Special Issue "Hodgkin Lymphoma"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Cancer Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Sylvia Hartmann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Senckenberg Department of Pathology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Interests: Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; T-cell/histiocyte rich large B-cell lymphoma; classical Hodgkin lymphoma; T cell lymphoma; genomic aberrations; mutations; chemokines; cell motility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to Hodgkin lymphoma. Almost 190 years after the first description by Thomas Hodgkin, tremendous knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has been gained. Still, this tumor remains enigmatic in many aspects. The deregulation of several pathways has been described, but the underlying mechanisms are in many instances not fully understood. Therefore, we here welcome papers that address the molecular biology underlying Hodgkin lymphoma as well as translational studies, with a focus on both tumor and bystander cells, bringing a molecular understanding into clinical context and applied settings. Particularly papers featuring a correlation between pathology and molecular data with respect of Hodgkin lymphoma are of interest.

Prof. Sylvia Hartmann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Classical Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Epstein–Barr virus
  • Genomics
  • miRNA
  • Proteomics
  • Transcriptome
  • NGS
  • Epigenetics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Immunosuppressive Microenvironment and Efficacy of PD-1 Inhibitors in Relapsed/Refractory Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma: Checkpoint Molecules Landscape and Macrophage Populations
Cancers 2021, 13(22), 5676; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225676 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
To date, the impact of the tumor microenvironment on the prognosis of patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) during anti-PD-1 therapy has been studied insufficiently. This retrospective study included 61 primary samples of lymph nodes from patients who had relapsed/refractory (r/r) cHL and [...] Read more.
To date, the impact of the tumor microenvironment on the prognosis of patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) during anti-PD-1 therapy has been studied insufficiently. This retrospective study included 61 primary samples of lymph nodes from patients who had relapsed/refractory (r/r) cHL and were treated with nivolumab. Repeated samples were obtained in 15 patients at relapse or disease progression after immunotherapy. Median follow-up was 55 (13–63) months. The best overall response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed depending on the expression of CD68, CD163, PD-1, LAG-3, TIM-3, CTLA-4, TIGIT, CD163/c-maf in the tumor microenvironment in primary and sequential biopsies. The combination of CD163/c-maf antibodies was used for the identification of M2 macrophages (M2). A low number of macrophages in primary samples was associated with inferior PFS during nivolumab treatment (for CD163-positive cells p = 0.0086; for CD68-positive cells p = 0.037), while a low number of M2 with higher PFS (p = 0.014). Complete response was associated with a lower level of M2 (p = 0.011). In sequential samples (before and after nivolumab therapy) an increase in PD-1 (p = 0.011) and LAG-3 (p = 0.0045) and a depletion of CD68 (p = 0.057) and CD163 (p = 0.0049)-positive cells were observed. The study expands understanding of the cHL microenvironment structure and dynamics during nivolumab therapy in patients with r/r cHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Article
Landscape of 4D Cell Interaction in Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5208; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205208 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Profound knowledge exists about the clinical, morphologic, genomic, and transcriptomic characteristics of most lymphoma entities. However, information is currently lacking on the dynamic behavior of malignant lymphomas. This pilot study aimed to gain insight into the motility of malignant lymphomas and bystander cells [...] Read more.
Profound knowledge exists about the clinical, morphologic, genomic, and transcriptomic characteristics of most lymphoma entities. However, information is currently lacking on the dynamic behavior of malignant lymphomas. This pilot study aimed to gain insight into the motility of malignant lymphomas and bystander cells in 20 human lymph nodes. Generally, B cells were faster under reactive conditions compared with B cells in malignant lymphomas. In contrast, PD1-positive T cells did not show systematic differences in velocity between reactive and neoplastic conditions in general. However, lymphomas could be divided into two groups: one with fast PD1-positive T cells (e.g., Hodgkin lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma; means 8.4 and 7.8 µm/min) and another with slower PD1-positive T cells (e.g., mediastinal grey zone lymphoma; mean 3.5 µm/min). Although the number of contacts between lymphoma cells and PD1-positive T cells was similar in different lymphoma types, important differences were observed in the duration of these contacts. Among the lymphomas with fast PD1-positive T cells, contacts were particularly short in mantle cell lymphoma (mean 54 s), whereas nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma presented prolonged contact times (mean 6.1 min). Short contact times in mantle cell lymphoma were associated with the largest spatial displacement of PD1-positive cells (mean 12.3 µm). Although PD1-positive T cells in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were fast, they remained in close contact with the lymphoma cells, in line with a dynamic immunological synapse. This pilot study shows for the first time systematic differences in the dynamic behavior of lymphoma and bystander cells between different lymphoma types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Article
Deregulated miRNAs Contribute to Silencing of B-Cell Specific Transcription Factors and Activation of NF-κB in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133131 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 787
Abstract
A hallmark of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the attenuation of B-cell transcription factors leading to global transcriptional reprogramming. The role of miRNAs (microRNAs) involved in this process is poorly studied. Therefore, we performed global miRNA expression profiling using RNA-seq on commonly used [...] Read more.
