Topical Collection "Collection on Cognitive Neuroscience"

A topical collection in Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This collection belongs to the section "Cognitive Neuroscience".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Jason Brandt
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 218 Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Interests: executive function, memory disorders, dementia, neuropsychology, cognitive assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The mission of the Cognitive Neuroscience section is to showcase the finest theoretical work and empirical research in this quickly evolving field. The scope of the section is broad, including research on brain mechanisms underlying attention, memory, spatial cognition, executive function, and social behavior. Submission of work in psychophysiology (both human and animal) and neuropsychology (both experimental and clinical) is particularly welcome.

Prof. Jason Brandt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cognition, cognitive
  • neuropsychology
  • memory
  • spatial attention
  • social cognition
  • executive function
  • lesion
  • dysfunction
  • cortex

Published Papers (23 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019, 2018

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation with Cognitive Training in Girls with Rett Syndrome
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050276 (registering DOI) - 02 May 2020
Abstract
Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) combined with traditional rehabilitative techniques has not been widely applied to Rett Syndrome (RTT). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined cognitive traditional training with tDCS applied to attention and language measures [...] Read more.
Background: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) combined with traditional rehabilitative techniques has not been widely applied to Rett Syndrome (RTT). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined cognitive traditional training with tDCS applied to attention and language measures in subjects with RTT. Methods: 31 subjects with RTT were randomly allocated into two groups: non-sham tDCS (n = 18) and sham tDCS (n = 13). The former received the integrated intervention non-sham tDCS plus cognitive empowerment during the treatment phase. The latter received sham stimulation plus cognitive empowerment. All participants underwent neurological and cognitive assessment to evaluate attention and language measures: before integrated treatment (pre-test phase), at the conclusion of the treatment (post-test phase), and at 1 month after the conclusion of the treatment (follow-up phase). Results: the results indicated longer attention time in the non-sham tDCS group compared to the sham tDCS group with a stable trend also in the follow-up phase; an increase of the number of vowel/phoneme sounds in the non-sham tDCS group; and an improvement in the neurophysiological parameters in the non-sham tDCS group. Conclusions: This study supports the use of tDCS as a promising and alternative approach in the RTT rehabilitation field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive and Emotional Aspects of Cupping Therapy
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10030144 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cupping therapy has recently gained public attention and is widely used in many regions. Some patients are resistant to being treated with cupping therapy, as visually unpleasant marks on the skin may elicit negative reactions. This study aimed to identify the cognitive and [...] Read more.
Cupping therapy has recently gained public attention and is widely used in many regions. Some patients are resistant to being treated with cupping therapy, as visually unpleasant marks on the skin may elicit negative reactions. This study aimed to identify the cognitive and emotional components of cupping therapy. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were presented with emotionally evocative visual stimuli representing fear, disgust, happiness, neutral emotion, and cupping, along with control images. Participants evaluated the valence and arousal level of each stimulus. Before the experiment, they completed the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III. In two-dimensional affective space, emotional arousal increases as hedonic valence ratings become increasingly pleasant or unpleasant. Cupping therapy images were more unpleasant and more arousing than the control images. Cluster analysis showed that the response to cupping therapy images had emotional characteristics similar to those for fear images. Individuals with a greater fear of pain rated cupping therapy images as more unpleasant and more arousing. Psychophysical analysis showed that individuals experienced unpleasant and aroused emotional states in response to the cupping therapy images. Our findings suggest that cupping therapy might be associated with unpleasant-defensive motivation and motivational activation. Determining the emotional components of cupping therapy would help clinicians and researchers to understand the intrinsic effects of cupping therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Processing of Complex Geometric Forms in a Visual Memory Task Increases P2 Amplitude
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020114 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
We study the cognitive processing of visual working memory in three different conditions of memory load and configuration change. Altering this features has been shown to alter the brain’s processing in memory tasks. Most studies dealing with this issue have used the verbal-phonological [...] Read more.
