Topical Collection "Collection on Cognitive Neuroscience"

A topical collection in Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This collection belongs to the section "Cognitive Neuroscience".

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Jason Brandt

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 218 Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: executive function, memory disorders, dementia, neuropsychology, cognitive assessment

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mission of the Cognitive Neuroscience section is to showcase the finest theoretical work and empirical research in this quickly evolving field. The scope of the section is broad, including research on brain mechanisms underlying attention, memory, spatial cognition, executive function, and social behavior. Submission of work in psychophysiology (both human and animal) and neuropsychology (both experimental and clinical) is particularly welcome.

Prof. Jason Brandt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cognition, cognitive
  • neuropsychology
  • memory
  • spatial attention
  • social cognition
  • executive function
  • lesion
  • dysfunction
  • cortex

Published Papers (9 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessArticle
A Laboratory Word Memory Test Analogue Differentiates Intentional Feigning from True Responding Using the P300 Event-Related Potential
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050109
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Symptom exaggeration and feigned cognitive impairment occur commonly in forensic and medicolegal evaluations. As a result, methods to detect feigned cognitive impairment are an indispensable component of neuropsychological assessments. This study reports the results of two neurophysiological experiments using a forced-choice recognition task [...] Read more.
Symptom exaggeration and feigned cognitive impairment occur commonly in forensic and medicolegal evaluations. As a result, methods to detect feigned cognitive impairment are an indispensable component of neuropsychological assessments. This study reports the results of two neurophysiological experiments using a forced-choice recognition task built from the stimuli of the Word Memory Test and Medical Symptom Validity Test as well as a new linguistically informed stimulus set. Participant volunteers were instructed either to do their best or to feign cognitive impairment consistent with a mild traumatic brain injury while their brain activity was monitored using event-related potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 varied instructions across individuals, whereas Experiment 2 varied instructions within individuals. The target brain component was a positive deflection indicating stimulus recognition that occurs approximately 300 ms after exposure to a stimulus (i.e., the P300). Multimodal comparison (P300 amplitude to behavioral accuracy) allowed the detection of feigned cognitive impairment. Results indicate that, for correct responses, P300s were equivalent for the simulated malingering and good effort conditions. However, for incorrect responses, feigned impairment produced reliable but significantly reduced P300 amplitudes. Although the P300 is an automatic index of recognition—even when knowledge is hidden—its amplitude appears capable of modulation by feigning strategies. Implications of this finding are discussed for research and clinical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Well-Established Attitudes Towards Popular Brands? Your Brain Says Yes Even Though Your Mouth Says No
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050106
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
In the present study, using both implicit and explicit measures, we addressed the issue of whether strongly developed relationships towards brands could be modified through the use of evaluative conditioning. Using an online survey, individual participant brand lists were created, and formed the [...] Read more.
In the present study, using both implicit and explicit measures, we addressed the issue of whether strongly developed relationships towards brands could be modified through the use of evaluative conditioning. Using an online survey, individual participant brand lists were created, and formed the basis of this experiment. Participants were then exposed to conditioning during a longitudinal study. Throughout the experiment, a combination of explicit and implicit measures was used to assess changes in attitude. Specifically, participants were asked to rate the brand names on a Likert-type scale. Simultaneously, changes in the brains electrical activity in response to the brands were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG). Upon completion of this task, participants underwent two Implicit Association Tests (IAT; one for liked brands and one for disliked brands). There were two main findings of this study. Firstly, no significant changes in attitude were observed via the use of explicit measures, and those that were found relating to the IAT were regarded as questionable. Secondly, EEG presented consistent results which showed that conditioning elicited changes in cortical activity towards both liked and disliked brands, which suggest it may be a useful tool in measuring the impact of evaluative conditioning that is not reflected in verbal responses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Temporal Effects of Acute Exercise on Episodic Memory Function: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040087
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to [...] Read more.
