Recent Advances and Applications in Electric Machines Design, Modelling, Control, and Operation

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2024 | Viewed by 3611

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Interests: space power systems; electric propulsion; renewable energies; power electronics; electric machines
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric machines play an important role in modern civilization with increasing applications in the electrification industry (EVs), aerospace, renewable energy systems (such as wind turbines), robotics, automation, and appliances. Each application has specific needs, with the power density, efficiency, fault tolerance, and reliability being among top features sought across different applications. To respond to the increasing needs of electric machines, research on the design, modelling, control, and operation of machines has increased in the past decade. Magnetic design, thermal analyses, new control techniques, and modelling approaches are being studied in different corners of academia and industry.

We have organized this Special Issue to cover all aspects of electric machines, including but not limited to:

  • Design, modelling, control, and operation of electric machines covering all types including induction machines, permanent magnet machines, switch reluctance machines, hybrid machines, and multiphase machines.
  • A wide range of applications, including renewable energy systems (wind turbines), power systems (synchronous generators), hybrid- and all-electric aircrafts, robotics and automation, and appliances.
  • Studies of electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical aspects of electric machines as well as packaging and manufacturing.
  • We are seeking both original research as well as review papers.

Dr. Omid Beik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • control of electric machines
  • electric machine design
  • PM machine
  • PMSM
  • synchronous generators
  • wind turbine generators
  • aerospace machines
  • drives

