Structural Dynamics and Analysis of Civil Structures and Engineering Materials

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Building Structures".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
DICATECH Department, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: earthquake engineering; structural dynamics; finite element analysis; construction engineering; finite element modeling; structural analysis; building; civil engineering materials construction; concrete technologies

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
DICATECH Department, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: structural analysis; earthquake engineering; finite element analysis; dynamic analysis; nonlinear analysis; modal analysis; building; structural dynamics; finite element modeling; FE analysis

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Civil structures and infrastructures are continuously exposed to the multi-hazard threat of an ever-changing environment, and one of the most impactful challenges of structural mechanics and engineering is to guarantee their optimal performance, whether they are new or existing.

The objective of this Topical Collection is to bring together the most recent research trends and advances in structural dynamics and analysis to support the needs of professionals and researchers engaged in the development and application of new modelling, design and assessment strategies capable of effectively describing the structural behaviour of civil structures and infrastructures under a variety of external actions such as earthquakes, wind, vibrations, and extreme loads leading to progressive collapse.

Within this framework, the open threads that are embraced in the collection are analytical, experimental, and numerical methods for evaluating the linear and non-linear structural response; implications of modelling assumptions in the design and assessment processes of new and existing structures; advanced approaches for dynamic analysis, also in view of a probabilistic framework; appraisal of different methods of analysis; problems of dynamic interaction. Another key aspect is related to modelling and characterization of structural materials, from traditional ones, such as reinforced concrete, steel and masonry, to the more innovative and advanced ones, such as laminated glass or wood and fiber reinforced composites. In this perspective, studies about micro and macro modelling of structural materials—both numerical and aimed at experimental testing—are also especially encouraged.

Contributions in the following topics are welcome (they need not be limited to this list):

  • Structural dynamic approaches, numerical applications, case studies
  • Linear and nonlinear structural analyses
  • Modelling and characterization of structural materials
  • Analysis of Engineering Materials under Dynamic Loads
  • Design of new civil structures and infrastructures
  • Structural Health Monitoring
  • Vibration Analysis and Dynamic characterization
  • Assessment and retrofit of existing civil structures and infrastructures
  • Structural performance under hazardous events
  • Soil-Structure Interaction
  • Applications in Risk and Mitigation analysis
  • Experimental testing and modelling

Prof. Dr. Giuseppina Uva
Dr. Sergio Ruggieri
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Structural dynamics
  • Structural mechanics
  • Linear and nonlinear methods of analysis
  • Design of new structures
  • Assessment of existing structures
  • Characterization and modelling of engineering materials
  • Risk and mitigation analysis

Published Papers (12 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020

19 pages, 8046 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Modal Parameters of an RC Joint Subject to Progressive Damage under Cyclic Loads
by Amedeo Gregori, Lorenzo Bizzarri, Caterina D’Agostino, Angelo Aloisio, Riccardo Cirella and Rocco Alaggio
Buildings 2024, 14(5), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14051345 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
This paper presents the results of an experimental study that focused on the gradual modification of the modal parameters of reinforced concrete beam–column frames subjected to progressive damage under cyclic loading. As is commonly found in structures of the 1970s, the specimen was [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of an experimental study that focused on the gradual modification of the modal parameters of reinforced concrete beam–column frames subjected to progressive damage under cyclic loading. As is commonly found in structures of the 1970s, the specimen was characterized by the absence of specific shear reinforcement in the nodal panel. The frame modal parameters were investigated using the ambient vibrations test (AVT) as a modal identification technique. In particular, quasi-static cyclic tests with increasing amplitudes were performed on the reinforced concrete frame specimen and the modal parameters were assessed at various stages of frame degradation. By establishing a correlation between the changes in the modal parameters and the mechanical indicators of the structural damage in the frame, this study aimed to determine whether the ambient vibration tests could offer meaningful insights for evaluating the structural health of this type of structural component. As a result of the damage that occurred in the tested RC frame, the residual experimental value of the first natural frequency of the specimen was found to reduce at 52.7% of the original reference value (undamaged stage). Similarly, the residual value of the frame stiffness was found to be as low as 43.82% of the initial one. Both these results confirmed that changes when monitoring the modal frequencies may provide quantitative indexes to describe the structural health of RC frames. In combination with static tests for a direct measure of the structural stiffness variations, the AVT technique was shown to have interesting potential in detecting the type, level, and distribution of the progressive damage in civil structures. In particular, exponential and polynomial regression curves were defined to describe the decay of the first natural frequency as the structural damage increased in various parts of the frame, and it was shown that the variation in the first natural frequency was determined more by the damage on the beam than by the damage on the joint. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2021, 2020

