronous generators (SGs) and SCIG-based WF with BSS. Triple-line-to-ground (3LG) and real wind speed data are used to analyze the hybrid power grid’s transient and steady-state stability. The simulation results indicate that the proposed system can be an efficient solution to stabilize the power system both in transient and steady-state conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Simple and Low-Cost Photovoltaic Module Emulator
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121445 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The design and testing phase of photovoltaic (PV) power systems requires time-consuming and expensive field-testing activities for the proper operational evaluation of maximum power point trackers (MPPT), battery chargers, DC/AC inverters. Instead, the use of a PV source emulator that accurately reproduces the [...] Read more.
The design and testing phase of photovoltaic (PV) power systems requires time-consuming and expensive field-testing activities for the proper operational evaluation of maximum power point trackers (MPPT), battery chargers, DC/AC inverters. Instead, the use of a PV source emulator that accurately reproduces the electrical characteristic of a PV panel or array is highly desirable for in-lab testing and rapid prototyping. In this paper, we present the development of a low-cost microcontroller-based PV source emulator, which allows testing the static and dynamic performance of PV systems considering different PV module types and variable operating and environmental conditions. The novelty of the simple design adopted resides in using a low-cost current generator and a single MOSFET converter to reproduce, from a fixed current source, the exact amount of current predicted by the PV model for the actual load conditions. The I–V characteristic is calculated in real-time using a single diode exponential model under variable and user-selectable operating conditions. The proposed method has the advantage of reducing noise from high-frequency switching, reducing or eliminating ripple and the demand for output filters, and it does not require expensive DC Power source, providing high accuracy results. The fast response of the system allows the testing of very fast MPPTs algorithms, thus overcoming the main limitations of state-of-art PV source emulators that are unable to respond to the quick variation of the load. Experimental results carried on a hardware prototype of the proposed PV source emulator are reported to validate the concept. As a whole result, an average error of ±1% in the reproduction of PV module I–V characteristics have been obtained and reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Coordinated Frequency Stabilization of Wind Turbine Generators and Energy Storage in Microgrids with High Wind Power Penetration
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121390 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
This paper proposes a coordinated control scheme for wind turbine generators (WTGs) and energy storage in microgrids with high wind power penetration. The proposed scheme aimed to reduce the system frequency deviation caused by variations in wind power and loads. To stabilize the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a coordinated control scheme for wind turbine generators (WTGs) and energy storage in microgrids with high wind power penetration. The proposed scheme aimed to reduce the system frequency deviation caused by variations in wind power and loads. To stabilize the frequency, the WTG and energy storage system (ESS) are used for kinetic energy generation and electrical energy storage, respectively. When the WTG contributes excessively to frequency stabilization in the microgrid with a high wind power penetration, the system frequency may fluctuate considerably. Thus, it is necessary to adjust the contribution of a WTG and to share it with other sources. To achieve our objective, we proposed a coordinated control scheme between the WTG and ESS that shares their releasable and absorbable energies. The coordinated control consistently calculated the releasable and absorbable energies of the WTG and ESS and determined weight factors related to the energy ratios. Accordingly, the weight factors improved the ability of providing supporting frequency stabilization of the WTG and ESS by increasing the stored energy utilization. The performance of the scheme was investigated using MATLAB Simulink Electrical. The results show that the proposed coordinated control successfully stabilized the system frequency by calculating the appropriate contributions required from the WTG and ESS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development and Calibration of an Open Source, Low-Cost Power Smart Meter Prototype for PV Household-Prosumers
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8080878 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Smart meter roll-out in photovoltaic (PV) household-prosumers provides easy access to granular meter measurements, which enables advanced energy services. The design of these services is based on the training and validation of models. However, this requires temporal high-resolution data for generation/load profiles collected [...] Read more.
Smart meter roll-out in photovoltaic (PV) household-prosumers provides easy access to granular meter measurements, which enables advanced energy services. The design of these services is based on the training and validation of models. However, this requires temporal high-resolution data for generation/load profiles collected in real-world household facilities. For this purpose, this research developed and successfully calibrated a new prototype for an accurate low-cost On-time Single-Phase Power Smart Meter (OSPPSM), which corresponded to these profiles. This OSPPSM is based on the Arduino open-source electronic platform. Not only can it locally store information, but can also wirelessly send these data to cloud storage in real-time. This paper describes the hardware and software design and its implementation. The experimental results are presented and discussed. The OSPPSM demonstrated that it was capable of in situ real-time processing. Moreover, the OSPPSM was able to meet all of the calibration standard tests in terms of accuracy class 1 (measurement error ≤1%) included in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for smart meters. In addition, the evaluation of the uncertainty of electrical variables is provided within the context of the law of propagation of uncertainty. The approximate cost of the prototype was 60 € from eBay stores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources: The Role of Energy Storage in the European Power System of 2040
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070729 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
Global electricity demand is constantly growing, making the utilization of solar and wind energy sources, which also reduces negative environmental effects, more and more important. These variable energy sources have an increasing role in the global energy mix, including generating capacity. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Global electricity demand is constantly growing, making the utilization of solar and wind energy sources, which also reduces negative environmental effects, more and more important. These variable energy sources have an increasing role in the global energy mix, including generating capacity. Therefore, the need for energy storage in electricity networks is becoming increasingly important. This paper presents the challenges of European variable renewable energy integration in terms of the power capacity and energy capacity of stationary storage technologies. In this research, the sustainable transition, distributed generation, and global climate action scenarios of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for 2040 were examined. The article introduces and explains the feasibility of the European variable renewable energy electricity generation targets and the theoretical maximum related to the 2040 scenarios. It also explains the determination of the storage fractions and power capacity in a new context. The aim is to clarify whether it is possible to achieve the European variable renewable energy integration targets considering the technology-specific storage aspects. According to the results, energy storage market developments and regulations which motivate the increased use of stationary energy storage systems are of great importance for a successful European solar and wind energy integration. The paper also proves that not only the energy capacity but also the power capacity of storage systems is a key factor for the effective integration of variable renewable energy sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Sources)
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