Special Issue "Advanced Image-Guided Robotic Technology Based Radiosurgery for Cancers"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Cancer Therapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 10281

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alexander Muacevic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
European CyberKnife Center, University of Munich Hospitals, Munich, Germany
Interests: radiosurgery; image guidance; robotic radiation; renal cell cancer; uveal melanoma; vestibular schwannoma

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective and efficient cancer treatment. It is positioned in between surgery and conventional radiotherapy, and might replace more cumbersome traditional procedures like invasive surgery or long-lasting radiation treatments. The latest technological innovation is regarded to be image-guided robotic SRS, which is dependent on a state-of-the-art technical equipment and a dedicated training program for physicians and medical physicists to achieve best possible medical results. The development of high-resolution imaging for precise SRS treatment planning, paired with computing technology interacting with medical robots, has accelerated, increasing the accuracy of beam delivery techniques, helping to apply treatment doses with sub-millimeter accuracy. Many tumors can now be treated with dedicated SRS techniques, and recent studies show promising results for a variety of tumors from brain to spine and even for organs that move like tumors in the lung or the renal glands. As a consequence, a high disease control and quality of life for patients can often be achieved.

In this Special Issue, we aim to stimulate the global research community to submit their best data on SRS applications to further enhance our knowledge and improve our SRS outcomes throughout all parts of the body. Clinical trials are the best way to do this, as the most modern machines will always depend on knowledgeable physicians who can transform their experience into safe and effective treatment applications.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish or review research related to contemporary radiosurgery and future advances.

Prof. Dr. Alexander Muacevic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • robotic radiosurgery
  • image guidance
  • SRS
  • stereotactic radiosurgery
  • SBRT

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Reirradiation of Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer with Cyberknife® System or Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and IGRT-Clarity®: Outcomes, Toxicities and Dosimetric Evaluation
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3187; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133187 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The management of prostate cancer recurrence following external beam radiotherapy is not defined yet. Stereotaxic body reirradiation therapy showed encouraging results for local and biochemical control. From April 2017 to December 2020, 29 patients with prostate cancer recurrence were collected, joining the retrospective [...] Read more.
The management of prostate cancer recurrence following external beam radiotherapy is not defined yet. Stereotaxic body reirradiation therapy showed encouraging results for local and biochemical control. From April 2017 to December 2020, 29 patients with prostate cancer recurrence were collected, joining the retrospective studies CyPro (prot. 46/19 OSS) and CLARO (Prot. 19/20 OSS) trials. Patients received Cyberknife® treatment (17 pts) or alternatively VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Technique) therapy by IGRT (Image-Guided Radiation Therapy)/Clarity® (12 pts). By comparing the reirradiation of two groups, urinary (GU), rectal (GI) toxicities, and biochemical control were investigated. Further, the two techniques were dosimetrically compared by rival plans. The VMAT-IGRT Clarity® treatments were replanned with an optimized template developed for prostate VMAT-SBRT in FFF mode keeping the same dose and fractionation scheduled for Cyberknife Group (30 Gy in 5 fx, at 80% isodose). In the CK group, 23% of patients experienced grade 2 acute GU, while 6% grade 2 acute GI. In the VMAT-Clarity® group, acute GU toxicity was recorded in 17%, while for 8% grade 2 late toxicity was recorded. The dosimetric analysis shows that the VMAT-FFF allows to deliver a biological equivalent dose to CK, with the advantage of reducing the likelihood of toxicities arising. Full article
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Article
Oncologic Outcome and Immune Responses of Radiotherapy with Anti-PD-1 Treatment for Brain Metastases Regarding Timing and Benefiting Subgroups
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051240 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) are widely used for patients with brain metastasis (BM), markers that predict treatment response for combined RT and ICI (RT-ICI) and their optimal dosing and sequence for the best immunogenic effects are still [...] Read more.
