Special Issue "Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andrea Scribante
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry – Section of Dentistry - Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences – University of Pavia – Italy
Interests: orthodontics; adhesive dentistry; dental materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary function of human dentition is efficient chewing. Healthy teeth enable correct food consumption. The first step in the stairway leading to oral health is dental hygiene and oral disease prevention. Several preventive strategies for dental and periodontal diseases are available. These include, oral hygiene motivation, plaque removal, diet modification and the use of fluorides and tooth sealants.

Oral hygiene is very crucial for all disciplines of dentistry; good oral hygiene is important for prosthodontic patients, surgical patients, pediatric patients, restorative patients, and orthodontic patients. Additionally, aesthetic aspect is closely related to dental hygienist work, and this is confirmed from the increasing request for whitening treatments.

Oral Epidemiology allows the analysis of the causes and effects of oral disease conditions by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiology research could help clinicians in the understanding of disease causation, investigation and surveillance. Moreover, screening, forensic, occupational, and biomonitoring aspects are regarded.

Moreover, the introduction of new technologies and techniques open new fields of research in the field of dental hygiene, both in vitro and in vivo.

On the basis of these considerations, Dentistry is preparing Special Issue focused on “Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology”. We invite investigators and researchers to contribute with original research articles, clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and meta-analyses that would help to understand the background of oral hygiene related diseases, their interactions with other disciplines, and the development of new strategies to improve clinical success.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following research areas:

  • Periodontal disease
  • Plaque composition
  • Plaque removal
  • Prevention
  • Teaching
  • Diet supplementation
  • Brushing techniques
  • Laser-assisted treatments
  • Fluoride
  • Sealants
  • Oral hygiene control in prosthodontic patients
  • Oral hygiene control in surgical patients
  • Oral hygiene control in pediatric patients
  • Oral hygiene control in restorative patients
  • Oral hygiene control in orthodontic patients
  • Whitening systems

