New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 22122

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: universal design; housing architecture; architecture for seniors; multifunctional spaces; design for people with disabilities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: structural systems in shaping forms of contemporary architecture; structural topology; membrane and pneumatic structures; shell and spatial structures; management of information exchange in the investment process (BIM); structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: architectural acoustics; public use building design; hotel design; theory of architecture; education in architecture; NEB
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Faculty of Architecture at Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (Poland) is the Buildings Journal partner for a Special Issue on New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism

We focus on a number of topics, such as

  • Biodiversity in the built environment;
  • New trends in mobile, flexible, interactive, and temporary structures;
  • Innovative solutions in pro-humanitarian architecture and spatial planning in the face of disasters, in light of the rebuild of Ukraine but also new world challenges.

We are expecting articles on:

  • Architectural, building, and spatial planning education in the spirit of New European Bauhaus;
  • Digitalization processes in architecture, construction, and urbanism;
  • Universal design to eliminate barriers in the human environment;
  • Multifunctional hybrid design;
  • Social participation as an implementation of the "together" and "beauty" aspect of NEB in architecture, construction, and urbanism;
  • Energy efficiency and renewable resources in the built environment;
  • Implementation of the "sustainable" aspect of NEB renovations in today’s cities;
  • Materials and solutions—tradition and technology.

Prof. Dr. Barbara Gronostajska
Prof. Dr. Romuald Tarczewski
Dr. Joanna Jablonska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • architectural
  • building
  • spatial planning
  • universal design
  • hybrid design
  • New European Bauhaus
  • Ukraine – emergency and new architecture

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

32 pages, 15967 KiB  
Article
Co-Creating a Seniors’ Meeting Place: A Prototype Pop-Up Installation on a Popowice Housing Estate in Wrocław, Poland
by Anna Miśniakiewicz
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051400 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Citizens worldwide are increasingly engaged in co-creation processes. It can be applied to meet the needs of seniors regarding their living arrangements or activities in public spaces. This article presents a fragment of research aimed at identifying problems and needs faced by older [...] Read more.
Citizens worldwide are increasingly engaged in co-creation processes. It can be applied to meet the needs of seniors regarding their living arrangements or activities in public spaces. This article presents a fragment of research aimed at identifying problems and needs faced by older adults (aged 65 and older) in the Popowice neighborhood in Wrocław, Poland, and co-creating solutions with them. Using the co-creation method—both qualitative and quantitative research—a series of activities were conducted (workshops, interviews, surveys) during five phases of the Living Lab, culminating in the creation of a physical prototype. Intervention through a physical prototype allowed for verifying the validity of the conclusions drawn in the earlier part of the study, serving as an activator and accelerator of neighborhood life. The research suggests that the co-creation process and the prototype can influence the social activity of seniors. Recommendations for future co-design processes with older people include establishing relationships with stakeholders and beneficiaries, which is essential for the success of co-creation projects, and involving participants in directly creating solutions to increase their engagement and willingness to collaborate. In the face of aging societies, co-creation can be a useful method for creating tailored solutions to meet users’ needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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28 pages, 53716 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the New European Bauhaus in Urban Plans by Land Use Occurrence Indicators: A Case Study in Rijeka, Croatia
by Bojan Bilić and Krunoslav Šmit
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041058 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
The aim of the research is to provide a numerical evaluation of the occurrence of New European Bauhaus (NEB) principles in urban plans, using four key indicators: GI (green infrastructure), POS (public open space), PSN (public and social needs), and UR (urban reconstruction). [...] Read more.