While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) are widely used for patients with brain metastasis (BM), markers that predict treatment response for combined RT and ICI (RT-ICI) and their optimal dosing and sequence for the best immunogenic effects are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for therapeutic outcome and to compare effects of concurrent and non-concurrent RT-ICI. We retrospectively analyzed data of 93 patients with 319 BMs of different cancer types who received PD-1 inhibitors and RT at the University Hospital Cologne between September/2014 and November/2020. Primary study endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC). We included 66.7% melanoma, 22.8% lung, and 5.5% other cancer types with a mean follow-up time of 23.8 months. Median OS time was 12.19 months. LC at 6 months was 95.3% (concurrent) vs. 69.2% (non-concurrent; p = 0.008). Univariate Cox regression analysis detected following prognostic factors for OS: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio NLR favoring <3 (low; HR 2.037 (1.184–3.506), p = 0.010), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) favoring ≤ULN (HR 1.853 (1.059–3.241), p = 0.031), absence of neurological symptoms (HR 2.114 (1.285–3.478), p = 0.003), RT concept favoring SRS (HR 1.985 (1.112–3.543), p = 0.019), RT dose favoring ≥60 Gy (HR 0.519 (0.309–0.871), p = 0.013), and prior anti-CTLA4 treatment (HR 0.498 (0.271–0.914), p = 0.024). Independent prognostic factors for OS were concurrent RT-ICI application (HR 0.539 (0.299–0.971), p = 0.024) with a median OS of 17.61 vs. 6.83 months (non-concurrent), ECOG performance status favoring 0 (HR 7.756 (1.253–6.061), p = 0.012), cancer type favoring melanoma (HR 0.516 (0.288–0.926), p = 0.026), BM volume (PTV) favoring ≤3 cm3 (HR 1.947 (1.007–3.763), p = 0.048). Subgroups with the following factors showed significantly longer OS when being treated concurrently: RT dose <60 Gy (p = 0.014), PTV > 3 cm3 (p = 0.007), other cancer types than melanoma (p = 0.006), anti-CTLA4-naïve patients (p < 0.001), low NLR (p = 0.039), steroid intake ≤4 mg (p = 0.042). Specific immune responses, such as abscopal effects (AbEs), pseudoprogression (PsP), or immune-related adverse events (IrAEs), occurred more frequently with concurrent RT-ICI and resulted in better OS. Other toxicities, including radionecrosis, were not statistically different in both groups. The concurrent application of RT and ICI, the ECOG-PS, cancer type, and PTV had an independently prognostic impact on OS. In concurrently treated patients, treatment response (LC) was delayed and specific immune responses (AbE, PsP, IrAE) occurred more frequently with longer OS rates. Our results suggest that concurrent RT-ICI application is more beneficial than sequential treatment in patients with low pretreatment inflammatory status, more and larger BMs, and with other cancer types than melanoma. Full article
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Article
Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Anticoagulant Therapy Undergoing Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: A Bi-Institutional Analysis
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030465 - 18 Jan 2022
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Abstract
Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established treatment modality for brain metastases (BM). Given the manifold implications of metastatic cancer on the body, affected patients have an increased risk of comorbidities, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary [...] Read more.
Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established treatment modality for brain metastases (BM). Given the manifold implications of metastatic cancer on the body, affected patients have an increased risk of comorbidities, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). These may require therapeutic anticoagulant therapy (ACT). Limited data are available on the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after SRS for patients with BM who are receiving ACT. This bi-institutional analysis aimed to describe the bleeding risk for this patient subgroup. Methods: Patients with ACT at the time of single-fraction SRS for BM from two institutions were eligible for analysis. The cumulative incidence of ICH with death as a competing event was assessed during follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Results: Forty-one patients with 97 BM were included in the analyses. The median follow-up was 8.2 months (range: 1.7–77.5 months). The median and mean BM volumes were 0.47 and 1.19 cubic centimeters, respectively. The most common reasons for ACT were PE (41%), AF (34%), and DVT (7%). The ACT was mostly performed utilizing phenprocoumon (37%), novel oral anticoagulants (32%), or low-molecular-weight heparin (20%). Nine BM from a group of five patients with ICH after SRS were identified: none of them caused neurological or any other deficits. The 6-, 12-, and 18-month cumulative bleeding incidences per metastasis were 2.1%, 12.4%, and 12.4%, respectively. The metastases with previous bleeding events and those originating from malignant melanomas were found to more frequently demonstrate ICH after SRS (p = 0.02, p = 0.01). No surgical or medical intervention was necessary for ICH management, and no observed death was associated with an ICH. Conclusion: Patients receiving an ACT and single-fraction SRS for small- to medium-sized BM did not seem to have a clinically relevant risk of ICH. Previous bleeding and metastases originating from a malignant melanoma may favor bleeding events after SRS. Further studies are needed to validate our reported findings. Full article
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Communication
Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Lung Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma—A Retrospective, Single Center Analysis
Cancers 2022, 14(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020356 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent site of metastases in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Metastases directed treatment remains an important treatment option despite advances in systemic therapies. However, the safety and efficacy of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) for the treatment of lung metastases of [...] Read more.
Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent site of metastases in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Metastases directed treatment remains an important treatment option despite advances in systemic therapies. However, the safety and efficacy of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) for the treatment of lung metastases of RCC remains unclear. Patients with metastatic RCC and lung metastases treated by RRS were retrospectively analyzed for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local recurrence free survival (LRFS) and adverse events. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for survival analysis and the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE; Version 5.0) classification for assessment of adverse events. A total of 50 patients were included in this study. Median age was 64 (range 45–92) years at the time of RRS. Prior to RRS, 20 patients (40.0%) had received either tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immunotherapy and 27 patients (54.0%) were treatment naïve. In our patient cohort, the median PFS was 13 months (range: 2–93). LRFS was 96.7% after two years with only one patient revealing progressive disease of the treated metastases 13 months after RRS. Median OS was 35 months (range 2–94). Adverse events were documented in six patients (12%) and were limited to grade 2. Fatigue (n = 4) and pneumonitis (n = 2) were observed within 3 months after RRS. In conclusion, RRS is safe and effective for patients with metastatic RCC and pulmonary metastases. Radiation induced pneumonitis is specific in the treatment of pulmonary lesions, but not clinically relevant and survival rates seem favorable in this highly selected patient cohort. Future directions are the implementation of RRS in multimodal treatment approaches for oligometastatic or oligoprogressive disease. Full article
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Article
The Role of Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Management of Foramen Magnum Meningiomas—A Multicenter Analysis and Review of the Literature
Cancers 2022, 14(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020341 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) represent a considerable neurosurgical challenge given their location and potential morbidity. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established non-invasive treatment modality for various benign and malignant brain tumors. However, reports on single-session or multisession SRS for the management and [...] Read more.
Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) represent a considerable neurosurgical challenge given their location and potential morbidity. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established non-invasive treatment modality for various benign and malignant brain tumors. However, reports on single-session or multisession SRS for the management and treatment of FMMs are exceedingly rare. We report the largest FMM SRS series to date and describe our multicenter treatment experience utilizing robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Patients who underwent SRS between 2005 and 2020 as a treatment for a FMM at six different centers were eligible for analysis. Results: Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 28.9 months. The median prescription dose and isodose line were 14 Gy and 70%, respectively. Single-session SRS accounted for 81% of treatments. The remaining patients received three to five fractions, with doses ranging from 19.5 to 25 Gy. Ten (16%) patients were treated for a tumor recurrence after surgery, and thirteen (21%) underwent adjuvant treatment. The remaining 39 FMMs (63%) received SRS as their primary treatment. For patients with an upfront surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed 22 World Health Organization grade I tumors and one grade II FMM. The median tumor volume was 2.6 cubic centimeters. No local failures were observed throughout the available follow-up, including patients with a follow-up ≥ five years (16 patients), leading to an overall local control of 100%. Tumor volume significantly decreased after treatment, with a median volume reduction of 21% at the last available follow-up (p < 0.01). The one-, three-, and five-year progression-free survival were 100%, 96.6%, and 93.0%, respectively. Most patients showed stable (47%) or improved (21%) neurological deficits at the last follow-up. No high-grade adverse events were observed. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment modality for FMMs. Despite the paucity of available data and previous reports, SRS should be considered for selected patients, especially those with subtotal tumor resections, recurrences, and patients not suitable for surgery. Full article
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Article
Risks and Benefits of Fiducial Marker Placement in Tumor Lesions for Robotic Radiosurgery: Technical Outcomes of 357 Implantations
Cancers 2021, 13(19), 4838; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194838 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Fiducial markers (FM) inserted into tumors increase the precision of irradiation during robotic radiosurgery (RRS). This retrospective study evaluated the clinical complications, marker migration, and motion amplitude of FM implantations by analyzing 288 cancer patients (58% men; 63.1 ± 13.0 years) who underwent [...] Read more.