Background: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of study characteristics (e.g., exercise modality, intensity and duration of acute exercise) and participant attributes (e.g., age, sex) across each of the temporal periods of acute exercise on episodic memory (i.e., acute exercise occurring before memory encoding, and during memory encoding, early consolidation, and late consolidation). Methods: The following databases were used for our computerized searches: Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Sports Discus and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they: (1) Employed an experimental design with a comparison to a control group/visit, (2) included human participants, (3) evaluated exercise as the independent variable, (4) employed an acute bout of exercise (defined as a single bout of exercise), (5) evaluated episodic memory as the outcome variable (defined as the retrospective recall of information either in a spatial or temporal manner), and (6) provided sufficient data (e.g., mean, SD, and sample size) for a pooled effect size estimate. Results: In total, 25 articles met our inclusionary criteria and were meta-analyzed. Acute exercise occurring before memory encoding (d = 0.11, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.23, p = 0.08), during early memory consolidation (d = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.67; p < 0.001) and during late memory consolidation (d = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.32, 1.78; p = 0.005) enhanced episodic memory function. Conversely, acute exercise occurring during memory encoding had a negative effect on episodic memory (d = −0.12, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.02; p = 0.02). Various study designs and participant characteristics moderated the temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function. For example, vigorous-intensity acute exercise, and acute exercise among young adults, had greater effects when the acute bout of exercise occurred before memory encoding or during the early memory consolidation period. Conclusions: The timing of acute exercise plays an important role in the exercise-memory interaction. Various exercise- and participant-related characteristics moderate this temporal relationship. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Cognitive Function in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040085
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Cognitive disorders are reported to be common in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS). In some cases, they are the first clinical manifestation, preceding the diagnosis of pSS by two years on average. Aim: A systematic review was conducted to explore cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: Cognitive disorders are reported to be common in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS). In some cases, they are the first clinical manifestation, preceding the diagnosis of pSS by two years on average. Aim: A systematic review was conducted to explore cognitive impairment in pSS, with reference to diagnostic methods and their relationship with laboratory data and clinical manifestations. Materials and Methods: According to the PRISMA 2009 checklist, we carried out a comprehensive literature search in the three main bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO (NICE HDAS interface). The following main search terms were used: primary Sjogren syndrome, neurological manifestations, fatigue, cognitive functions, psychiatric manifestations, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and neurocognitive disorder. The search was made on 14 September, 2018. References from all selected studies were also examined. Inclusion criteria were: all studies and case-reports published in any language from 2002 that assessed the association of pSS (according to classification criteria proposed by the 2002 American/European collaborative group (AECG)) with all types of cognitive impairment (including dementia). Exclusion criteria were: reviews, abstracts, secondary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), and all articles in which other classification criteria were used. Results: The initial search yielded 352 articles, of which 253 were excluded based on the title and abstract review. A total of 54 articles underwent a full-length review, and 32 articles were excluded. Data were extracted from 18 studies and three case-reports involving a total of 6196 participants. In most cases, cognitive dysfunction was a brain fog or a mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Occasionally, an autoimmune dementia was present. The relationship between pSS and degenerative dementias, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), was a controversial issue, even if some investigators hypothesized that pSS could be a risk factor. Several unmet needs were highlighted. First, some of the included studies had not reported the severity of pSS; hence, few correlations between disease severity and cognitive function were possible. Secondly, the evaluation of the pathogenetic role of comorbid diseases was often absent. The lack of information on the type of dementia represented a third critical point in the majority of the included studies. Conclusions: This systematic review confirmed that adequate studies on cognitive function in pSS are scarce, mostly performed on small-sized samples, and often conflicting. The routine assessment of cognitive function in patients with pSS seems advisable and it will help to elucidate some of the unmet needs highlighted by this review in future appropriately designed studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Olfactory Event-Related Potentials and Exhaled Organic Volatile Compounds: The Slow Link Between Olfactory Perception and Breath Metabolic Response. A Pilot Study on Phenylethyl Alcohol and Vaseline Oil
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040084
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i.e., N1 and Late [...] Read more.
Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i.e., N1 and Late Positive Component LPC) and exhaled VOCs has not been investigated enough. The aim of this research is to study OERPs and VOCs connection to two different stimuli: phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Vaseline Oil (VO). Fifteen healthy subjects performed a perceptual olfactory task with PEA as a smell target stimulus and VO as a neutral stimulus. The results suggest that OERPs and VOCs distributions follow the same amplitude trend and that PEA is highly arousing in both psychophysiological measures. PEA shows ampler and faster N1, a component related to the sensorial aspect of the stimulus. The N1 topographic localization is different between PEA and VO: PEA stimulus evokes greater N1 in the left centroparietal site. LPC, a component elicited by the perceptual characteristic of the stimulus, shows faster latency in the Frontal lobe and decreased amplitude in the Central and Parietal lobe elicited by the PEA smell. Moreover, the delayed time between the onset of N1-LPC and the onset of VOCs seems to be about 3 s. This delay could be identified as the internal metabolic time in which the odorous stimulus, once perceived at the cortical level, is metabolized and subsequently exhaled. Furthermore, the VO stimulus does not allocate the attentive, perceptive and metabolic resource as with PEA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hand and Foot Massage Therapy on Psychological Factors and EEG Activity in Elderly People Requiring Long-Term Care: A Randomized Cross-Over Study