The aim of the research is to provide a numerical evaluation of the occurrence of New European Bauhaus (NEB) principles in urban plans, using four key indicators: GI (green infrastructure), POS (public open space), PSN (public and social needs), and UR (urban reconstruction). The initial step in the research involves determining numerical quantitative indicators with target reference values, which are then used as a measure of compliance with the vision of the NEB. Indicators are modeled based on elements embedded in urban plans and implemented in a framework for evaluating these plans. Through the analysis of collected data, a comparison is made with the set goals and values of the NEB, thus enabling the assignment of ratings for occurrence and identification of areas where improvements are needed. The research results for Rijeka point to the need for planning new green areas, maintaining and developing street networks, and increasing pedestrian and park areas. Additionally, there is a suggested need to increase content to meet public and social needs and expand areas planned for urban reconstruction. The research results emphasize the importance of monitoring and adjusting urban plans to the NEB platform to achieve sustainable and balanced urban development goals, highlighting the need for continuous improvement in the quality of urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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20 pages, 2493 KiB  
Article
Healing Architecture in Mental Health Facilities in the New European Bauhaus Context
by Joanna Jablonska and Jozefina Furmanczyk
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14041056 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The processes of health building design issues overlap, like the complexity of architecture, technology, and protection of human well-being. It becomes necessary to use a holistic and empathized approach. They meet the concept of the New European Bauhaus (NEB) in terms of attention [...] Read more.
The processes of health building design issues overlap, like the complexity of architecture, technology, and protection of human well-being. It becomes necessary to use a holistic and empathized approach. They meet the concept of the New European Bauhaus (NEB) in terms of attention to the aspects of comprehensive design with a focus on humans and their environment. The investigation focused on psychiatric hospitals with an ever-growing demand for treatment places. Accordingly, this article shows the healing architecture’s examination and the environment in healthcare facilities. The POE method was used by investigating the examples. Research contained the technical, functional, spatial, and behavioral qualities of existing psychiatric hospitals. By presenting elements that positively affect the well-being of users, we indicate good practices that bring psycho-physical benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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26 pages, 25644 KiB  
Article
Learning from the Past: Urban Landscape Transformation Praxis on the Example of Interwar German Housing Estates
by Aleksandra Gierko
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14040900 - 26 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
In this paper, the incorporation of formerly existing built environment and natural elements was studied in eight housing estates from the interwar period in the Weimar Republic as a part of broader research on landscape transformations. The data on the original state of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the incorporation of formerly existing built environment and natural elements was studied in eight housing estates from the interwar period in the Weimar Republic as a part of broader research on landscape transformations. The data on the original state of land development were collected using the comparative cartographic analysis method. The analysis was supplemented by a comparison with iconography, such as aerial photographs, orthoimagery, and, in some cases, manually drafted plans. The results suggest that pre-existing conditions significantly influenced the functional dispositions and urban layout of the estates. These findings add to our understanding of the development of housing estates of the interwar period in the Weimar Republic and the posture of designers and urban planners towards the natural conditions of the respective project sites. This work can be valuable for adding to existing guidelines or principles of urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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38 pages, 16629 KiB  
Article
Beauty and Utility in Architecture, Interior Design and in the New European Bauhaus Concepts
by Przemyslaw Nowakowski
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14040870 - 23 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Appreciating beauty is a positive human feeling. In architecture and design, it is associated with the usefulness of products to meet needs. Those products are well received by users. The designer’s task is to achieve perfection in their work. The rational design of [...] Read more.
Appreciating beauty is a positive human feeling. In architecture and design, it is associated with the usefulness of products to meet needs. Those products are well received by users. The designer’s task is to achieve perfection in their work. The rational design of artificial living environments is also an expression of concern for a sustainable environment. The interdisciplinary New European Bauhaus is interested in these issues. This paper indicates the role of beauty and utility in the built environment. They are analyzed in the context of social and technical conditions and contemporary sustainable design. Its goal is to expand the knowledge of beauty and usefulness in architecture. They are increasingly important in the sustainable development of the built environment. This article uses research methods: interpretive research, analyses, comparisons, logical argumentation, etc. Innovative qualitative research in the form of a checklist is used. This survey can be used to rationally evaluate architecture and interior facilities. It can be helpful for various sustainable aesthetic and functional strategies dedicated to designers and users. It indicates possible directions for further assessment of architecture, e.g., in the context of management, environment and identity in the era of digitalization. It can be helpful in assessing the quality of the built environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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26 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Development and Sustainability: A Case Study of the Industrial Park EURO-PARK Kobierzyce in Poland
by Joanna Krajewska
Buildings 2024, 14(4), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14040862 - 22 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Since 2001, a new development paradigm, not only in EU countries but also at the global level, has been the concept of balancing environmental, social and economic factors, known as sustainable development. Over the two decades of the new millennium, a number [...] Read more.
