Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer Science & Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 23234

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Design, Torrens University, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
Interests: cybersecurity for Internet of Things (IoT) applications; IoT fog analytics for real-time ICT applications (augmented reality); smart cities and real-time digital infrastructures (smart traffics and digital twins)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
Interests: cyber security; blockchain; fog/edge computing; Internet of Things
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Interests: artificial intelligence; machine learning including deep learning; causal inference; fuzzy systems; image understanding; brain computer interface; assistive robotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of things (IoT) promises to deliver a ubiquitous computing experience to users through massively interconnected computing and noncomputing devices, often referred to as cyber-physical devices (CPDs). The IoT edge network represents a myriad of CPDs that are interconnected to provide seamless computing solutions to various applications, including smart environment control and intelligent system management.

CPDs, however, present security concerns, as some of them are unworthy, noncomputing devices that are given the cybercommunication capacity to support the rapid expansion of IoT applications. Subsequently, IoT edge applications are often considered nondependable in terms of their security and quality assurance.

This Special Issue aims to bring together researchers from both academia and industry in the application of novel methods for dependable IoT edge network applications.

The main topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Data analytics middleware for edge computing.
  • Edge-based intelligent analytics.
  • Edge-node-driven data analytics.
  • Intelligent data synchronization and updating between edge data centers.
  • Data metering for edge data centers.
  • Intelligent pricing mechanisms for edge data centers.
  • Data-driven privacy and security solutions in edge computing.
  • Case studies for data analytics in edge data centers.
  • Addressing security, privacy, and trust in edge data centers.
  • Vehicular edge computing for smart cities.
  • AI-enabled big data for edge computing.