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030054
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Massage therapy is widely used as a complementary therapy in the elderly. Here, we investigate the effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. We included 12 elderly people requiring long-term [...] Read more.
Massage therapy is widely used as a complementary therapy in the elderly. Here, we investigate the effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. We included 12 elderly people requiring long-term care, who were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Group A received hand massage and group B received foot massage, both for 15 min each. After 1 week, group A received foot massage and group B received hand massage, both for 15 min each. We assessed emotions and mood states with a Likert scale after each massage and resting-state EEG activity was measured before and after each massage. Our results showed that both hand and foot massage led to a high degree of pleasant, relaxed, and refreshed feelings. Moreover, resting-state alpha activity significantly increased in the left insular cortex after hand massage (p < 0.05), and in the right and left posterior cingulate cortex after foot massage (p < 0.05). This study suggests that hand and foot massage therapy modulate psychological factors and EEG activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Functional NIRS Study of Brain Functional Networks Induced by Social Time Coordination
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020043
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
The ability to coordinate one’s behavior with the others’ behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between [...] Read more.
The ability to coordinate one’s behavior with the others’ behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between time coordination and brain function. Furthermore, using brain functional network analysis based on graph theory, we examined important brain regions and network structures that serve as the hub when performing the synchronized tapping task. Using the data clustering method, two types of brain function networks were extracted and associated with time coordination, suggesting that they were involved in expectation and imitation behaviors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Connectivity Analysis Using Functional Brain Networks to Evaluate Cognitive Activity during 3D Modelling
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020024
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Modelling 3D objects in CAD software requires special skills which require a novice user to undergo a series of training exercises to obtain. To minimize the training time for a novice user, the user-dependent factors must be studied. we have presented a comparative [...] Read more.
Modelling 3D objects in CAD software requires special skills which require a novice user to undergo a series of training exercises to obtain. To minimize the training time for a novice user, the user-dependent factors must be studied. we have presented a comparative analysis of novice/expert information flow patterns. We have used Normalized Transfer Entropy (NTE) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) to investigate the differences. The experiment was divided into three cognitive states i.e., rest, drawing, and manipulation. We applied classification algorithms on NTE matrices and graph theory measures to see the effectiveness of NTE. The results revealed that the experts show approximately the same cognitive activation in drawing and manipulation states, whereas for novices the brain activation is more in manipulation state than drawing state. The hemisphere- and lobe-wise analysis showed that expert users have developed an ability to control the information flow in various brain regions. On the other hand, novice users have shown a continuous increase in information flow activity in almost all regions when doing drawing and manipulation tasks. A classification accuracy of more than 90% was achieved with a simple K-nearest neighbors (k-NN) to classify novice and expert users. The results showed that the proposed technique can be used to develop adaptive 3D modelling systems. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in a Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Epilepsy Model in the Rat
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(12), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120215
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
The selective retrieval of some information may lead to the forgetting of related, but non-retrieved information. This memory phenomenon is termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Active inhibition is thought to function to resolve interference from competing information during retrieval, which results in forgetting. Epilepsy [...] Read more.
The selective retrieval of some information may lead to the forgetting of related, but non-retrieved information. This memory phenomenon is termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Active inhibition is thought to function to resolve interference from competing information during retrieval, which results in forgetting. Epilepsy is associated with impaired inhibitory control that contributes to executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether rats in a kindling model of epilepsy demonstrate normal levels of RIF. Rats were divided into two groups: saline and kindling. Pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally until the rats kindled. RIF was tested using a modified version of the spontaneous object recognition test, consisting of a sample phase, retrieval or interference phase, and a test phase. Exploration time for each object was analyzed. RIF was demonstrated in the saline group when rats subjected to the retrieval phase failed to discriminate between the familiar object and the novel object later in the test phase. Kindled rats, on the other hand, did not suffer forgetting even when they were subjected to the retrieval phase, as they spent significantly longer times exploring the novel rather than the familiar object in the test phase. Therefore, RIF was not observed in the kindling group. These findings indicate impaired retrieval-induced forgetting in kindled rats, which may be suggestive of a deficit in the inhibitory control of memory. Full article
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