Fiducial markers (FM) inserted into tumors increase the precision of irradiation during robotic radiosurgery (RRS). This retrospective study evaluated the clinical complications, marker migration, and motion amplitude of FM implantations by analyzing 288 cancer patients (58% men; 63.1 ± 13.0 years) who underwent 357 FM implantations prior to RRS with CyberKnife, between 2011 and 2019. Complications were classified according to the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) guidelines. The radial motion amplitude was calculated for tumors that moved with respiration. A total of 725 gold FM was inserted. SIR-rated complications occurred in 17.9% of all procedures. Most complications (32.0%, 62/194 implantations) were observed in Synchrony®-tracked lesions affected by respiratory motion, particularly in pulmonary lesions (46.9% 52/111 implantations). Concurrent biopsy sampling was associated with a higher complication rate (p = 0.001). FM migration occurred in 3.6% after CT-guided and clinical FM implantations. The largest motion amplitudes were observed in hepatic (20.5 ± 11.0 mm) and lower lung lobe (15.4 ± 10.5 mm) lesions. This study increases the awareness of the risks of FM placement, especially in thoracic lesions affected by respiratory motion. Considering the maximum motion amplitude, FM placement remains essential in hepatic and lower lung lobe lesions located >100.0 mm from the spine. Full article
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Article
Establishment and Validation of CyberKnife Irradiation in a Syngeneic Glioblastoma Mouse Model
Cancers 2021, 13(14), 3416; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143416 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK-SRS) precisely delivers radiation to intracranial tumors. However, the underlying radiobiological mechanisms at high single doses are not yet fully understood. Here, we established and evaluated the early radiobiological effects of CK-SRS treatment at a single dose of 20 Gy [...] Read more.
CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK-SRS) precisely delivers radiation to intracranial tumors. However, the underlying radiobiological mechanisms at high single doses are not yet fully understood. Here, we established and evaluated the early radiobiological effects of CK-SRS treatment at a single dose of 20 Gy after 15 days of tumor growth in a syngeneic glioblastoma-mouse model. Exact positioning was ensured using a custom-made, non-invasive, and trackable frame. One superimposed target volume for the CK-SRS planning was created from the fused tumor volumes obtained from MRIs prior to irradiation. Dose calculation and delivery were planned using a single-reference CT scan. Six days after irradiation, tumor volumes were measured using MRI scans, and radiobiological effects were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. We found that CK-SRS treatment reduced tumor volume by approximately 75%, impaired cell proliferation, diminished tumor vasculature, and increased immune response. The accuracy of the delivered dose was demonstrated by staining of DNA double-strand breaks in accordance with the planned dose distribution. Overall, we confirmed that our proposed setup enables the precise irradiation of intracranial tumors in mice using only one reference CT and superimposed MRI volumes. Thus, our proposed mouse model for reproducible CK-SRS can be used to investigate radiobiological effects and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness and Safety of Robotic Radiosurgery for Optic Nerve Sheath Meningiomas: A Single Institution Series
Cancers 2021, 13(9), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092165 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
The role of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) in the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) remains controversial and it is only performed in specialized institutions due to tight dose constraints. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of RRS in the management of ONSM. [...] Read more.
