Special Issue "Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017) | Viewed by 21391

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kazuhito Toyooka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
Interests: cortical development; neurite formation: neuronal migration; spine formation; mouse genetics; 14-3-3; ADNP; autism spectrum disorder
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The completetion of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex is a key event in brain development for the correct establishment of the subsequent neural network. During the past decade or so, the research on the mechanisms of neuronal migration has advanced at a furious rate. Nevertheless, many questions still remain. It is of importance to summarize and share the accumulated knowledge and skills and to effectively utilize these moving forward with neuronal migration research.

The main purpose of the current Special Issue is to feature the mechanisms of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex and the disorders caused by neuronal migration defects and to inspire further studies on the mechanisms of neuronal migration, as well as cortical development. To achieve this, we call for research articles or reviews related to neurodevelopment, including neuronal migration, cerebral cortical development, and disorders caused by neuronal migration defects. In addition, we are interested in a review article discussing the methods that  have been used and will be used for the analysis of neuronal migration, including in utero electroporation and animal genetic approaches.

Dr. Kazuhito Toyooka
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • neuronal migration
  • radial migration
  • tangential migration
  • multipolar migration
  • locomotion
  • terminal translocation
  • cerebral cortical development
  • neuronal migration disorders
  • animal models
  • genetics
  • in utero electroporation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Review
Morphological and Molecular Basis of Cytoplasmic Dilation and Swelling in Cortical Migrating Neurons
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(7), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7070087 - 19 Jul 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
During corticogenesis, neuronal migration is an essential step for formation of a functional brain, and abnormal migration is known to cause various neurological disorders. Neuronal migration is not just a simple movement of the cell body, but a consequence of various morphological changes [...] Read more.
During corticogenesis, neuronal migration is an essential step for formation of a functional brain, and abnormal migration is known to cause various neurological disorders. Neuronal migration is not just a simple movement of the cell body, but a consequence of various morphological changes and coordinated subcellular events. Recent advances in in vivo and ex vivo cell biological approaches, such as in utero gene transfer, slice culture and ex vivo chemical inhibitor techniques, have revealed details of the morphological and molecular aspects of neuronal migration. Migrating neurons have been found to have a unique structure, dilation or swelling, at the proximal region of the leading process; this structure is not found in other migrating cell types. The formation of this structure is followed by nuclear deformation and forward movement, and coordination of this three-step sequential morphological change (the dilation/swelling formation, nuclear elongation and nuclear movement) is essential for proper neuronal migration and the construction of a functional brain structure. In this review, we will introduce the morphological features of this unique structure in migrating neurons and summarize what is known about the molecules regulating the dilation/swelling formation and nuclear deformation and movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
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Review
Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(6), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7060062 - 06 Jun 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4744
Abstract
Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, [...] Read more.
Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin) or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants), nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol) also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
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Review
Neuronal Migration and AUTS2 Syndrome
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7050054 - 14 May 2017
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 4608
Abstract
Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal [...] Read more.
Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question. Interestingly, the AUTS2 protein has dual functions: Cytoplasmic AUTS2 regulates actin cytoskeleton to control neuronal migration and neurite extension, while nuclear AUTS2 controls transcription of various genes as a component of the polycomb complex 1 (PRC1). In this review, we discuss AUTS2 from the viewpoint of human genetics, molecular function, brain development, and behavior in animal models, focusing on its role in neuronal migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
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Review
Genetic and Molecular Approaches to Study Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(5), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7050053 - 05 May 2017
Viewed by 3153
Abstract
The migration of neuronal cells in the developing cerebral cortex is essential for proper development of the brain and brain networks. Disturbances in this process, due to genetic abnormalities or exogenous factors, leads to aberrant brain formation, brain network formation, and brain function. [...] Read more.
The migration of neuronal cells in the developing cerebral cortex is essential for proper development of the brain and brain networks. Disturbances in this process, due to genetic abnormalities or exogenous factors, leads to aberrant brain formation, brain network formation, and brain function. In the last decade, there has been extensive research in the field of neuronal migration. In this review, we describe different methods and approaches to assess and study neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. First, we discuss several genetic methods, techniques and genetic models that have been used to study neuronal migration in the developing cortex. Second, we describe several molecular approaches to study aberrant neuronal migration in the cortex which can be used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of neuronal migration. Finally, we describe model systems to investigate and assess the potential toxicity effect of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals on proper brain formation and neuronal migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
Review
In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Techniques to Study Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(5), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7050048 - 27 Apr 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4759
Abstract
Neuronal migration is a fundamental biological process that underlies proper brain development and neuronal circuit formation. In the developing cerebral cortex, distinct neuronal populations, producing excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitters, are generated in different germinative areas and migrate along various routes to reach [...] Read more.
Neuronal migration is a fundamental biological process that underlies proper brain development and neuronal circuit formation. In the developing cerebral cortex, distinct neuronal populations, producing excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitters, are generated in different germinative areas and migrate along various routes to reach their final positions within the cortex. Different technical approaches and experimental models have been adopted to study the mechanisms regulating neuronal migration in the cortex. In this review, we will discuss the most common in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo techniques to visualize and study cortical neuronal migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
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