17 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Integration Method for Response History Analysis of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems with Negative Stiffness
by Nikoleta Chatzikonstantinou, Triantafyllos K. Makarios and Asimina Athanatopoulou
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081214 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
The present article deals with the mathematical investigation of a negative-stiffness ideal system that can be used in seismic isolation of civil engineering structures. Negative-stiffness systems can be used in the seismic isolation of structures, because in the case of a strong earthquake, [...] Read more.
The present article deals with the mathematical investigation of a negative-stiffness ideal system that can be used in seismic isolation of civil engineering structures. Negative-stiffness systems can be used in the seismic isolation of structures, because in the case of a strong earthquake, they do not easily allow vibrations to develop. These negative-stiffness systems can be significantly more efficient than the usual seismic isolation systems, as they drastically reduce the vibrational amplitudes of structures, as well as eliminate the inertial seismic structure loadings. The mathematical investigation of a negative-stiffness ideal system provides documented answers about the effect of negative-stiffness systems in the seismic behavior of structures. First, the differential equation of motion of a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator (SDoF) is formulated, without classical damping, but with negative stiffness. Furthermore, the mathematical solution of the equation of motion is given, where it is proven that this solution does not describe a structure vibration. Furthermore, the seismic structure motion follows an exponential increase when the seismic ground excitation is purely sinusoidal. Finally, to calculate the real response of the negative-stiffness system, a suitable modification of the Newmark iterative numerical method is proposed. Full article
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26 pages, 11286 KiB  
Article
GIS Multisource Data for the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings at the Urban Scale
by Valeria Leggieri, Giulia Mastrodonato and Giuseppina Uva
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050523 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
The paper presents a methodology of extraction, integration and elaboration of data from different sources using the geographic information system (GIS), to realize a georeferenced building database (GBD) useful for the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings on a large scale. Three levels [...] Read more.
The paper presents a methodology of extraction, integration and elaboration of data from different sources using the geographic information system (GIS), to realize a georeferenced building database (GBD) useful for the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings on a large scale. Three levels of GIS entities have been defined and equipped with the related information: census section (CS), urban block (UB), and individual building (IB), depending on the level of detail of dataset. Additional information about the typological and structural features has been extracted by CARTIS catalogue, to refine the data associated with each building. The data have been validated using detailed information gathered on a proper sample of buildings, which have been filed and analyzed one-by-one. The alphanumeric format of data allows for the automatic implementation of different methods available in the literature, which provide a qualitative seismic vulnerability index at different scales (whole urban district, an urban block, and a single building). Finally, the 3D representation of data and results have been elaborated, providing a tool easily searchable and constantly implementable. An application has been developed for a case study in Puglia, Italy: Bisceglie, for which 3726 IB have been assessed. The work addresses the issue of the lack of information typical of large-scale applications, exploiting all the available data sources to achieve nearly complete knowledge of existing building stock finalized to a rapid but extensive evaluation of the seismic vulnerability on an urban scale with very low computational efforts and the use of limited resources in terms of time and cost. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2020