The role of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) in the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) remains controversial and it is only performed in specialized institutions due to tight dose constraints. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of RRS in the management of ONSM. Twenty-five patients with 27 ONSM lesions who underwent RRS using the Cyberknife (CK) system were retrospectively analyzed (median age, 47.9 years; 84.0% women). Multisession RRS was used with 4–5 fractions with a cumulative dose of 20.0–25.0 Gy in 84.0% of patients and a single fraction at a dose of 14.0–15.0 Gy in 16% of patients. Prior to RRS, seven (28%) patients experienced blindness on the lesion side. In those patients with preserved vision prior to radiosurgery, the visual acuity remained the same in 90.0% and improved in 10.0% of the patients. Overall local tumor control was 96.0% (mean follow-up period; 37.4 ± 27.2 months). Neither patient age, previous surgery, or the period from the initial diagnosis to RRS showed a dependency on visual acuity before or after radiosurgery. RRS is a safe and effective treatment for the management of ONSM. Hypofractionation of radiosurgery in patients with preserved vision before CK treatment results in stable or improved vision. Full article
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Article
Ipilimumab and Stereotactic Radiosurgery with CyberKnife® System in Melanoma Brain Metastases: A Retrospective Monoinstitutional Experience
Cancers 2021, 13(8), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081857 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
The median overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) are poor even with immune checkpoint inhibitors and/or radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the study were to evaluate the association and timing of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)/radiosurgery (SRS) [...] Read more.
The median overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) are poor even with immune checkpoint inhibitors and/or radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the study were to evaluate the association and timing of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)/radiosurgery (SRS) performed with the CyberKnife® System and ipilimumab (IPI). A total of 63 MBMs patients were analyzed: 53 received RT+IPI and 10 RT alone. Therefore, the patients were divided into four groups: RT PRE-PI (>4 weeks before IPI) (18), RT CONC-IPI (4 weeks before/between first and last cycle/within 3 months of last cycle of IPI) (20), RT POST-IPI (>3 months after IPI) (15), and NO-IPI (10). A total of 127 lesions were treated: 75 with SRS (one fraction) and 24 with SRT (three to five fractions). The median follow-up was 10.6 months. The median OS was 10.6 months for all patients, 10.7 months for RT+IPI, and 3.3 months for NO-IPI (p = 0.96). One-year LC was 50% for all patients, 56% for RT+IPI, and 18% for NO-IPI (p = 0.08). The 1-year intracranial control was 45% for all patients, 44% for RT+IPI, and 51% for NO-IPI (p = 0.73). IPI with SRS/SRT in MBMs treatment could improve LC. However, the impact and timing of the two modalities on patients’ outcomes are still unclear. Full article
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Article
Safety and Efficacy of Robotic Radiosurgery for Visceral and Lymph Node Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective, Single Center Analysis
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040680 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Despite rapid advances of systemic therapy options in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), local tumor or metastases treatment remains important in selected patients. Here, we assess the safety and efficacy of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) as an ablative therapy for visceral and lymph node metastases [...] Read more.
Despite rapid advances of systemic therapy options in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), local tumor or metastases treatment remains important in selected patients. Here, we assess the safety and efficacy of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) as an ablative therapy for visceral and lymph node metastases of RCC. Patients with histologically confirmed RCC and radiologically confirmed progression of visceral or lymph node metastases underwent RRS and were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival and progression free survival were calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Sixty patients underwent RRS and were included in the analysis. Patients presented for RRS treatment with a median age at RRS treatment of 64 years (range 42–83), clear cell histology (88.3%) and favorable international metastatic renal cell carcinoma database (IMDC) risk score (58.3%). Treatment parameters differed for the number of fractions (median visceral metastases: 1, range 1–5; median lymph node metastases: 1, range 0–5; p = 0.003) and prescription dose (median visceral metastases 24 Gy, range 8–26; median lymph node metastases 18 Gy, range 7–26, p < 0.001). The median overall survival was 65.7 months (range: 2.9–108.6), the median progression free survival was 17.4 months (range: 2.7–70.0) and local tumor control was achieved in 96.7% of patients. Adverse events were limited to 8.3% of patients, with one grade 4 toxicity within 6 weeks after RRS therapy. RRS is a safe and effective treatment option in selected patients with metastatic RCC in a multimodal approach. Further research is warranted to confirm our findings prospectively. Full article
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Article
Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery for the Management of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastases—A Multicenter Experience
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020297 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Background: Intramedullary metastases are rare and bear a dismal prognosis. Limited data are available on the treatment of such lesions. As surgery may be the mainstay of treatment for patients with resectable and localized metastatic spread, previous case reports and case series suggest [...] Read more.