We study the cognitive processing of visual working memory in three different conditions of memory load and configuration change. Altering this features has been shown to alter the brain’s processing in memory tasks. Most studies dealing with this issue have used the verbal-phonological modality. We use complex geometric polygons to assess visual working memory in a modified change detection task. Three different types of backgrounds were used to manipulate memory loading and 18 complex geometric polygons to manipulate stimuli configuration. The goal of our study was to test whether the memory load and configuration affect the correct-recall ratios. We expected that increasing visual items loading and changing configuration of items would induce differences in working memory performance. Brain activity related to the task was assessed through event-related potentials (ERP), during the test phase of each trial. Our results showed that visual items loading and changing of item configuration affect working memory on test phase on ERP component P2, but does not affect performance. However frontal related ERP component—P3—was minimally affected by visual memory loading or configuration changing, supporting that working memory is related to a filtering processing in posterior brain regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CINET: A Brain-Inspired Deep Learning Context-Integrating Neural Network Model for Resolving Ambiguous Stimuli
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10020064 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The brain uses contextual information to uniquely resolve the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. This paper introduces a deep learning neural network classification model that emulates this ability by integrating weighted bidirectional context into the classification process. The model, referred to as the CINET, [...] Read more.
The brain uses contextual information to uniquely resolve the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. This paper introduces a deep learning neural network classification model that emulates this ability by integrating weighted bidirectional context into the classification process. The model, referred to as the CINET, is implemented using a convolution neural network (CNN), which is shown to be ideal for combining target and context stimuli and for extracting coupled target-context features. The CINET parameters can be manipulated to simulate congruent and incongruent context environments and to manipulate target-context stimuli relationships. The formulation of the CINET is quite general; consequently, it is not restricted to stimuli in any particular sensory modality nor to the dimensionality of the stimuli. A broad range of experiments is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the CINET in resolving ambiguous visual stimuli and in improving the classification of non-ambiguous visual stimuli in various contextual environments. The fact that the performance improves through the inclusion of context can be exploited to design robust brain-inspired machine learning algorithms. It is interesting to note that the CINET is a classification model that is inspired by a combination of brain’s ability to integrate contextual information and the CNN, which is inspired by the hierarchical processing of information in the visual cortex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Aging on the ERP Correlates of Feedback Processing in the Probabilistic Selection Task
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010040 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
Feedback processing contributes to efficient learning, decision making, and social interaction. Studies using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal that feedback processing is associated with transient ERP components over the medial frontal and posterior regions of the scalp that distinguish between positive and negative [...] Read more.
Feedback processing contributes to efficient learning, decision making, and social interaction. Studies using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal that feedback processing is associated with transient ERP components over the medial frontal and posterior regions of the scalp that distinguish between positive and negative feedback. There is some evidence indicating that aging has differential effects on the ERP correlates of feedback processing in a gambling task, and the current study was designed to extend these findings to a reinforcement learning paradigm. Younger and older adults performed the probabilistic selection task while ERPs elicited by feedback cues indicating a correct or incorrect choice were recorded during the learning phase. The ERPs revealed that the amplitude of the feedback negativity and frontal P3 were attenuated in older adults relative to younger adults. The amplitude of a temporal positivity was also attenuated in older adults; in contrast, the amplitude of an occipital negativity was insensitive to the effects of aging. These findings indicate that aging may be associated with the disruption of both local activity and long-range connectivity between neural structures related to feedback processing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Hyperscanning to Investigate the Role of Social, Affective, and Informative Gestures in Non-Verbal Communication. Electrophysiological (EEG) and Inter-Brain Connectivity Evidence
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010029 - 05 Jan 2020
Abstract
Communication can be considered as a joint action that involves two or more individuals transmitting different information. In particular, non-verbal communication involves body movements used to communicate different information, characterized by the use of specific gestures. The present study aims to investigate the [...] Read more.
Communication can be considered as a joint action that involves two or more individuals transmitting different information. In particular, non-verbal communication involves body movements used to communicate different information, characterized by the use of specific gestures. The present study aims to investigate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates underlying the use of affective, social, and informative gestures during a non-verbal interaction between an encoder and decoder. From the results of the single brain and inter-brain analyses, an increase of frontal alpha, delta, and theta brain responsiveness and inter-brain connectivity emerged for affective and social gestures; while, for informative gestures, an increase of parietal alpha brain responsiveness and alpha, delta, and theta inter-brain connectivity was observed. Regarding the inter-agents’ role, an increase of frontal alpha activity was observed in the encoder compared to the decoder for social and affective gestures. Finally, regarding gesture valence, an increase of theta brain responsiveness and theta and beta inter-brain connectivity was observed for positive gestures on the left side compared to the right one. This study, therefore, revealed the function of the gesture type and valence in influencing individuals’ brain responsiveness and inter-brain connectivity, showing the presence of resonance mechanisms underlying gesture execution and observation. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020, 2018

Open AccessReview
A Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Measures of Wisconsin Card Sorting and Intelligence
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120349 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) represents a widely utilized neuropsychological assessment technique for executive function. This meta-analysis examined the discriminant validity of the WCST for the assessment of mental shifting, considered as an essential subcomponent of executive functioning, against traditional psychometric intelligence [...] Read more.