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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28 pages, 12207 KiB  
Article
Analysis of DC-Link Low-Frequency Current Harmonics in Multi-Source Multi-Three-Phase Electric Drives
by Yiyu Lai, Antoine Cizeron, Adrien Voldoire, Javier Ojeda and Olivier Béthoux
Electronics 2024, 13(12), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13122236 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 309
Abstract
In a multi-source permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive, three distinct winding structures can be implemented: multi-sector, multi-three-phase, and highly coupled. However, due to variations in the magnetic coupling between windings, their low-frequency DC-link current ripple components differ. This paper presents a method [...] Read more.
In a multi-source permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive, three distinct winding structures can be implemented: multi-sector, multi-three-phase, and highly coupled. However, due to variations in the magnetic coupling between windings, their low-frequency DC-link current ripple components differ. This paper presents a method to identify the phenomena associated with each low-frequency harmonic content. Three analytical models are developed for the DC current ripple induced by unbalanced winding, counter-electromotive force (back-EMF) harmonics and aliasing effects, respectively, with the results validated through simulations. Experimental validation is conducted for highly coupled winding drives, demonstrating agreement with the analytical models and simulations. The maximum DC current ripple ratio found in the analytical model, the simulation and the experiments is less than 15%, which is deemed acceptable for motor drive applications. Full article
16 pages, 7757 KiB  
Article
Novel Structure of Shield Ring to Reduce Shaft Voltage and Improve Cooling Performance of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
by Jun-Kyu Kang, Jun-Hyeok Heo, Su-Hwan Kim and Jin Hur
Electronics 2024, 13(8), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13081535 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The voltage of the battery system is increased to increase the efficiency of the electric motor drive system. Additionally, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is used to ensure high controllability. However, high-voltage and high-speed PWM switching controls for system efficiency [...] Read more.
The voltage of the battery system is increased to increase the efficiency of the electric motor drive system. Additionally, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is used to ensure high controllability. However, high-voltage and high-speed PWM switching controls for system efficiency generate high common mode voltage (CMV), and shaft voltage is induced in the bearing. This results in a shortened bearing life and potential damage. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to reduce the shaft voltage of the motor through a novel hybrid shield ring structure. It also analyzes how to improve the cooling performance of the motor using a shield ring. First, the parasitic capacitance inside the motor is analyzed. Then, the shaft voltage reduction technology is analyzed according to the material of the shield ring. Finally, experiments validate the proposed method. Additionally, the temperature characteristics of the main part of the motor are analyzed through an experiment in consideration of the shield ring. Full article
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21 pages, 3762 KiB  
Article
MW-Scale High-Voltage Direct-Current Power Conversion for Large-Spacecraft Electric Propulsion
by Ghazaleh Sarfi and Omid Beik
Electronics 2024, 13(8), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13081455 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
This paper proposes a megawatt (MW)-scale high-voltage (HV) electrical power-conversion element for large-spacecraft electric propulsion (EP) systems. The proposed scheme is intended for long-term and crewed missions, and it is driven by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) that acts as a heat source. [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a megawatt (MW)-scale high-voltage (HV) electrical power-conversion element for large-spacecraft electric propulsion (EP) systems. The proposed scheme is intended for long-term and crewed missions, and it is driven by a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) that acts as a heat source. The scheme includes (i) A two-rotor generator (TRG), (ii) A rectification stage, and (iii) An isolated dual output DC-DC (iDC2) converter. The TRG is a high-reliability electric machine with two rotors, a permanent magnet rotor (PMR), and a wound field rotor (WFR). The PMR has a fixed flux and hence back-EMF, while the back-EMF due to the WFR is controlled by injecting a direct current (DC) into the WFR winding. The total TRG output voltage, which is the sum of voltages due to the PMR and WFR, is controlled over a prescribed region of spacecraft operation. The output of the TRG is rectified and connected to the input of the iDC2 converter. The iDC2 converter uses a three-winding transformer, where the primary winding is fed from the rectified output of TRG, the secondary winding processes the propulsion power to an electric thruster via a high-voltage DC (HVDC) link and a tertiary winding that is connected to the spacecraft’s low-voltage DC (LVDC) power system. Three controllers are proposed for the system: an HVDC voltage controller, an HVDC current controller that controls the voltage and current processed to the thruster, and an LVDC controller that adjusts the current to the LVDC system. Detailed analytical models for the TRG, iDC2 converter, and controllers are developed and verified via simulations under different conditions. The analytical studies are further validated via results from a laboratory prototype. Full article
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25 pages, 10796 KiB  
Article
Novel Magnetic Field Modeling Method for a Low-Speed, High-Torque External-Rotor Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
by Shaokai Kou, Ziming Kou, Juan Wu and Yandong Wang
Electronics 2023, 12(24), 5025; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12245025 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
In view of the unstable electromagnetic performance of the air gap magnetic field caused by the torque ripple and harmonic interference of a multi-slot and multi-pole low-speed, high-torque permanent magnet synchronous motor, we propose a simplified model of double-layer permanent magnets. The model [...] Read more.
In view of the unstable electromagnetic performance of the air gap magnetic field caused by the torque ripple and harmonic interference of a multi-slot and multi-pole low-speed, high-torque permanent magnet synchronous motor, we propose a simplified model of double-layer permanent magnets. The model is divided into an upper and a lower subdomain, with the upper subdomain being an ideal circular ring and the lower subdomain being a segmented sector ring. Moreover, we develop an exact analytical model of the motor that predicts the magnetic field distribution based on Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations, which is solved using the method of separating variables. Taking a 40p168s low-speed, high-torque permanent magnet synchronous motor as an example, the accuracy of the model is verified by comparison with an ideal circular ring model, a segmented sector ring model, and the finite element method. Based on the proposed simplified model, three combined permanent magnets considering both edge-cutting and polar arc cutting structures are proposed, which are chamfered, rounded, and rectangular combinations. Under the premise of a consistent edge-cutting amount, the electromagnetic characteristics of the three combination types of permanent magnets are compared using the finite element method. The results show that the electromagnetic characteristics of the chamfered combination PM are superior to those of the other two combinations. Finally, a prototype is manufactured and tested to validate the theoretical analysis. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 3298 KiB  
Review
A Review of Carbon Emissions from Electrical Machine Materials
by Xuebei Zhang, David Gerada, Zeyuan Xu, Fengyu Zhang and Chris Gerada
Electronics 2024, 13(9), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091714 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 790
Abstract
As the world embarks on a global mission to tackle climate change, reducing carbon represents a key challenge given the escalating global warming. The U.K. is among many other nations that are determined to decarbonise all sectors and strive to achieve a net [...] Read more.
As the world embarks on a global mission to tackle climate change, reducing carbon represents a key challenge given the escalating global warming. The U.K. is among many other nations that are determined to decarbonise all sectors and strive to achieve a net zero carbon target by 2050. While much attention has been paid to improving performance and reducing carbon emissions in electrical machines, the current research landscape focuses mainly on the thermal and electromagnetic facets. Surprisingly, carbon emissions from the production stage, especially those related to raw material consumption, remain a largely unexplored area. This paper wishes to shed light on a neglected dimension by providing a comprehensive review of carbon emissions in the manufacture of electrical machines, thus contributing significantly to the wider discourse on carbon emission reduction by comparing the carbon emission values associated with various materials commonly used for the main components of these machines. A further case study is included to assess and explore the impact of material alterations on a synchronous machine, from a carbon emission perspective. A reliable material guide will provide engineers at the design stage with the critical insight needed to make informed material selection decisions, highlighting the critical role of carbon emission values beyond conventional thermal and electromagnetic considerations, achieving sustainable and environmentally conscious electrical machine design. Full article
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