15 pages, 2849 KiB  
Article
A New Response Surface Stochastic Analysis Method for Spatial Structure Stability—The Reticulated Shell Structure as an Example
by Huijuan Liu, Nicola Tondini, Xisen Lu, Chunxiang Chen and Zhonggen Xu
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120669 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2508
Abstract
For a long time, spatial structures have been widely used. However, compared with the high strength of their material, their stability is weak, and especially sensitive to damage and defects. This feature has increased the engineering industry’s high requirements for their stability analysis. [...] Read more.
For a long time, spatial structures have been widely used. However, compared with the high strength of their material, their stability is weak, and especially sensitive to damage and defects. This feature has increased the engineering industry’s high requirements for their stability analysis. As we all know, this problem is more prominent for the reticulated shell structure, which is a classic representative of the spatial structure. However, in the current analysis methods for the stability of reticulated shells, the deterministic analysis method cannot consider the random characteristics of defects. Other random methods, such as the random defect modal method, and many improved methods, require more samples and calculation time. This unfavorable situation makes its engineering application greatly restricted. In addition, the random modal superposition method and derivation method based on Monte Carlo has not fundamentally changed this limitation. In order to fundamentally overcome this traditional shortcoming, this paper comprehensively studies the advantages of the high accuracy of the random defect modal method and the improved method, and at the same time, investigates the speed advantage of the response surface method, and then creates a new stochastic analysis method based on the response surface method. Finally, the analysis results of the calculation examples in this paper prove that it successfully balances and satisfies the dual requirements of accuracy and speed required for calculating the stability of the reticulated shell structure. Moreover, it has universal applicability to different forms of reticulated shells, such as classic 6-point flat domes, traditional reticulated shell structures, and bionic reticulated shell structures, and even other types of spatial structures. Full article
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17 pages, 7447 KiB  
Article
Explicit Dynamic Analysis by a Rigid Body-Spring Model of Impact Loads of Artillery on Middle Age Fortifications
by Vito Tateo and Siro Casolo
Buildings 2021, 11(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11120607 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2156
Abstract
The development of artillery in Europe at the end of the Middle Ages brought a necessary change in military architecture. This change was a radical rethinking of the entire geometry and architectural design of city walls which required an increase in thickness to [...] Read more.
The development of artillery in Europe at the end of the Middle Ages brought a necessary change in military architecture. This change was a radical rethinking of the entire geometry and architectural design of city walls which required an increase in thickness to resist repeated artillery strikes. The damage due to the impact loads on Middle Age fortification walls is analyzed herein with explicit dynamic analyses. This study was developed both with finite element models and an innovative rigid body-spring model with diagonal springs (RBSM), showing the different peculiarities of these two different approaches and how their results can be integrated. The numerical models clearly showed that the presence of an inner core of softer material tends to modify the impact effects by reducing the degree of damage at the expense of an extension of the damaged area. Full article
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19 pages, 5885 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Single-Point Mount PZT-Interface for Admittance-Based Anchor Force Monitoring
by Trung-Hau Nguyen, Thi Tuong Vy Phan, Thanh-Cao Le, Duc-Duy Ho and Thanh-Canh Huynh
Buildings 2021, 11(11), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11110550 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
This study investigates the dynamic characteristics of a smart PZT interface mounted on a prestressed anchorage to verify the numerical feasibility of the admittance-based anchor force monitoring technique. Firstly, the admittance-based anchor force monitoring technique through a single-mount PZT interface is outlined. The [...] Read more.
This study investigates the dynamic characteristics of a smart PZT interface mounted on a prestressed anchorage to verify the numerical feasibility of the admittance-based anchor force monitoring technique. Firstly, the admittance-based anchor force monitoring technique through a single-mount PZT interface is outlined. The admittance response of the PZT interface-anchorage system is theoretically derived to show the proof-of-concept of the technique for anchor force monitoring. Secondly, a finite element model corresponding to a well-established experimental model in the literature is constructed. The effect of anchor force is equivalently treated by the contact stiffness and damping parameters at the bottom surface of the anchorage. Thirdly, the admittance and the impedance responses are numerically analyzed and compared with the experimental data to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical modelling technique. Fourthly, the local dynamics of the PZT interface are analyzed by modal analysis to determine vibration modes that are sensitive to the change in the contact stiffness (i.e., representing the anchor force). Finally, the admittance responses corresponding to the sensitive vibration modes are numerically analyzed under the change in the contact stiffness. The frequency shift and the admittance change are quantified by statistical damage indices to verify the numerical feasibility of the anchor force monitoring technique via the smart PZT interface. The study is expected to provide a reference numerical model for the design of the single-point mount PZT interface. Full article