Prof. Dr. Tony Jan
Dr. Deepak Puthal
Prof. Dr. Anca Ralescu
Dr. Mukesh Prasad
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • IoT edge security
  • IoT edge-based intelligent analytics
  • data-driven privacy and security solutions in IoT edge computing
  • data analytics middleware for IoT edge computing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 2478 KiB  
Article
Routing Attacks Detection in 6LoWPAN-Based Internet of Things
by Ammar Alazab, Ansam Khraisat, Sarabjot Singh, Savitri Bevinakoppa and Osama A. Mahdi
Electronics 2023, 12(6), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12061320 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3471
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become increasingly popular, and opened new possibilities for applications in various domains. However, the IoT also poses security challenges due to the limited resources of the devices and its dynamic network topology. Routing attacks on 6LoWPAN-based IoT [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become increasingly popular, and opened new possibilities for applications in various domains. However, the IoT also poses security challenges due to the limited resources of the devices and its dynamic network topology. Routing attacks on 6LoWPAN-based IoT devices can be particularly challenging to detect because of its unique characteristics of the network. In recent years, several techniques have been proposed for detecting routing attacks, including anomaly detection. These techniques leverage different features of network traffic to identify and classify routing attacks. This paper focuses on routing attacks that target the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which are widely used in 6LoWPAN-based IoT systems. The attacks discussed in this paper can be categorized as either inherited from Wireless Sensor Networks or exploiting vulnerabilities unique to RPL (known as RPL-specific attacks). The paper describes various RPL attacks, including Flood Attacks, Data-DoS/DDoS Attacks, Wormhole Attacks, RPL Rank Attacks, Blackhole Attacks, Version Attacks, and Sinkhole Attacks. In this paper, a novel Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) that combines a decision tree classifier and a one-class Support Vector Machine classifier is proposed to detect routing attacks. The HIDS draws on the strengths of both a Signature Intrusion Detection System (SIDS) and an Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS) to identify routing attacks with a high degree of accuracy and a low false alarm rate. The routing dataset, which features genuine IoT network traffic and various kinds of routing attacks, was used to test the proposed HIDS. According to the findings, the hybrid IDS proposed in this study outperforms SIDS and AIDS approaches, with higher detection rates and lower false positive rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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16 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Adaptive Systems for Industrial Internet of Things Using Reinforcement Algorithm
by Anand Singh Rajawat, S. B. Goyal, Chetan Chauhan, Pradeep Bedi, Mukesh Prasad and Tony Jan
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010217 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Agile product development cycles and re-configurable Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) allow more flexible and resilient industrial production systems that can handle a broader range of challenges and improve their productivity. Reinforcement Learning (RL) was shown to be able to support industrial production [...] Read more.
Agile product development cycles and re-configurable Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) allow more flexible and resilient industrial production systems that can handle a broader range of challenges and improve their productivity. Reinforcement Learning (RL) was shown to be able to support industrial production systems to be flexible and resilient to respond to changes in real time. This study examines the use of RL in a wide range of adaptive cognitive systems with IIoT-edges in manufacturing processes. We propose a cognitive adaptive system using IIoT with RL (CAS-IIoT-RL) and our experimental analysis showed that the proposed model showed improvements with adaptive and dynamic decision controls in challenging industrial environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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13 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
A Secure Authentication Scheme for Teleservices Using Multi-Server Architecture
by Sachin Kumar, Kadambri Agarwal, Amit Kumar Gupta, Saru Kumari and Mangal Sain
Electronics 2022, 11(18), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11182839 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
The telecommunications industry covers various sectors and services such as broadband, telecom equipment, telecom infrastructure, telephone service providers, mobile virtual network operators, 5G, and the white space spectrum. Smart Cards may be chosen as one of the best mechanisms for authorized access to [...] Read more.
The telecommunications industry covers various sectors and services such as broadband, telecom equipment, telecom infrastructure, telephone service providers, mobile virtual network operators, 5G, and the white space spectrum. Smart Cards may be chosen as one of the best mechanisms for authorized access to these services in the telecom sector. Recently, Jin Kwak proposed a scheme based on dynamic identity for authentication purposes, mentioning that the scheme does not suffer from security breaches and attacks. This paper illustrates Jin Kwak’s technique and finds that it violates the purpose contrary to his claim. Due to a design issue in his scheme, an adversary may guess the password in a polynomial time and impersonate a legal user. Furthermore, other attacks, including replay attack, are also possible, as the time stamp was not protected in this scheme. We propose an improved version of this scheme, and it is free from various attacks, including password guessing by hiding the identity of the user and replay attacks by using the time stamp securely. The results mentioned in performance and efficiency comparison show a faster scheme than many existing schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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18 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Dimensional and Multi-Factor Trust Computation Framework for Cloud Services
by Aisha Kanwal Junejo, Imran Ali Jokhio and Tony Jan
