Special Issue "Thyroid Cancer: Focus on Invasion and Metastasis Mechanisms, Therapeutic Target and Drug Treatment"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Therapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 4790

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vasko Vasyl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, USA
Interests: thyroid cancer; oncogenes; cell signaling; liquid biopsy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thyroid cancer patients presenting with distant metastases have a poor prognosis. The life expectancy for thyroid cancer patients with persistent disease is reduced to 60% of that of the general population. Characterization of molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer invasion and metastatic progression, as well as identification of factors contributing to thyroid cancer resistance to therapy, is important for the development of new therapeutic options.

Currently, the genetic basis of thyroid cancer is studied at the scale of the whole genome. However, the complexity of thyroid cancer cell biology underlies the difficulties in the implementation of novel treatment into clinical practice. Therefore, there is a clear need to pursue research that will help to build a better foundation for the development of novel therapies.

In this topic, we encourage the submission of research papers focusing on novel ideas, new technologies, and innovative approaches, which will increase our understanding of thyroid cancer invasion and metastatic progression and allow personalized therapy to be implemented in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.

Dr. Vasko Vasyl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thyroid cancer
  • metastasis
  • genotyping
  • cell signaling
  • targeted therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
TROP-2, Nectin-4, GPNMB, and B7-H3 Are Potentially Therapeutic Targets for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030579 - 24 Jan 2022
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Abstract
Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive thyroid tumor with a poor prognosis. However, there are limited choices for ATC treatment. Recently, the effectiveness of antibody–drug conjugates has been demonstrated in various carcinomas. Whether the targets of antibody–drug conjugates are expressed [...] Read more.
Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive thyroid tumor with a poor prognosis. However, there are limited choices for ATC treatment. Recently, the effectiveness of antibody–drug conjugates has been demonstrated in various carcinomas. Whether the targets of antibody–drug conjugates are expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma remains unclear. Methods: Fifty-four patients with ATC were enrolled in this study. Tissue microarrays were constructed using the archives of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. All sections were stained with the following antibody–drug conjugate targets: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), nectin-4, trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP-2), glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB), and B7-H3. Results: HER2 was negative in all tissues, whereas GPNMB and B7-H3 were expressed in most ATC tissues. TROP-2 and nectin-4 were expressed in 65% and 59% of ATC tissues, respectively. TROP-2 was expressed at significantly higher levels in ATC undifferentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma than in ATC undifferentiated from follicular thyroid carcinoma and de novo ATC. In contrast, nectin-4 expression was markedly higher in patients with de novo ATC than in those with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions: TROP-2 and nectin-4 are potential therapeutic targets for ATC undifferentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma and de novo ATC, respectively. GPNMB and B7-H3 potential for treating all types of ATC. Full article
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Article
TNF-α May Exert Different Antitumor Effects in Response to Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Papillary Thyroid Cancer with/without Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Cancers 2021, 13(14), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143609 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) may impair radioiodine (131I) uptake in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Finding the mechanisms that govern immune cells during 131I therapy of PTC with concomitant AIT (PTC + AIT) could provide a rationale. Our study aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) may impair radioiodine (131I) uptake in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Finding the mechanisms that govern immune cells during 131I therapy of PTC with concomitant AIT (PTC + AIT) could provide a rationale. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of 131I on anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor TIMP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, in PTC and PTC + AIT patients. Peripheral blood was collected from 56 female patients with PTC and 32 with PTC + AIT before and 4 days after 131I (3.7 GBq). The serum levels of TgAb, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 were measured by ELISA. The mean radioactivity of blood samples collected after 131I intake was higher in the PTC + AIT group than in PTC (p < 0.001). In the PTC + AIT group, TNF-α/TNFR1 and TNF-α/TNFR2 ratios decreased by 0.38-fold and 0.32-fold after 131I and were positively correlated with the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (r = 0.48, p = 0.005, and r = 0.46, p = 0.007). In the PTC group, TNF-α/TNFR1 and TNF-α/TNFR2 ratios increased by 3.17-fold and 3.33-fold and were negatively correlated with the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (r = −0.62, p < 0.001 and r = −0.58, p < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that TNF-α may exert different antitumor effects in response to 131I therapy depending on the patient’s immune profile. Full article
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Article
The Prognostic Role of Postablative Non-Stimulated Thyroglobulin in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020310 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is the most important tumor marker in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic roles of postoperative stimulated and postablative lowest, highest, and one-year non-stimulated Tg values obtained during the follow-up of [...] Read more.
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is the most important tumor marker in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic roles of postoperative stimulated and postablative lowest, highest, and one-year non-stimulated Tg values obtained during the follow-up of patients with DTC. In this retrospective study, 222 radioiodine-treated, anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-negative DTC patients having at least 9 months’ follow-up time were included (172 papillary and 50 follicular cancers; median age: 48 (from 15 to 91) years; female–male ratio: 158/64; median (quartiles) follow-up time: 54 (22–97) months). The 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines were applied as criteria of the therapeutic response. Postoperative stimulated Tg values had significantly lower diagnostic accuracy than any of the non-stimulated postablative Tg values. One-year non-stimulated Tg had excellent prognostic value for structural disease: a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/mL had an 88.1% diagnostic accuracy. If the Tg value did not decrease below 0.75 ng/mL at any time during follow-up, the risk of residual disease was 25 times higher. The highest non-stimulated Tg during follow-up was the best predictor of residual disease (e.g., a Tg value exceeding 7.7 ng/mL indicated a 30-fold increase in risk). Non-stimulated Tg values measured during follow-up have excellent diagnostic accuracy to predict structural disease in DTC patients. The risk classification of a patient can safely be modified based on even a single Tg measurement. Full article
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Review

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Review
Impaired Glucose Metabolism, Anti-Diabetes Medications, and Risk of Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030555 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity is progressively increasing along with the potential high risk for insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is associated with increased risk of many malignancies, and hyperinsulinemia has been proposed to be a link between obesity [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity is progressively increasing along with the potential high risk for insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is associated with increased risk of many malignancies, and hyperinsulinemia has been proposed to be a link between obesity and cancer development. The incidence of thyroid cancer is also increasing, making this cancer the most common endocrine malignancy. There is some evidence of associations between obesity, insulin resistance and/or diabetes with thyroid proliferative disorders, including thyroid cancer. However, the etiology of such an association has not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present work is to review the current knowledge on crosstalk between thyroid and glucose metabolic pathways and the effects of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and anti-hyperglycemic medications on the risk of thyroid cancer development. Full article
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Other

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Commentary
Calcium Signaling in the Thyroid: Friend and Foe
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13091994 - 21 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Calcium signaling participates in a vast number of cellular processes, ranging from the regulation of muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and mitochondrial function, to the regulation of the membrane potential in cells. The actions of calcium signaling are, thus, of great physiological significance for [...] Read more.
Calcium signaling participates in a vast number of cellular processes, ranging from the regulation of muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and mitochondrial function, to the regulation of the membrane potential in cells. The actions of calcium signaling are, thus, of great physiological significance for the normal functioning of our cells. However, many of the processes that are regulated by calcium, including cell movement and proliferation, are important in the progression of cancer. In the normal thyroid, calcium signaling plays an important role, and evidence is also being gathered showing that calcium signaling participates in the progression of thyroid cancer. This review will summarize what we know in regard to calcium signaling in the normal thyroid as, well as in thyroid cancer. Full article
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