Prof. Dr. Andrea Scribante
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dentistry
  • oral hygiene
  • epidemiology
  • prophylaxis and treatment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Oral Health in Women with a History of High Gestational Diabetes Risk
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7030092 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
We studied oral health in 115 women with and without a history of gestational diabetes (GDM), expecting poorer oral health in the GDM group. Full-mouth examinations were performed 5 years postpartum and the number of teeth, total dental index (TDI) and decayed, missing, [...] Read more.
We studied oral health in 115 women with and without a history of gestational diabetes (GDM), expecting poorer oral health in the GDM group. Full-mouth examinations were performed 5 years postpartum and the number of teeth, total dental index (TDI) and decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index were calculated. Bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), visible plaque index (VPI), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. The periodontal inflammatory burden index (PIBI) was calculated. Panoramic radiographs were taken and signs of infections recorded. Oral health habits, symptoms and participants’ own opinion of oral health were recorded with questionnaires. At the time of examination, 45% of the women had a history of GDM in the index pregnancy. Mild periodontitis (62%) and bleeding on probing (46%) were common. VPI (13% and 17%, p = 0.009) and PIBI (13.1 and 17.5, p = 0.041) were lower among women with a history of GDM compared with those with no history of GDM. There was no difference between groups in DMFT scores. All women reported good subjective oral health. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, women with a history of GDM showed better oral health parameters than women without a history of GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Eating Behaviors and Symptoms of Oral Frailty Using Questionnaires
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7030066 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate eating behavior and the subjective symptoms of oral frailty, and to examine the relationship between them. A total of 744 subjects with ages over 65 years were included. The questionnaire comprised 18 question items indicating eating [...] Read more.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate eating behavior and the subjective symptoms of oral frailty, and to examine the relationship between them. A total of 744 subjects with ages over 65 years were included. The questionnaire comprised 18 question items indicating eating behavior and seven question items indicating oral frailty. All items were assessed according to 4 grades on a scale of 1 (not applicable) to 4 (applicable). The total score of oral frailty gradually increased with age. Regarding the scores for “eating recognition” and “eating habits”, no changes were observed, however the scores for “eating action” demonstrated a decreasing tendency with age and the scores of ≥ 85 years age group was significantly lower than the 65–69, 70–74, and 75–79 years age groups. As a result of multiple regression analysis, among the significant independent variable, the scores of “I do not chew foods well” under the category of “eating action” showed the highest standard partial regression coefficients for dependent variable of symptoms of oral frailty. The significant association was found between the eating behavior and subjective symptoms of oral frailty, and this study suggests that the good chewing habit might be an important criterion for the prevention of oral frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Childhood Caries in 3 to 5 Year Old Children in Trinidad and Tobago
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010016 - 07 Feb 2019
Abstract
Background: This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and contributory factors of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) among preschool children of Kindergartens and Early Childhood Centres in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 342 [...] Read more.
Background: This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and contributory factors of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) among preschool children of Kindergartens and Early Childhood Centres in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 342 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. The school staff distributed a structured questionnaire to the children to be completed by the mother. Clinical examinations were conducted by calibrated examiners. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 in all analyses. Results: The prevalence of ECC and S-ECC was 50.3% and 52.3%, respectively. Dietary and oral hygiene factors particularly with bottle feeding and high plaque levels were major contributors to dental caries in this population. Conclusion: ECC and S-ECC are significant issues that occur in preschool children in Trinidad and Tobago. The development of ECC and S-ECC can be attributed to certain environmental factors like dietary habits and oral hygiene practices. Early dental assessment, broad-based oral health education programmes, increased parental/guardian engagement during oral hygiene practices and greater access to facilities for early childhood caries prevention and management can help alleviate the problems of ECC and S-ECC in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Two Assessment Tests for Oral Hygiene: Adenosine Triphosphate + Adenosine Monophosphate Swab Test and Bacteria Number Counting by Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010010 - 01 Feb 2019
Abstract
Objective assessments of oral hygiene are important to prevent oral and systemic diseases. Two objective assessment tests are available to assess oral hygiene; (1) the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) + adenosine monophosphate (AMP) swab test, which incorporates a luciferase assay and (2) a bacteria [...] Read more.
Objective assessments of oral hygiene are important to prevent oral and systemic diseases. Two objective assessment tests are available to assess oral hygiene; (1) the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) + adenosine monophosphate (AMP) swab test, which incorporates a luciferase assay and (2) a bacteria count using the dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. In this study, we compared the two tests using a subjective visual assessment by professional clinicians and investigated the clinical significance of these tests. Twenty-seven young participants (mean age 26.3 ± 3.2 years) and twenty-seven older participants (mean age 75.1 ± 5.9 years) were recruited. Oral bacteria were sampled from three areas, including the tongue dorsum, the buccal mucosa, and the faucal mucosa, and saliva was obtained using a cotton swab. The amount of ATP + AMP and the number of bacteria were measured by each specific apparatus. Additionally, one examiner assessed the overall condition of oral hygiene using the visual analog scale (VAS). In the ATP + AMP swab test, the means were highest in saliva. For the bacteria count, the means were higher in the tongue dorsum and saliva and lower in the faucal and buccal mucosa. The results of the subjective assessment of oral hygiene indicated that the VAS-value was 3.78 ± 0.97 for the young group and 3.35 ± 0.81 for the older group. No significant difference was observed between the two groups. Additionally, no significant relationship between the values of the ATP + AMP swab test and the bacteria count was found for any of the four sample sites. In the older group, the subjective assessment of oral hygiene was significantly correlated with the values of the ATP + AMP swab test (multiple correlation coefficient = 0.723, p = 0.002). In conclusion, the values provided by the ATP + AMP swab test were not always correlated to the bacteria count. The results of this study suggest that the subjective assessment of oral hygiene was more highly correlated with the results of the ATP + AMP swab test, as compared to the bacterial count assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Association between Tooth Loss and Alzheimer’s Disease: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Case Control Studies
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020049 - 01 May 2019
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is classified as a neurodegenerative condition, a heterogeneous group of illnesses characterized by the slow and progressive loss of one or more functions of the nervous system. Its incidence tends to increase gradually from 65 years of age, up to a [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is classified as a neurodegenerative condition, a heterogeneous group of illnesses characterized by the slow and progressive loss of one or more functions of the nervous system. Its incidence tends to increase gradually from 65 years of age, up to a prevalence of 4% at age 75. The loss of dental elements is more prevalent in this population and might negatively affect the masticatory capacity, quality of life, and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study investigated problems related to oral health and the loss of dental elements in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer’s and considered whether local inflammatory processes could affect the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a link between the causes leading to tooth loss and the onset/progression of Alzheimer’s disease. We also studied whether there is a higher incidence of tooth loss (primary outcome) and edentulism (secondary outcome) among Alzheimer’s patients. We searched records in electronic databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science using the following keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease AND periodontal, Alzheimer’s Disease AND periodontitis, dementia AND (periodontitis OR periodontal) “Alzheimer’s Disease” AND “tooth” OR “dental loss,” “dementia” AND “edentulous,” “Alzheimer’s Disease” AND “edentulous,” “dementia” AND “tooth” OR “dental loss.” The records were screened, and after applying the eligibility and inclusion criteria, nine articles were left, six of which were analyzed for the primary outcome (loss of dental elements) and six for the secondary outcome (tooth loss). Results from this meta-analysis revealed that Alzheimer’s disease patients have an increased risk of dental loss (hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30, p = 0.05) and edentulous condition (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.70–3.01, p < 0.001). A quantitative analysis of the included studies indicated that patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease are characterized by a greater number of lost dental elements and general edentulism compared to the control groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Cranberry Polyphenols: Natural Weapons against Dental Caries
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010020 - 01 Mar 2019
Abstract
Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such [...] Read more.
Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such as bacterial acidogenicity, aciduricity, glucan synthesis, and hydrophobicity. Cranberry phenols have the ability to disrupt these cariogenic virulence properties without being bactericidal, a key quality essential for retaining the benefits of the symbiotic resident oral microbiome and preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. This review discusses the cariostatic mechanisms of specific cranberry phytochemicals and their potential use as therapeutic agents against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention and control of dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
Open AccessReview
Oral White Lesions: An Updated Clinical Diagnostic Decision Tree
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010015 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Diagnosis of oral white lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral white lesions according to their clinical features. General search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and [...] Read more.
Diagnosis of oral white lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral white lesions according to their clinical features. General search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as “mouth disease”, “oral keratosis”, “oral leukokeratosis”, and “oral leukoplakia”. Related English-language articles published since 2000 to 2017, including reviews, meta-analyses, and original papers (randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials; prospective or retrospective cohort studies), case reports, and case series about oral diseases were appraised. Upon compilation of data, oral white lesions were categorized into two major groups according to their nature of development: Congenital or acquired lesions and four subgroups: Lesions which can be scraped off or not and lesions with the special pattern or not. In total, more than 20 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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