Since 2001, a new development paradigm, not only in EU countries but also at the global level, has been the concept of balancing environmental, social and economic factors, known as sustainable development. Over the two decades of the new millennium, a number of initiatives and directives have been introduced that are aimed at protecting the environment against over-exploitation, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. This issue also applies to the fields of construction and architecture, which will be inspired to change by the idea of New European Bauhaus initiated in 2020. Thanks to the political transformation that began in 1990, Poland became part of the global capitalist system, and by joining the European Union in 2004, it declared its development policy in line with European standards. This article deals with the local development process and with industry sustainability in the example of an industrial park located in a selected, representative commune in Poland. The case study of the industrial park EURO-PARK Kobierzyce included factors determining the choice of location, provisions of planning documents, development characteristics, as well as sustainability reports published by selected companies. The aim of this study is to understand the impact of the industrial park on local development and sustainability, as well as to attempt to assess the development of the industry in the context of long-term sustainable development in the conditions of global capitalism. The analyzed case of an industrial park is intended to serve as an illustration of the research problem and a starting point for a broader discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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13 pages, 12112 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Solutions Reducing the Number of Cars in Polish Housing Estates—Based on the Experience of the Vauban Estate in Freiburg, Case of the City of Wroclaw
by Agnieszka Szumilas
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030712 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The number of cars in Polish housing estates is steadily increasing. Cars park in allocated parking spaces, but also occupy roads, pavements, and even green spaces. As the European experience shows, many countries have had this problem and have been looking for a [...] Read more.
The number of cars in Polish housing estates is steadily increasing. Cars park in allocated parking spaces, but also occupy roads, pavements, and even green spaces. As the European experience shows, many countries have had this problem and have been looking for a solution. Due to the fact that Polish cities are at the beginning of the process, which limits the importance of individual transport, all good practices are a valuable source of information. The purpose of this article is to present the possibility of implementing solutions to limit the number of cars in Polish housing estates based on the experience of the Vauban housing estate in Freiburg, Germany. This housing estate was created with the great participation of the local community and one of its postulates was to reduce the use of cars. The methodology involved several consecutive steps. The first stage of the work was a review of the literature on the subject of low-carbon housing. Vauban was chosen as a model project with a sustainability of 20 years. Design solutions to reduce car traffic were analysed. The data collected were transformed into hard (numerical) and soft (descriptive) data, then systematised and catalogued. Based on these guidelines, a model of an estate with a reduced number of cars was created. The final stage of the research was the implementation of the model. The model formulates the most important aspects related to the location of a car-free housing estate and allows one to indicate its potential location in the city. It is a valuable tool for opening up a broad discussion on urban planning, location, and the future of car-free housing estates. The results of the study should be interpreted at two levels: land use and location. The results of the analyses allowed parameters and guidelines to be defined. These guidelines provide a guideline for the development of car-reduced housing estates in future cities. The second set of conclusions concerns the location of a potential car-reduced housing estate. The area of the potential site is shown using the city of Wroclaw, Poland, as an example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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26 pages, 12559 KiB  
Article
Daylight Comfort Performance of a Vertical Fin Shading System: Annual Simulation and Experimental Testing of a Prototype
by Marcin Brzezicki
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030571 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
This study aims to develop and evaluate a vertically rotated fin shading system for an energy-efficient, user-friendly office space. The system was designed to protect a 4 × 8 m office room with a south-facing facade from excessive solar radiation and glare. The [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop and evaluate a vertically rotated fin shading system for an energy-efficient, user-friendly office space. The system was designed to protect a 4 × 8 m office room with a south-facing facade from excessive solar radiation and glare. The shading system was modelled and simulated using Rhino/Ladybug 1.6.0 software with Radiance engine, based on real-weather data (*.epw file) for Wrocław, Poland at 51° lat. The simulation calculated the useful daylight illuminance (UDI) for 300–3000 lux and the daylight glare probability (DGP) for ten static and