Special Issue "Smart Grid Cyber Security"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alfredo Vaccaro

Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Piazza Roma 21, 82100, Benevento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power systems analysis; reliable computing; decentralized optimization; self-organizing sensor networks; renewable power generators
Guest Editor
Dr. Jin (Wei) Kocsis

Assistant Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Department, University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is intended to present feature and scholarly papers that address some of the diverse array of topics related to Smart Grid Cyber Security. These topics include, but are not limited to, secure and resilient communication and control architectures, secure smart metering, cryptography, key management, authorization and access control, security threat and vulnerability assessment and measurement, cyber-physical security information and event management, trust and privacy, security design and verification tools, and simulation and performance analysis of security operations and services. Technological advances in all these areas have profoundly affected the realization of the resilient and secure communications and information management that are essential to all aspects of the Smart Grid. We invite scientists and researchers from all fields of electronics to submit papers for this important Special Issue of “Smart Grid Cyber Security”. Case studies, reviews, and research papers on all topics related to cyber security issues of smart grids are invited.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Secure and resilient communication and control architectures
  • Secure smart metering
  • Cryptography, key management, authorization and access control
  • Security threat and vulnerability assessment and measurement
  • Cyber-physical security information and event management
  • Trust and privacy
  • Security design and verification tools
  • Simulation and performance analysis of security operations and services

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence [...] Read more.
In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz) and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW) that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Implementation of the IEC 61850 Standard: Will Different Manufacturer Devices Behave Similarly under Identical Conditions?
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040085
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Standardization in smart grid communications is necessary to facilitate complex operations of modern power system functions. However, the strong coupling between the cyber and physical domains of the contemporary grid exposes the system to vulnerabilities and thus places more burden on standards’ developers. [...] Read more.
Standardization in smart grid communications is necessary to facilitate complex operations of modern power system functions. However, the strong coupling between the cyber and physical domains of the contemporary grid exposes the system to vulnerabilities and thus places more burden on standards’ developers. As such, standards need to be continuously assessed for reliability and are expected to be implemented properly on field devices. However, the actual implementation of common standards varies between vendors, which may lead to different behaviors of the devices even if present under similar conditions. The work in this paper tested the implementation of the International Electro-technical Commission’s Generic Object Oriented Substation Event GOOSE (IEC 61850 GOOSE) messaging protocol on commercial Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) and the open source libiec61850 library—also used in commercial devices—which showed different behaviors in identical situations. Based on the test results and analysis of some features of the IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol itself, this paper proposes guidelines and recommendations for proper implementation of the standard functionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Gaussian Mixture Modeling for Detecting Integrity Attacks in Smart Grids
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5040082
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thematics focusing on inserting intelligence in cyber-physical critical infrastructures (CI) have been receiving a lot of attention in the recent years. This paper presents a methodology able to differentiate between the normal state of a system composed of interdependent infrastructures and states [...] Read more.
The thematics focusing on inserting intelligence in cyber-physical critical infrastructures (CI) have been receiving a lot of attention in the recent years. This paper presents a methodology able to differentiate between the normal state of a system composed of interdependent infrastructures and states that appear to be normal but the system (or parts of it) has been compromised. The system under attack seems to operate properly since the associated measurements are simply a variation of the normal ones created by the attacker, and intended to mislead the operator while the consequences may be of catastrophic nature. Here, we propose a holistic modeling scheme based on Gaussian mixture models estimating the probability density function of the parameters coming from linear time invariant (LTI) models. LTI models are approximating the relationships between the datastreams coming from the CI. The experimental platform includes a power grid simulator of the IEEE 30 bus model controlled by a cyber network platform. Subsequently, we implemented a wide range of integrity attacks (replay, ramp, pulse, scaling, and random) with different intensity levels. An extensive experimental campaign was designed and we report satisfying detection results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Degraded Communication on Interdependent Power Systems: The Application of Grid Splitting
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5030049
Received: 4 June 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss of [...] Read more.
Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss of generator synchronism due to a component fault, by appropriately disconnecting transmission lines and grouping synchronous generators. The successful application of grid splitting depends on the communication infrastructure to collect system-wide synchronized measurements and to relay the command to open line switches. Grid splitting may be ineffective if communication is degraded and its outcome may also depend on the system loading conditions. This paper investigates the effects of degraded communication and load variability on grid splitting. To this aim, a communication delay model is coupled with a transient electrical model and applied to the IEEE 39-Bus and the IEEE 118-Bus Test System. Case studies show that the loss of generator synchronism following a fault is mitigated by timely splitting the network into islands. On the other hand, the results show that communication delays and increased network flows can degrade the performance of grid splitting. The developed framework enables the identification of the requirements of the dedicated communication infrastructure for a successful grid-splitting procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Open AccessArticle
Domain Specific and Model Based Systems Engineering in the Smart Grid as Prerequesite for Security by Design
Electronics 2016, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5020024
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of Smart Grid systems has proven to be a challenging task. Besides the inherent technical complexity, the involvement of different stakeholders from different disciplines is a major challenge. In order to maintain the strict security requirements, holistic systems engineering concepts and [...] Read more.
The development of Smart Grid systems has proven to be a challenging task. Besides the inherent technical complexity, the involvement of different stakeholders from different disciplines is a major challenge. In order to maintain the strict security requirements, holistic systems engineering concepts and reference architectures are required that enable the integration, maintenance and evaluation of Smart Grid security. In this paper, a conceptual approach is presented on how to enable the integration of security by design in the development of Smart Grid Systems. A major cornerstone of this approach is the development of a domain-specific and standards-based modelling language on basis of the M/490 Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM). Furthermore, this modelling approach is utilized to develop a reference architecture model on basis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Logical Reference Model (LRM) with its integrated security concepts. The availability of a standards-based reference architecture model enables the instantiation of particular solutions with a profound basis for security. Moreover, it is demonstrated how such architecture models can be utilized to gain insights into potential security implications and furthermore can serve as a basis for implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Grid Communications: Cyber Attacks, Intrusion Detection System and Topology Control
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized [...] Read more.
The existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems that are deployed to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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Open AccessReview
Cyber-Physical System Security of a Power Grid: State-of-the-Art
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5030040
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. [...] Read more.
As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. As a result, the level of connectivity has become much higher, and cyber security also becomes a potential threat to the cyber-physical systems (CPSs). In this paper, a survey of the state-of-the-art is conducted on the cyber security of the power grid concerning issues of: (1) the structure of CPSs in a smart grid; (2) cyber vulnerability assessment; (3) cyber protection systems; and (4) testbeds of a CPS. At Washington State University (WSU), the Smart City Testbed (SCT) has been developed to provide a platform to test, analyze and validate defense mechanisms against potential cyber intrusions. A test case is provided in this paper to demonstrate how a testbed helps the study of cyber security and the anomaly detection system (ADS) for substations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
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