A hallmark of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the attenuation of B-cell transcription factors leading to global transcriptional reprogramming. The role of miRNAs (microRNAs) involved in this process is poorly studied. Therefore, we performed global miRNA expression profiling using RNA-seq on commonly used cHL cell lines, non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and sorted normal CD77+ germinal centre B-cells as controls and characterized the cHL miRNome (microRNome). Among the 298 miRNAs expressed in cHL, 56 were significantly overexpressed and 23 downregulated (p < 0.05) compared to the controls. Moreover, we identified five miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-155-5p) as especially important in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma. Target genes of the overexpressed miRNAs in cHL were significantly enriched (p < 0.05) in gene ontologies related to transcription factor activity. Therefore, we further focused on selected interactions with the SPI1 and ELF1 transcription factors attenuated in cHL and the NF-ĸB inhibitor TNFAIP3. We confirmed the interactions between hsa-miR-27a-5p:SPI1, hsa-miR-330-3p:ELF-1, hsa-miR-450b-5p:ELF-1 and hsa-miR-23a-3p:TNFAIP3, which suggest that overexpression of these miRNAs contributes to silencing of the respective genes. Moreover, by analyzing microdissected HRS cells, we demonstrated that these miRNAs are also overexpressed in primary tumor cells. Therefore, these miRNAs play a role in silencing the B-cell phenotype in cHL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Article
Interaction between ERAP Alleles and HLA Class I Types Support a Role of Antigen Presentation in Hodgkin Lymphoma Development
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030414 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Genetic variants in the HLA region are the strongest risk factors for developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), suggesting an important role for antigen presentation. This is supported by another HL-associated genomic region which contains the loci of two enzymes that process endogenous proteins to [...] Read more.
Genetic variants in the HLA region are the strongest risk factors for developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), suggesting an important role for antigen presentation. This is supported by another HL-associated genomic region which contains the loci of two enzymes that process endogenous proteins to peptides to be presented by HLA class I, i.e., endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) and ERAP2. We hypothesized that ERAP and HLA class I type interact in HL susceptibility, as shown previously for several autoimmune diseases. We detected ERAP1 and ERAP2 expression in tumor cells and cells in the microenvironment in primary HL tissue samples. Seven ERAP SNPs and ERAP1 haplotypes showed strong associations with RNA and protein levels of ERAP1 and ERAP2 in LCLs and HL cell lines. Analysis of HLA class I types, ERAP SNPs and ERAP haplotypes by direct genotyping or imputation from genome-wide association data in 390 HL patients revealed significant interactions between HLA-A11, rs27038 and the rs27038 associated ERAP haplotype, as well as between HLA-Cw2 and rs26618. In conclusion, our results show that ERAP and HLA class I interact in genetic susceptibility to HL, providing further evidence that antigen presentation is an important process in HL susceptibility and pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Article
Defining the Inflammatory Plasma Proteome in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123603 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) histopathology is characterized by rare malignant Reed–Sternberg cells among an inflammatory infiltrate. We hypothesized that characteristics of inflammation in pediatric HL lesions would be reflected by the levels of inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in pre-therapy plasma of children with HL. [...] Read more.
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) histopathology is characterized by rare malignant Reed–Sternberg cells among an inflammatory infiltrate. We hypothesized that characteristics of inflammation in pediatric HL lesions would be reflected by the levels of inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in pre-therapy plasma of children with HL. The study objectives were to better define the inflammatory pre-therapy plasma proteome and identify plasma biomarkers associated with extent of disease and clinical outcomes in pediatric HL. Pre-therapy plasma samples were obtained from pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed HL and healthy pediatric controls. Plasma concentrations of 135 cytokines/chemokines were measured with the Luminex platform. Associations between protein concentration and disease characteristics were determined using multivariate permutation tests with false discovery control. Fifty-six subjects with HL (mean age: 13 years, range 3–18) and 47 controls were analyzed. The cytokine/chemokine profiles of subjects with HL were distinct from controls, and unique cytokines/chemokines were associated with high-risk disease (IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8) and slow early response (CCL13, IFN-λ1, IL-8). TNFSF10 was significantly elevated among those who ultimately relapsed and was significantly associated with worse event-free survival. These biomarkers could be incorporated into biologically based risk stratification to optimize outcomes and minimize toxicities in pediatric HL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Review

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Review
Hodgkin Lymphoma in People Living with HIV
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174366 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While the incidence of [...] Read more.