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) represents a widely utilized neuropsychological assessment technique for executive function. This meta-analysis examined the discriminant validity of the WCST for the assessment of mental shifting, considered as an essential subcomponent of executive functioning, against traditional psychometric intelligence tests. A systematic search was conducted, resulting in 72 neuropsychological samples for the meta-analysis of relationships between WCST scores and a variety of intelligence quotient (IQ) domains. The study revealed low to medium-sized correlations with IQ domains across all WCST scores that could be investigated. Verbal/crystallized IQ and performance/fluid IQ were indistinguishably associated with WCST scores. To conclude, the WCST assesses cognitive functions that might be partially separable from common conceptualizations of intelligence. More vigorous initiatives to validate putative indicators of executive function against intelligence are required. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Does Video Gaming Have Impacts on the Brain: Evidence from a Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100251 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
Video gaming, the experience of playing electronic games, has shown several benefits for human health. Recently, numerous video gaming studies showed beneficial effects on cognition and the brain. A systematic review of video gaming has been published. However, the previous systematic review has [...] Read more.
Video gaming, the experience of playing electronic games, has shown several benefits for human health. Recently, numerous video gaming studies showed beneficial effects on cognition and the brain. A systematic review of video gaming has been published. However, the previous systematic review has several differences to this systematic review. This systematic review evaluates the beneficial effects of video gaming on neuroplasticity specifically on intervention studies. Literature research was conducted from randomized controlled trials in PubMed and Google Scholar published after 2000. A systematic review was written instead of a meta-analytic review because of variations among participants, video games, and outcomes. Nine scientific articles were eligible for the review. Overall, the eligible articles showed fair quality according to Delphi Criteria. Video gaming affects the brain structure and function depending on how the game is played. The game genres examined were 3D adventure, first-person shooting (FPS), puzzle, rhythm dance, and strategy. The total training durations were 16–90 h. Results of this systematic review demonstrated that video gaming can be beneficial to the brain. However, the beneficial effects vary among video game types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physiological Correlates of Moral Decision-Making in the Professional Domain
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090229 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Moral decision-making is central to guide our social behavior, and it is based on emotional and cognitive reasoning processes. In the present research, we investigated the moral decision-making in a company context by the recording of autonomic responses (skin conductance response, heart rate [...] Read more.
Moral decision-making is central to guide our social behavior, and it is based on emotional and cognitive reasoning processes. In the present research, we investigated the moral decision-making in a company context by the recording of autonomic responses (skin conductance response, heart rate frequency, and variability), in three different moral conditions (professional fit, company fit, social fit) and three different offers (fair, unfair, neutral). In particular, the first professional fit condition required participants to accept or reject some offers proposing the money subdivision for a work done together with a colleague. The second company fit condition required participants to evaluate offers regarding the investment of a part of the money in the introduction of some company’s benefits. Finally, the third social fit condition required participants to accept or refuse a money subdivision to support a colleague’s relative with health problems financially. Results underlined the significant effect of both the condition, with increased autonomic effects more for personal and social than company fit, and the offer type, with differences for fair and neutral offers compared to unfair ones. This research shows how individual, situational, and contextual factors influence moral decision-making in a company context. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Vigilance Decrement and Enhancement Techniques: A Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080178 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor towards such contradictory results. Furthermore, the paper reveals the effectiveness of unconventional means of enhancement in significant reduction of vigilance decrement compared to conventional means. Meanwhile, a discussion on the challenges of enhancement techniques is presented, with several suggested recommendations and alternative strategies to maintain an adequate level of vigilance for the task at hand. Additionally, this review provides evidence in support of the use of unconventional means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Dual-Site Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Probe Connectivity between the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex in Humans
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080177 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be used to probe functional connectivity between these regions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of DLPFC stimulation on ipsilateral M1 excitability while [...] Read more.
Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be used to probe functional connectivity between these regions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of DLPFC stimulation on ipsilateral M1 excitability while participants were at rest and contracting the left- and right-hand first dorsal interosseous muscle. Twelve participants were tested in two separate sessions at varying inter-stimulus intervals (ISI: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, and 20 ms) at two different conditioning stimulus intensities (80% and 120% of resting motor threshold). No significant effect on ipsilateral M1 excitability was found when applying a conditioning stimulus over DLPFC at any specific inter-stimulus interval or intensity in either the left or right hemisphere. Our findings suggest neither causal inhibitory nor faciliatory influences of DLPFC on ipsilateral M1 activity while participants were at rest or when performing an isometric contraction in the target hand muscle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
White Matter Hyperintensity Regression: Comparison of Brain Atrophy and Cognitive Profiles with Progression and Stable Groups
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(7), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9070170 - 19 Jul 2019
Abstract
Subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the aging population frequently represent vascular injury that may lead to cognitive impairment. WMH progression is well described, but the factors underlying WMH regression remain poorly understood. A sample of 351 participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging [...] Read more.
Subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the aging population frequently represent vascular injury that may lead to cognitive impairment. WMH progression is well described, but the factors underlying WMH regression remain poorly understood. A sample of 351 participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 (ADNI2) was explored who had WMH volumetric quantification, structural brain measures, and cognitive measures (memory and executive function) at baseline and after approximately 2 years. Selected participants were categorized into three groups based on WMH change over time, including those that demonstrated regression (n = 96; 25.5%), stability (n = 72; 19.1%), and progression (n = 209; 55.4%). There were no significant differences in age, education, sex, or cognitive status between groups. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences in atrophy between the progression and both regression (p = 0.004) and stable groups (p = 0.012). Memory assessments improved over time in the regression and stable groups but declined in the progression group (p = 0.003; p = 0.018). WMH regression is associated with decreased brain atrophy and improvement in memory performance over two years compared to those with WMH progression, in whom memory and brain atrophy worsened. These data suggest that WMHs are dynamic and associated with changes in atrophy and cognition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Mental Stimulation Program of Computer and Internet Learning on Cognitive Functions and Wellbeing in Older Community-Dwelling Mexicans
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(7), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9070151 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: It has been reported that Mental Stimulation (MS) has a positive effect on cognitive functions and wellbeing. In this sense, different training activities have been proposed for MS such as theater, learning a new language, playing a musical instrument and computing, however, [...] Read more.
Background: It has been reported that Mental Stimulation (MS) has a positive effect on cognitive functions and wellbeing. In this sense, different training activities have been proposed for MS such as theater, learning a new language, playing a musical instrument and computing, however, there are few studies on older adults in Latin American countries. For this reason, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a mental stimulation program (MSP) of computer and Internet learning on cognitive functions and wellbeing in older community-dwelling Mexicans. Method: A quasi-experimental pilot study was carried out in a convenience sample of 27 adults aged 60 to 69 years, without knowledge of the use of computers and Internet, without chronic non-communicable diseases, depression or cognitive impairment. Two groups were formed: (i) experimental (EG), n = 16 and (ii) control (CG), n = 11. The EG participated in an MSP in which 20 theoretical/practical sessions of two hours each were given, two times a week, on computer and Internet. The CG did not participate in any scheduled activity. All participants were measured before and after the intervention program in processing speed (PS), cognitive inhibition (CI), working and episodicmemory (WM and EM), visuospatial processing (VP), life satisfaction (LS) and positive and negative emotions (PE and NE). Results: After participation in the MSP, the EG showed significantly higher scores on the EM and VP tests compared to the CG (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that an MSP of computer and Internet learning improves episodicmemory and visuospatial processing in older community-dwelling Mexicans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Levels of Control Processes for Wisconsin Card Sorts: An Observational Study
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060141 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
We explored short-term behavioral plasticity on the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) by deriving novel error metrics by stratifying traditional set loss and perseverative errors. Separating the rule set and the response set allowed for the measurement of performance across four trial [...] Read more.