four kinetic variants of the system. The optimal angle of the fin rotation for the static variant was found to be α = 40°. The kinetic variants were activated when the work plane illuminance exceeded 3000 lux, as detected by an internal sensor “A”. The simulation results show that the kinetic system improved the daylight uniformity in the office room, achieving UDI300–3000 values above 80% for more than 40% of the room area. A prototype of the system in a 1:20 scale was built and tested on a testbed at Wrocław University of Science and Technology, using TESTO THL 160 data loggers. The measurements were conducted for a week in early November 2023, and three clear days were selected for analysis. The measurement results indicate that the low solar altitude on clear days causes high illuminance peaks (15–18 Klux) and significant contrast in the room, leading to unsatisfactory DGP values consistent with the simulation outcomes. Therefore, the study concludes that the proposed system may need an additional shading device to prevent glare during periods of low solar altitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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17 pages, 9042 KiB  
Article
Determining Urban Indicators in Local Plans—As One of the Sustainable Assumptions of the New European Bauhaus?
by Anna Katarzyna Andrzejewska
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010100 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The purpose of local spatial development plans in Poland is to shape spatial policy at the local level by establishing local law. On this basis, the intended use of land is determined, as well as the manner of its development. Some of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of local spatial development plans in Poland is to shape spatial policy at the local level by establishing local law. On this basis, the intended use of land is determined, as well as the manner of its development. Some of the planning tools used are urban planning parameters and indicators, which are defined in planning documents at the local (commune) level. This article discusses the analyses of two selected urban indicators: the maximum built-up area and the minimum share of biologically active area, which are obligatorily determined in local plans. The issue here is a certain discrepancy between the planning provisions used in theory and their practical application. This paper uses a descriptive, computational, and comparative analytical research method to interpret the planning provisions used in selected Local Spatial Development Plans. This research will allow for answering of the following questions: Are the urban indicators defined by architects adapted to spatial needs? Do they allow for optimal shaping of this space, taking into account the provisions of Polish law? And is their skillful designation likely to be one of the sustainable assumptions of the New European Bauhaus? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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19 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
District Energy Viewed from the New Bauhaus Initiative Perspective—Sustainable, Inclusive and Aesthetic Heat
by Kristina Lygnerud, Nathalie Fransson, Mirjam Särnbratt, Emilia Motoasca, Thomas Neven, Janka Vanschoenwinkel, Carolina Pastor, Andrea Gabaldón and Alberto Belda
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122930 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
(1) Background: To support the energy transition in Europe, the EU has launched multiple initiatives. Supporting the “Green Deal” is the New European Bauhaus (NEB). District heating and cooling (DHC) is an important part of a decarbonized European energy system, and its role [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To support the energy transition in Europe, the EU has launched multiple initiatives. Supporting the “Green Deal” is the New European Bauhaus (NEB). District heating and cooling (DHC) is an important part of a decarbonized European energy system, and its role in the transition has been stressed by the EU. In this paper, DHC is, for the first time, reviewed assuming the NEB principles. (2) Method: a literature review combined with a review of three cases was used for collecting data. (3) Results: It is confirmed that DHC has strong sustainability values. It is also identified that DHC can become increasingly inclusive by adopting updated digital platforms and new technologies for heat recovery that necessitate close customer interaction whilst recovering waste heat. The least exploited principle is aesthetics. It could sharpen city planning by combining energy system and energy efficiency perspectives, increase the practice of multifunctional buildings (for example energy provision and recreation), and foster a closer interplay between architecture and energy. (4) Conclusions: for both innovating and expanding DHC, the NEB principles can serve as catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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23 pages, 9888 KiB  
Article
Environmental Assessments in Architectural Competitions in Poland in the Years 2018–2022
by Magdalena Grzegorzewska, Andrzej Kaczmarek and Paweł Kirschke
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112839 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 781
Abstract
This paper discusses environmental and energy-saving factors in architectural competition procedures. The final assessment of sustainability and environmental aspects of a building is a derivative of the decisions taken during the entire project execution process, especially those taken at the initial stage. Notifications [...] Read more.