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19 pages, 5297 KiB  
Article
Capacity Assessment of Existing RC Columns
by Francesca Vecchi and Beatrice Belletti
Buildings 2021, 11(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11040161 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
Existing reinforced concrete (RC) members, designed in accordance with obsolete codes, are often characterized by high stirrup spacing. The collapse mechanisms generated by high stirrup spacing are typically related to the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement and can be accentuated when corrosion takes place. [...] Read more.
Existing reinforced concrete (RC) members, designed in accordance with obsolete codes, are often characterized by high stirrup spacing. The collapse mechanisms generated by high stirrup spacing are typically related to the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement and can be accentuated when corrosion takes place. In this paper, new refined material constitutive laws for steel, including inelastic buckling and corrosion of reinforcement, are implemented in a fixed crack model suitable for RC elements subjected to cyclic loadings called the PARC_CL 2.1 crack model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated through comparison with available experimental data and analytical predictions. Finally, the proposed model is used to calibrate correction coefficients to be applied to current codes formulation for the ultimate rotational capacity prediction of non-conforming elements subjected to buckling phenomena and characterized by corrosion of reinforcing bars. Full article
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21 pages, 8149 KiB  
Article
Damage Detection in Multiple RC Structures Based on Embedded Ultrasonic Sensors and Wavelet Transform
by Joyraj Chakraborty, Xin Wang and Marek Stolinski
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020056 - 7 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4124
Abstract
This paper summarizes the results of research aimed at assessing cracks in reinforced concrete structures using embedded ultrasonic sensors. The diffuse ultrasonic waves were considered to evaluate the health status of the tested structures. There are different algorithms used to detect cracks in [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes the results of research aimed at assessing cracks in reinforced concrete structures using embedded ultrasonic sensors. The diffuse ultrasonic waves were considered to evaluate the health status of the tested structures. There are different algorithms used to detect cracks in the structure, but most studies have been performed on benchmark reinforced concrete (RC) structures and in laboratory conditions. Since there were difficulties with the validity of damage detection in real structures in the presence of environmental changes and noises, the application of advanced signal processing methods was necessary. Therefore, the wavelet transform was applied to process ultrasonic signals acquired from multiple civil structures. It is shown that the ultrasonic sensors with an applied wavelet transform algorithm on collected signals can successfully detect cracks in the laboratory as well as in a real environment. Experimental results showed a perfect match for detecting damage and quasi-static load in the presence of environmental changes. The results were confirmed with other techniques. In addition, designing an extra filter for removing noises can be avoided by using the applied algorithms. The obtained results confirmed that diffuse ultrasonic sensor methodology with the proposed algorithm is useful and effective in monitoring real RC structures, and it is better than traditional techniques. Full article
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20 pages, 3282 KiB  
Article
Floor Acceleration Demands in a Twelve-Storey RC Shear Wall Building
by Vladimir Vukobratović and Sergio Ruggieri
Buildings 2021, 11(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11020038 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3664
Abstract
The seismic response of acceleration-sensitive non-structural components in buildings has attracted the attention of a significant number of researchers over the past decade. This paper provides the results which improve the state-of-knowledge of the influences that higher vibration modes of structures and nonlinearity [...] Read more.
The seismic response of acceleration-sensitive non-structural components in buildings has attracted the attention of a significant number of researchers over the past decade. This paper provides the results which improve the state-of-knowledge of the influences that higher vibration modes of structures and nonlinearity of non-structural components have on floor acceleration demands. In order to study these influences, a response-history analysis of a code-designed twelve-storey reinforced concrete building consisting of uncoupled ductile cantilever shear walls was conducted. The obtained absolute floor accelerations were used as a seismic input for linear elastic and nonlinear non-structural components represented by simple single-degree-of-freedom systems, and the main observations and findings related to the studied influences along the building height are presented and discussed. Additionally, the accuracy of the method for the direct determination of peak floor accelerations and floor response (acceleration) spectra recently co-developed by the first author was once again investigated and validated. A brief summary of the method is provided in the paper, along with the main steps in its application. Being relatively simple and sufficiently accurate, the method (in its simplified form) has been recently incorporated into the draft of the new generation of Eurocode 8. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