We explored short-term behavioral plasticity on the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) by deriving novel error metrics by stratifying traditional set loss and perseverative errors. Separating the rule set and the response set allowed for the measurement of performance across four trial types, crossing rule set (i.e., maintain vs. switch) and response demand (i.e., repeat vs. alternate). Critically, these four trial types can be grouped based on trial-wise feedback on t − 1 trials. Rewarded (correct) maintain t − 1 trials should lead to error enhancement when the response demands shift from repeat to alternate. In contrast, punished (incorrect) t − 1 trials should lead to error suppression when the response demands shift from repeat to alternate. The results supported the error suppression prediction: An error suppression effect (ESE) was observed across numerous patient samples. Exploratory analyses show that the ESE did not share substantial portions of variance with traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. They further point into the direction that striatal or limbic circuit neuropathology may be associated with enhanced ESE. These data suggest that punishment of the recently executed response induces behavioral avoidance, which is detectable as the ESE on the WCST. The assessment of the ESE might provide an index of response-related avoidance learning on the WCST. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Laboratory Word Memory Test Analogue Differentiates Intentional Feigning from True Responding Using the P300 Event-Related Potential
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050109 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Symptom exaggeration and feigned cognitive impairment occur commonly in forensic and medicolegal evaluations. As a result, methods to detect feigned cognitive impairment are an indispensable component of neuropsychological assessments. This study reports the results of two neurophysiological experiments using a forced-choice recognition task [...] Read more.
Symptom exaggeration and feigned cognitive impairment occur commonly in forensic and medicolegal evaluations. As a result, methods to detect feigned cognitive impairment are an indispensable component of neuropsychological assessments. This study reports the results of two neurophysiological experiments using a forced-choice recognition task built from the stimuli of the Word Memory Test and Medical Symptom Validity Test as well as a new linguistically informed stimulus set. Participant volunteers were instructed either to do their best or to feign cognitive impairment consistent with a mild traumatic brain injury while their brain activity was monitored using event-related potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 varied instructions across individuals, whereas Experiment 2 varied instructions within individuals. The target brain component was a positive deflection indicating stimulus recognition that occurs approximately 300 ms after exposure to a stimulus (i.e., the P300). Multimodal comparison (P300 amplitude to behavioral accuracy) allowed the detection of feigned cognitive impairment. Results indicate that, for correct responses, P300s were equivalent for the simulated malingering and good effort conditions. However, for incorrect responses, feigned impairment produced reliable but significantly reduced P300 amplitudes. Although the P300 is an automatic index of recognition—even when knowledge is hidden—its amplitude appears capable of modulation by feigning strategies. Implications of this finding are discussed for research and clinical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Well-Established Attitudes Towards Popular Brands? Your Brain Says Yes Even Though Your Mouth Says No
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050106 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
In the present study, using both implicit and explicit measures, we addressed the issue of whether strongly developed relationships towards brands could be modified through the use of evaluative conditioning. Using an online survey, individual participant brand lists were created, and formed the [...] Read more.
In the present study, using both implicit and explicit measures, we addressed the issue of whether strongly developed relationships towards brands could be modified through the use of evaluative conditioning. Using an online survey, individual participant brand lists were created, and formed the basis of this experiment. Participants were then exposed to conditioning during a longitudinal study. Throughout the experiment, a combination of explicit and implicit measures was used to assess changes in attitude. Specifically, participants were asked to rate the brand names on a Likert-type scale. Simultaneously, changes in the brains electrical activity in response to the brands were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG). Upon completion of this task, participants underwent two Implicit Association Tests (IAT; one for liked brands and one for disliked brands). There were two main findings of this study. Firstly, no significant changes in attitude were observed via the use of explicit measures, and those that were found relating to the IAT were regarded as questionable. Secondly, EEG presented consistent results which showed that conditioning elicited changes in cortical activity towards both liked and disliked brands, which suggest it may be a useful tool in measuring the impact of evaluative conditioning that is not reflected in verbal responses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Temporal Effects of Acute Exercise on Episodic Memory Function: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040087 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
Background: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to [...] Read more.