This paper discusses environmental and energy-saving factors in architectural competition procedures. The final assessment of sustainability and environmental aspects of a building is a derivative of the decisions taken during the entire project execution process, especially those taken at the initial stage. Notifications concerning architectural competitions, both in Poland and other European countries, as well as in the United States and Canada, increasingly often list sustainability as a necessary criterion. Aspects such as the use of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency solutions or reducing a building’s occupancy costs most often appear as guidelines. In this paper, the authors discuss the essence of solutions in architectural competition procedures announced in Poland in the years 2018–2022, using 154 cases as an example and setting them against the background of Europe. The types and level of detail of the selected criteria and their frequency of occurrence were examined. The study unveiled the absence of comprehensive guidelines in the processes of nationwide architectural competitions that take sustainability into account. The lack of definitions for environmental and energy objectives has a significant impact on their integration into competition designs, and reduces the chances of adapting and adopting these aspects at a further stage. Based on the analysis, a range of recommendations were formulated for implementation in competition procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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19 pages, 10537 KiB  
Article
Industrial Clusters in Slovakia-Urban Development
by Ľubica Ilkovičová, Ján Ilkovič and Yakoub Meziani
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102506 - 3 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
For almost three decades, Slovakia has been undergoing reform processes related to restructuring industry and in expectation of the sustainability of the industrial structure with an important link to the landscape. The aim of this article is the presentation of the development models [...] Read more.
For almost three decades, Slovakia has been undergoing reform processes related to restructuring industry and in expectation of the sustainability of the industrial structure with an important link to the landscape. The aim of this article is the presentation of the development models of the industrial clusters in synergy with the economic dimension, landscape, settlement structure, and sustainability. The background of the article is an evaluation of industry and its impact on the landscape between the 19th and 21st centuries. The development of industry influenced the territorial and spatial development of towns and landscapes, forcing a new identity on them. Development mirrored the rate of innovation in the domain of technologies and construction. The issues examined herein required the application of a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, including a creative method called SCAMPER. Our scheme and models of industrial parks and cooperation clusters are a result of theoretical and field research and reflect variable mobility and sustainability. The conclusions of the research indicate a turnover in the original order of importance in the industrial activity: environment–man–production. This is the contribution of evolution and the building of eco-friendly industrial structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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29 pages, 25581 KiB  
Article
Perception of Color in Architecture and Urban Space
by Anna Jaglarz
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13082000 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 9608
Abstract
The various colors and color combinations in an urban environment are perceived and experienced individually. The article indicates the important role of color in shaping architecture and urban space. The paper discusses the theories of color harmony as an aesthetic principle in architectural [...] Read more.
The various colors and color combinations in an urban environment are perceived and experienced individually. The article indicates the important role of color in shaping architecture and urban space. The paper discusses the theories of color harmony as an aesthetic principle in architectural design. The results of the research have proven the significant role of color as an element of the composition of urban space affecting the observer. This translates into the importance of color in architectural design, taking into account the difficulty and ambiguity in predicting color aesthetics; the impact of color on humans; and its cognitive, emotional and behavioral effects. The information and conclusions obtained as a result of the literature studies and the results of the survey gave the basis for determining various color strategies in shaping architecture and the effects that we can achieve in urban space thanks to a well-thought-out, conscious use of colors. The research findings also indicate that it is necessary to supplement architectural education programs with broadly understood knowledge about color and its impact on humans. The implemented activities are a response to current ideas and directions in designing and teaching architectural design outlined and suggested as part of the New European Bauhaus initiative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New European Bauhaus (NEB) in Architecture, Construction and Urbanism)
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