Background: Intramedullary metastases are rare and bear a dismal prognosis. Limited data are available on the treatment of such lesions. As surgery may be the mainstay of treatment for patients with resectable and localized metastatic spread, previous case reports and case series suggest radiosurgery to be another viable treatment modality. This multicenter study analyzes the efficacy and safety of robotic radiosurgery (RRS) for intramedullary metastases. Methods: Patients who received RRS for the treatment of at least one intramedullary metastasis were included. Results: Thirty-three patients with 46 intramedullary metastases were treated with a median dose of 16 Gy prescribed to a median isodose of 70%. The local control was 79% after a median follow-up of 8.5 months. The median overall survival (OS) was 11.7 months, with a 12- and 24-month OS of 47 and 31%. The 12-month progression-free survival was 42% and at 24 months 25%. In addition, 57% of patients showed either an improved or stable neurological function after treatment delivery. Systemic disease progression was the main cause of death. No significant treatment-related toxicities were observed. Conclusions: RRS appears to be a safe, time-saving and effective treatment modality for intramedullary metastases, especially for patients with unresectable lesions and high burden of disease. Full article
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Systematic Review
Applications of Frameless Image-Guided Robotic Stereotactic Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: A Systematic Review
Cancers 2022, 14(4), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041085 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Background: CyberKnife-based robotic radiosurgery (RRS) is a widely used treatment modality for various benign and malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults due to its high precision, favorable safety profile, and efficacy. Although RRS is emerging in pediatric neuro-oncology, scientific [...] Read more.
Background: CyberKnife-based robotic radiosurgery (RRS) is a widely used treatment modality for various benign and malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults due to its high precision, favorable safety profile, and efficacy. Although RRS is emerging in pediatric neuro-oncology, scientific evidence for treatment indications, treatment parameters, and patient outcomes is scarce. This systematic review summarizes the current experience and evidence for RRS and robotic stereotactic radiotherapy (RSRT) in pediatric neuro-oncology. Methods: We performed a systematic review based on the databases Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PubMed to identify studies and published articles reporting on RRS and RSRT treatments in pediatric neuro-oncology. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were applied herein. Articles were included if they described the application of RRS and RSRT in pediatric neuro-oncological patients. The quality of the articles was assessed based on their evidence level and their risk for bias using the original as well as an adapted version of the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Only articles published until 1 August 2021, were included. Results: A total of 23 articles were included after final review and removal of duplicates. Articles reported on a broad variety of CNS entities with various treatment indications. A majority of publications lacked substantial sample sizes and a prospective study design. Several reports included adult patients, thereby limiting the possibility of data extraction and analysis of pediatric patients. RRS and RSRT were mostly used in the setting of adjuvant, palliative, and salvage treatments with decent local control rates and acceptable short-to-intermediate-term toxicity. However, follow-up durations were limited. The evidence level was IV for all studies; the NOS score ranged between four and six, while the overall risk of bias was moderate to low. Conclusion: Publications on RRS and RSRT and their application in pediatric neuro-oncology are rare and lack high-quality evidence with respect to entity-related treatment standards and long-term outcomes. The limited data suggest that RRS and RSRT could be efficient treatment modalities, especially for children who are unsuitable for surgical interventions, suffer from tumor recurrences, or require palliative treatments. Nevertheless, the potential short-term and long-term adverse events must be kept in mind when choosing such a treatment. Prospective studies are necessary to determine the actual utility of RRS and RSRT in pediatric neuro-oncology. Full article
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