Background: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of study characteristics (e.g., exercise modality, intensity and duration of acute exercise) and participant attributes (e.g., age, sex) across each of the temporal periods of acute exercise on episodic memory (i.e., acute exercise occurring before memory encoding, and during memory encoding, early consolidation, and late consolidation). Methods: The following databases were used for our computerized searches: Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Sports Discus and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they: (1) Employed an experimental design with a comparison to a control group/visit, (2) included human participants, (3) evaluated exercise as the independent variable, (4) employed an acute bout of exercise (defined as a single bout of exercise), (5) evaluated episodic memory as the outcome variable (defined as the retrospective recall of information either in a spatial or temporal manner), and (6) provided sufficient data (e.g., mean, SD, and sample size) for a pooled effect size estimate. Results: In total, 25 articles met our inclusionary criteria and were meta-analyzed. Acute exercise occurring before memory encoding (d = 0.11, 95% CI: −0.01, 0.23, p = 0.08), during early memory consolidation (d = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.67; p < 0.001) and during late memory consolidation (d = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.32, 1.78; p = 0.005) enhanced episodic memory function. Conversely, acute exercise occurring during memory encoding had a negative effect on episodic memory (d = −0.12, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.02; p = 0.02). Various study designs and participant characteristics moderated the temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function. For example, vigorous-intensity acute exercise, and acute exercise among young adults, had greater effects when the acute bout of exercise occurred before memory encoding or during the early memory consolidation period. Conclusions: The timing of acute exercise plays an important role in the exercise-memory interaction. Various exercise- and participant-related characteristics moderate this temporal relationship. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Cognitive Function in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040085 - 15 Apr 2019
Abstract
Background: Cognitive disorders are reported to be common in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS). In some cases, they are the first clinical manifestation, preceding the diagnosis of pSS by two years on average. Aim: A systematic review was conducted to explore cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: Cognitive disorders are reported to be common in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS). In some cases, they are the first clinical manifestation, preceding the diagnosis of pSS by two years on average. Aim: A systematic review was conducted to explore cognitive impairment in pSS, with reference to diagnostic methods and their relationship with laboratory data and clinical manifestations. Materials and Methods: According to the PRISMA 2009 checklist, we carried out a comprehensive literature search in the three main bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO (NICE HDAS interface). The following main search terms were used: primary Sjogren syndrome, neurological manifestations, fatigue, cognitive functions, psychiatric manifestations, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and neurocognitive disorder. The search was made on 14 September, 2018. References from all selected studies were also examined. Inclusion criteria were: all studies and case-reports published in any language from 2002 that assessed the association of pSS (according to classification criteria proposed by the 2002 American/European collaborative group (AECG)) with all types of cognitive impairment (including dementia). Exclusion criteria were: reviews, abstracts, secondary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), and all articles in which other classification criteria were used. Results: The initial search yielded 352 articles, of which 253 were excluded based on the title and abstract review. A total of 54 articles underwent a full-length review, and 32 articles were excluded. Data were extracted from 18 studies and three case-reports involving a total of 6196 participants. In most cases, cognitive dysfunction was a brain fog or a mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Occasionally, an autoimmune dementia was present. The relationship between pSS and degenerative dementias, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), was a controversial issue, even if some investigators hypothesized that pSS could be a risk factor. Several unmet needs were highlighted. First, some of the included studies had not reported the severity of pSS; hence, few correlations between disease severity and cognitive function were possible. Secondly, the evaluation of the pathogenetic role of comorbid diseases was often absent. The lack of information on the type of dementia represented a third critical point in the majority of the included studies. Conclusions: This systematic review confirmed that adequate studies on cognitive function in pSS are scarce, mostly performed on small-sized samples, and often conflicting. The routine assessment of cognitive function in patients with pSS seems advisable and it will help to elucidate some of the unmet needs highlighted by this review in future appropriately designed studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Olfactory Event-Related Potentials and Exhaled Organic Volatile Compounds: The Slow Link Between Olfactory Perception and Breath Metabolic Response. A Pilot Study on Phenylethyl Alcohol and Vaseline Oil
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040084 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i.e., N1 and Late [...] Read more.
Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i.e., N1 and Late Positive Component LPC) and exhaled VOCs has not been investigated enough. The aim of this research is to study OERPs and VOCs connection to two different stimuli: phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and Vaseline Oil (VO). Fifteen healthy subjects performed a perceptual olfactory task with PEA as a smell target stimulus and VO as a neutral stimulus. The results suggest that OERPs and VOCs distributions follow the same amplitude trend and that PEA is highly arousing in both psychophysiological measures. PEA shows ampler and faster N1, a component related to the sensorial aspect of the stimulus. The N1 topographic localization is different between PEA and VO: PEA stimulus evokes greater N1 in the left centroparietal site. LPC, a component elicited by the perceptual characteristic of the stimulus, shows faster latency in the Frontal lobe and decreased amplitude in the Central and Parietal lobe elicited by the PEA smell. Moreover, the delayed time between the onset of N1-LPC and the onset of VOCs seems to be about 3 s. This delay could be identified as the internal metabolic time in which the odorous stimulus, once perceived at the cortical level, is metabolized and subsequently exhaled. Furthermore, the VO stimulus does not allocate the attentive, perceptive and metabolic resource as with PEA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hand and Foot Massage Therapy on Psychological Factors and EEG Activity in Elderly People Requiring Long-Term Care: A Randomized Cross-Over Study
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030054 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Massage therapy is widely used as a complementary therapy in the elderly. Here, we investigate the effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. We included 12 elderly people requiring long-term [...] Read more.