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While the incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after the advent of cART, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein–Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching that of the general population. In this regard, effective cART during chemotherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug–drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the optimal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis on advances in prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Review
FDG-PET/CT for the Management of Post-Chemotherapy Residual Mass in Hodgkin lymphoma
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 3952; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13163952 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
In the present review, the authors report the published evidence on the use of functional imaging with FDG-PET/CT in assessing the final response to treatment in Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite a very high overall Negative Predictive Value of post-chemotherapy PET on treatment outcome ranging [...] Read more.
In the present review, the authors report the published evidence on the use of functional imaging with FDG-PET/CT in assessing the final response to treatment in Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite a very high overall Negative Predictive Value of post-chemotherapy PET on treatment outcome ranging from 94% to 86%, according to different treatment intensity, the Positive Predicting Value proved much lower (40–25%). In the present review the Authors discuss the role of PET to guide consolidation RT over a RM after different chemotherapy regimens, both in early and in advanced-stage disease. A particular emphasis is dedicated to the peculiar issue of the qualitative versus semi-quantitative methods for End-of Therapy PET scan interpretation. A short hint will be given on the role of FDG-PET to assess the treatment outcome after immune checkpoint inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Review
Review of Treatment Options for the Management of Advanced Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cancers 2021, 13(15), 3745; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153745 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid-type hematologic disease that is derived from B cells. The incidence of this lymphoid malignancy is around 2–3/100,000/year in the western world. Long-term remission rates are linked to a risk-adapted approach, which allows remission rates higher than 80%. [...] Read more.
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid-type hematologic disease that is derived from B cells. The incidence of this lymphoid malignancy is around 2–3/100,000/year in the western world. Long-term remission rates are linked to a risk-adapted approach, which allows remission rates higher than 80%. The first-line treatment for advanced stage classical HL (cHL) widely used today is doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) or escalated bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPPesc) chemotherapy. Randomized studies comparing these two regimens and a recently performed meta-analysis have demonstrated consistently better disease control with BEACOPPesc. However, this treatment is not the standard of care, as there is an excess of acute hematological toxicities and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. Moreover, there is a recurrent controversy concerning the impact on overall survival with this regimen. More recently, new drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and checkpoint inhibitors have become available and have been evaluated in combination with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD) for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced cHL with the objective of tumor control improvement. There are still major debates with respect to first-line treatment of advanced cHL. The use of positron emission tomography-adapted strategies has allowed a reduction in the toxicity of chemotherapy regimens. Incorporation of new drugs into the treatment algorithms requires confirmation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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Review
Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: Variant Patterns, Borderlines and Mimics
Cancers 2021, 13(12), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13123021 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) represents approximately 5% of Hodgkin lymphoma and typically affects children and young adults. Although the overall prognosis is favorable, variant growth patterns in NLPHL correlate with disease recurrence and progression to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma or frank [...] Read more.
Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) represents approximately 5% of Hodgkin lymphoma and typically affects children and young adults. Although the overall prognosis is favorable, variant growth patterns in NLPHL correlate with disease recurrence and progression to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma or frank diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The diagnostic boundary between NLPHL and DLBCL can be difficult to discern, especially in the presence of variant histologies. Both diagnoses are established using morphology and immunophenotype and share similarities, including the infrequent large tumor B-cells and the lymphocyte and histiocyte-rich microenvironment. NLPHL also shows overlap with other lymphomas, particularly, classic Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell lymphomas. Similarly, there is overlap with non-neoplastic conditions, such as the progressive transformation of germinal centers. Given the significant clinical differences among these entities, it is imperative that NLPHL and its variants are carefully separated from other lymphomas and their mimics. In this article, the characteristic features of NLPHL and its diagnostic boundaries and pitfalls are discussed. The current understanding of genetic features and immune microenvironment will be addressed, such that a framework to better understand biological behavior and customize patient care is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hodgkin Lymphoma)
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