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The Survey of Cells Responsible for Heterotopic Ossification Development in Skeletal Muscles—Human and Mouse Models

1
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Lindley 4 St, 02-005 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Cytology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 St, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equaly to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061324
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 26 May 2020
Heterotopic ossification (HO) manifests as bone development in the skeletal muscles and surrounding soft tissues. It can be caused by injury, surgery, or may have a genetic background. In each case, its development might differ, and depending on the age, sex, and patient’s conditions, it could lead to a more or a less severe outcome. In the case of the injury or surgery provoked ossification development, it could be, to some extent, prevented by treatments. As far as genetic disorders are concerned, such prevention approaches are highly limited. Many lines of evidence point to the inflammatory process and abnormalities in the bone morphogenetic factor signaling pathway as the molecular and cellular backgrounds for HO development. However, the clear targets allowing the design of treatments preventing or lowering HO have not been identified yet. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on HO types, its symptoms, and possible ways of prevention and treatment. We also describe the molecules and cells in which abnormal function could lead to HO development. We emphasize the studies involving animal models of HO as being of great importance for understanding and future designing of the tools to counteract this pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: muscles; heterotopic ossification; skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cells; HO precursors muscles; heterotopic ossification; skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cells; HO precursors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pulik, Ł.; Mierzejewski, B.; Ciemerych, M.A.; Brzóska, E.; Łęgosz, P. The Survey of Cells Responsible for Heterotopic Ossification Development in Skeletal Muscles—Human and Mouse Models. Cells 2020, 9, 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061324

AMA Style

Pulik Ł, Mierzejewski B, Ciemerych MA, Brzóska E, Łęgosz P. The Survey of Cells Responsible for Heterotopic Ossification Development in Skeletal Muscles—Human and Mouse Models. Cells. 2020; 9(6):1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pulik, Łukasz; Mierzejewski, Bartosz; Ciemerych, Maria A.; Brzóska, Edyta; Łęgosz, Paweł. 2020. "The Survey of Cells Responsible for Heterotopic Ossification Development in Skeletal Muscles—Human and Mouse Models" Cells 9, no. 6: 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061324

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