Massage therapy is widely used as a complementary therapy in the elderly. Here, we investigate the effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. We included 12 elderly people requiring long-term care, who were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Group A received hand massage and group B received foot massage, both for 15 min each. After 1 week, group A received foot massage and group B received hand massage, both for 15 min each. We assessed emotions and mood states with a Likert scale after each massage and resting-state EEG activity was measured before and after each massage. Our results showed that both hand and foot massage led to a high degree of pleasant, relaxed, and refreshed feelings. Moreover, resting-state alpha activity significantly increased in the left insular cortex after hand massage (p < 0.05), and in the right and left posterior cingulate cortex after foot massage (p < 0.05). This study suggests that hand and foot massage therapy modulate psychological factors and EEG activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Functional NIRS Study of Brain Functional Networks Induced by Social Time Coordination
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020043 - 15 Feb 2019
Abstract
The ability to coordinate one’s behavior with the others’ behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between [...] Read more.
The ability to coordinate one’s behavior with the others’ behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between time coordination and brain function. Furthermore, using brain functional network analysis based on graph theory, we examined important brain regions and network structures that serve as the hub when performing the synchronized tapping task. Using the data clustering method, two types of brain function networks were extracted and associated with time coordination, suggesting that they were involved in expectation and imitation behaviors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Connectivity Analysis Using Functional Brain Networks to Evaluate Cognitive Activity during 3D Modelling
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020024 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Modelling 3D objects in CAD software requires special skills which require a novice user to undergo a series of training exercises to obtain. To minimize the training time for a novice user, the user-dependent factors must be studied. we have presented a comparative [...] Read more.
Modelling 3D objects in CAD software requires special skills which require a novice user to undergo a series of training exercises to obtain. To minimize the training time for a novice user, the user-dependent factors must be studied. we have presented a comparative analysis of novice/expert information flow patterns. We have used Normalized Transfer Entropy (NTE) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) to investigate the differences. The experiment was divided into three cognitive states i.e., rest, drawing, and manipulation. We applied classification algorithms on NTE matrices and graph theory measures to see the effectiveness of NTE. The results revealed that the experts show approximately the same cognitive activation in drawing and manipulation states, whereas for novices the brain activation is more in manipulation state than drawing state. The hemisphere- and lobe-wise analysis showed that expert users have developed an ability to control the information flow in various brain regions. On the other hand, novice users have shown a continuous increase in information flow activity in almost all regions when doing drawing and manipulation tasks. A classification accuracy of more than 90% was achieved with a simple K-nearest neighbors (k-NN) to classify novice and expert users. The results showed that the proposed technique can be used to develop adaptive 3D modelling systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in a Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Epilepsy Model in the Rat
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(12), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120215 - 05 Dec 2018
Abstract
The selective retrieval of some information may lead to the forgetting of related, but non-retrieved information. This memory phenomenon is termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Active inhibition is thought to function to resolve interference from competing information during retrieval, which results in forgetting. Epilepsy [...] Read more.
The selective retrieval of some information may lead to the forgetting of related, but non-retrieved information. This memory phenomenon is termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Active inhibition is thought to function to resolve interference from competing information during retrieval, which results in forgetting. Epilepsy is associated with impaired inhibitory control that contributes to executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether rats in a kindling model of epilepsy demonstrate normal levels of RIF. Rats were divided into two groups: saline and kindling. Pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally until the rats kindled. RIF was tested using a modified version of the spontaneous object recognition test, consisting of a sample phase, retrieval or interference phase, and a test phase. Exploration time for each object was analyzed. RIF was demonstrated in the saline group when rats subjected to the retrieval phase failed to discriminate between the familiar object and the novel object later in the test phase. Kindled rats, on the other hand, did not suffer forgetting even when they were subjected to the retrieval phase, as they spent significantly longer times exploring the novel rather than the familiar object in the test phase. Therefore, RIF was not observed in the kindling group. These findings indicate impaired retrieval-induced forgetting in kindled rats, which may be suggestive of a deficit in the inhibitory control of memory. Full article
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