17 pages, 5895 KiB  
Article
Vibrations Induced by Mechanical Rock Excavation on R.C. Buildings in an Urban Area
by Valeria Leggieri, Annamaria di Lernia, Gaetano Elia, Domenico Raffaele and Giuseppina Uva
Buildings 2021, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010015 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
The paper describes the numerical approach adopted to investigate the effects of vibrations induced on reinforced concrete (R.C.) buildings by the excavation works needed to bury an existing railway line crossing an urban area in the south of Italy. The construction works are [...] Read more.
The paper describes the numerical approach adopted to investigate the effects of vibrations induced on reinforced concrete (R.C.) buildings by the excavation works needed to bury an existing railway line crossing an urban area in the south of Italy. The construction works are carried out in dolomitic rocks, characterized by a high resistance to excavation. Therefore, they may have a great impact on the surrounding environment in terms of induced vibrations. The study is conducted through an uncoupled approach, investigating the dynamic response of the geotechnical system and the above-surface structure, separately. The impulse force equivalent to the dynamic action of a breaker hammer is used as input motion for 2D finite element (FE) geotechnical simulations of the wave propagation process occurring during the excavation. Then, the acceleration time histories obtained from the geotechnical analyses are adopted to study the dynamic performance of an “index” R.C. building, representing the most recurrent structural typology in the examined area, through a 3D FE model. The results show how the adoption of a mitigation strategy consisting in the execution of a preliminary vertical cut followed by a rock crushing treatment allows to significantly reduce the vibrations induced by the excavation processes on existing buildings. Full article
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33 pages, 14907 KiB  
Article
Numerically Evaluation of FRP-Strengthened Members under Dynamic Impact Loading
by Faham Tahmasebinia, Linda Zhang, Sangwoo Park and Samad Sepasgozar
Buildings 2021, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11010014 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3139
Abstract
Reinforced concrete (RC) members in critical structures, such as bridge piers, high-rise buildings, and offshore facilities, are vulnerable to impact loads throughout their service life. For example, vehicle collisions, accidental loading, or unpredicted attacks could occur. The numerical models presented in this paper [...] Read more.
Reinforced concrete (RC) members in critical structures, such as bridge piers, high-rise buildings, and offshore facilities, are vulnerable to impact loads throughout their service life. For example, vehicle collisions, accidental loading, or unpredicted attacks could occur. The numerical models presented in this paper are shown to adequately replicate the impact behaviour and damage process of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns and Reinforced Concrete slabs. Validated models are developed using Abaqus/Explicit by reproducing the results obtained from experimental testing on bare CFST and RC slab members. Parameters relating to the FRP and material components are investigated to determine the influence on structural behaviour. The innovative method of using the dissipated energy approach for structural evaluation provides an assessment of the effective use of FRP and material properties to enhance the dynamic response. The outcome of the evaluation, including the geometrical, material, and contact properties modelling, shows that there is an agreement between the numerical and experimental behaviour of the selected concrete members. The experimentation shows that the calibration of the models is a crucial task, which was considered and resulted in matching the force–displacement behaviour and achieving the same maximum impact force and displacement values. Different novel and complicated Finite Element Models were comprehensively developed. The developed numerical models could precisely predict both local and global structural responses in the different reinforced concrete members. The application of the current numerical techniques can be extended to design structural members where there are no reliable practical guidelines on both national and international levels. Full article
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24 pages, 3702 KiB  
Article
RPAS-Based Framework for Simplified Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian RC-Bridges
by Andrea Nettis, Mirko Saponaro and Massimo Nanna
Buildings 2020, 10(9), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10090150 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3880
Abstract
Existing reinforced concrete (RC) bridges that were designed in the decades between 1950 and 1990 exhibit inadequate structural safety with reference to both traffic loads and hazard conditions. Competent authorities are planning extensive inspections to collect data about these structures and to address [...] Read more.
Existing reinforced concrete (RC) bridges that were designed in the decades between 1950 and 1990 exhibit inadequate structural safety with reference to both traffic loads and hazard conditions. Competent authorities are planning extensive inspections to collect data about these structures and to address retrofit interventions. In this context, Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPASs) represent a prospect to facilitate in-situ inspections, reducing time, cost and risk for the operators. A practice-oriented methodology to perform RPAS-based surveys is described. After that, a workflow to perform an in-situ RPAS inspection oriented to a photogrammetric data extraction is discussed. With the aim to connect the advantages of the RPAS technologies to the seismic risk assessment of bridges, a simplified mechanic-based procedure is described, oriented to map the structural risk in road networks and support prioritization strategies. A six-span RC bridge of the Basilicata road network, representing a typical Italian bridge typology is selected to practically describe the operating steps of the RPAS inspection and of the simplified seismic risk assessment approach. Full article
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