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131932 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel trust computation framework (TCF) for cloud services. Trust is computed by taking into consideration multi-dimensional quality of service (QoS) evidence and user feedback. Feedback provides ample evidence regarding the quality of experience (QoE) of cloud service [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel trust computation framework (TCF) for cloud services. Trust is computed by taking into consideration multi-dimensional quality of service (QoS) evidence and user feedback. Feedback provides ample evidence regarding the quality of experience (QoE) of cloud service users. However, in some cases, users may behave maliciously and report false feedback. Users can carry out collusion and Sybil attacks to slander/self-promote cloud services. Trust computed in such cases could be misleading and inaccurate. Evaluating the credibility of user feedback can help in not only preventing the collusion and Sybil attacks but also remunerating the affected cloud services. Despite the advantages of credibility evaluation, very few studies take into consideration feedback credibility and multi-dimensional evaluation criteria. Considering the limitations of existing studies, we propose a new TCF in which trust is computed by aggregating multi-dimensional evidence from QoS and QoE. We have used multi-dimensional QoS attributes to compute the objective trust of cloud services. The QoS attributes are divided into three dimensions, i.e., node profile, average resource consumption, and performance. The node profile of a cloud service is attributed to CPU frequency, memory size, and hard disk capacity. The average resource consumption is quantified based on the current CPU utilisation rate, current memory utilisation rate, current hard disk utilisation rate, and energy consumption. Moreover, the performance of a cloud service is measured by the average response time and task success ratio. Besides that, the credibility of feedback is evaluated to prevent the malicious behaviour of cloud users. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed TCF in computing accurate trust in cloud services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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21 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
ACE: A Routing Algorithm Based on Autonomous Channel Scheduling for Bluetooth Mesh Network
by Minyue Wang, Yeming Li, Jiamei Lv, Yi Gao, Cheng Qiao, Baiqiang Liu and Wei Dong
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010113 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) interconnects massive cyber-physical devices (CPD) to provide various applications, such as smart home and smart building. Bluetooth Mesh is an emerging networking technology, which can be used to organize a massive network with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices. [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) interconnects massive cyber-physical devices (CPD) to provide various applications, such as smart home and smart building. Bluetooth Mesh is an emerging networking technology, which can be used to organize a massive network with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices. Managed-flooding protocol is used in Bluetooth Mesh to route the data packets. Although it is a highly desirable option when data transmission is urgent, it is inefficient in a larger and denser mesh network due to the collisions of broadcast data packets. In this paper, we introduce ACE: a Routing Algorithm based on Autonomous Channel Scheduling for Bluetooth Mesh Network. ACE relies on the existing Bluetooth Mesh messages to distribute routes without additional traffic overhead and conducts a beacon-aware routing update adaptively as the topology evolves. In ACE, BLE channel resources can be efficiently utilized by a channel scheduling scheme for each node locally and autonomously without any neighborly negotiation. We implement ACE on the nRF52840 from Nordic Semiconductor and evaluate its effectiveness on our testbed. Compared to the Bluetooth Mesh, our experiments proved that ACE could reduce the end-to-end latency by 16%, alleviate packets collisions issues, and increase the packet delivery ratio (PDR) by 30% under heavy traffic. Moreover, simulation results verified that ACE has better scalability when the size and density of networks become larger and denser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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35 pages, 13685 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of 3D Steganography Techniques
by Rohit Tanwar, Urmila Pilania, Mazdak Zamani and Azizah Abdul Manaf
Electronics 2021, 10(19), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10192357 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
Steganography has become a preferred technique these days to successfully hide secret messages. Various research has been done in the past to justify and analyze suitable types of cover file, such as images, audio, videos, etc. Advancement in the image-processing domain has opened [...] Read more.
Steganography has become a preferred technique these days to successfully hide secret messages. Various research has been done in the past to justify and analyze suitable types of cover file, such as images, audio, videos, etc. Advancement in the image-processing domain has opened various possibilities of using three-dimensional (3D) images as cover files. In this paper, a systematic study of the research work done on 3D steganography in the last fifteen years has been carried out. The study is divided into different sections based on the types of algorithms used, additional security features, evaluation parameters, etc. Moreover, certain steganalysis techniques that are applicable for 3D steganography are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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Review

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22 pages, 2493 KiB  
Review
Security and Internet of Things: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Perspectives
by Hamed Taherdoost
Electronics 2023, 12(8), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12081901 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 8256
Abstract
Due to the widespread use of the Internet of Things (IoT), organizations should concentrate their efforts on system security. Any vulnerability could lead to a system failure or cyberattack, which would have a large-scale impact. IoT security is a protection strategy and defense [...] Read more.
Due to the widespread use of the Internet of Things (IoT), organizations should concentrate their efforts on system security. Any vulnerability could lead to a system failure or cyberattack, which would have a large-scale impact. IoT security is a protection strategy and defense mechanism that protects against the possibility of cyberattacks that specifically target physically linked IoT devices. IoT security teams are currently dealing with growing difficulties, such as inventories, operations, diversity, ownership, data volume, threats, etc. This review examines research on security and IoT with a focus on the situation, applications, and issues of the present as well as the potential for the future. IoT network security has received greater attention from interdisciplinary and geographically scattered researchers in recent years. Data integrity, secrecy, authentication, and authorization should be guaranteed due to the large amount of data that flows across network devices. However, the area of IoT security still has a lot of room for growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Methods for Dependable IoT Edge Applications)
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