Special Issue "Modulatory Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Distributed Brain Networks"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 July 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Andreas Horn
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurology, Movement Disorder and Neuromodulation Unit, Charité–Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: brain stimulation; DBS; connectivity and causality; MRI; movement disorders; Parkinson’s disease; dystonia; essential tremor; depression; OCD

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently experiencing a paradigm-shift, from studying impacts on local brain tissue toward the analysis of modulatory effects on distributed brain networks. With the rise of modern non-invasive neuroimaging methods, this local-to-global shift bears promising potential to better-understand brain disorders, brain function, and to translate novel concepts into clinical practice. Already, network-based targets that may guide surgical planning and DBS programming are being introduced and prospectively validated with the potential to revolutionize the field.

In this Special Issue, we will discuss the indications, potentials, efficacy and validation of network-based brain stimulation concepts with a special focus on DBS. These include the combination of DBS imaging with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging based tractography and electrophysiological measures such as electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and local field potential recordings.

Dr. Andreas Horn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • DBS
  • Brain Stimulation
  • Brain Connectivity
  • fMRI
  • dMRI
  • DTI
  • rs-fMRI
  • Tractography
  • Network Modulation
  • Parkinson‘s Disease
  • Dystonia
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Depression
  • Alzheimer‘s Disease

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Weight Change after Striatal/Capsule Deep Brain Stimulation Relates to Connectivity to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Hypothalamus
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100264 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Weight changes are insufficiently understood adverse events of deep brain stimulation. In this context, exploring neural networks of weight control may inform novel treatment strategies for weight-related disorders. In this study, we investigated weight changes after deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatum/ventral [...] Read more.
Weight changes are insufficiently understood adverse events of deep brain stimulation. In this context, exploring neural networks of weight control may inform novel treatment strategies for weight-related disorders. In this study, we investigated weight changes after deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatum/ventral capsule and to what extent changes are associated with connectivity to feeding-related networks. We retrospectively analyzed 25 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder or substance dependency. Weight changes were assessed preoperatively and six to twelve months after surgery and then matched with individual stimulation sites and stimulation-dependent functional connectivity to a priori defined regions of interest that are involved in food intake. We observed a significant weight gain after six to twelve months of continuous stimulation. Weight increases were associated with medial/apical localization of stimulation sites and with connectivity to hypothalamic areas and the bed nucleus. Thus, deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatum/ventral capsule influences weight depending on localization and connectivity of stimulation sites. Bearing in mind the significance of weight-related disorders, we advocate further prospective studies investigating the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological underpinnings of food intake and their neuromodulatory therapeutic potential. Full article
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Article
Local and Global Changes in Brain Metabolism during Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090220 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Recent approaches have suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder relies on distributed networks rather than local brain modulation. However, there is insufficient data on how DBS affects brain metabolism both locally and globally. We enrolled three patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive [...] Read more.
Recent approaches have suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder relies on distributed networks rather than local brain modulation. However, there is insufficient data on how DBS affects brain metabolism both locally and globally. We enrolled three patients with treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder with ongoing DBS of the bilateral ventral capsule/ventral striatum. Patients underwent resting-state 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography in both stimulation ON and OFF conditions. All subjects showed relative hypometabolism in prefronto-basal ganglia-thalamic networks compared to a healthy control cohort when stimulation was switched OFF. Switching the stimulation ON resulted in differential changes in brain metabolism. Locally, volumes of activated tissue at stimulation sites (n = 6) showed a significant increase in metabolism during DBS ON compared to DBS OFF (Mean difference 4.5% ± SD 2.8; p = 0.012). Globally, differential changes were observed across patients encompassing prefrontal increase in metabolism in ON vs. OFF condition. Bearing in mind limitations of the small sample size, we conclude that DBS of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder increases brain metabolism locally. Across distributed global networks, DBS appears to exert differential effects, possibly depending on localization of stimulation sites and response to the intervention. Full article
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Review

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Review
Local and Relayed Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030064 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Our discovery of low-threshold stimulation-induced locomotion in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) led to the clinical use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) that manifest gait and postural disorders. Three additional major discoveries on the [...] Read more.
Our discovery of low-threshold stimulation-induced locomotion in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) led to the clinical use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) that manifest gait and postural disorders. Three additional major discoveries on the properties of PPN neurons have opened new areas of research for the treatment of motor and arousal disorders. The description of (a) electrical coupling, (b) intrinsic gamma oscillations, and (c) gene regulation in the PPN has identified a number of novel therapeutic targets and methods for the treatment of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We first delve into the circuit, cellular, intracellular, and molecular organization of the PPN, and then consider the clinical results to date on PPN DBS. This comprehensive review will provide valuable information to explain the network effects of PPN DBS, point to new directions for treatment, and highlight a number of issues related to PPN DBS. Full article
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Review
How Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Accumbens Affects the Cingulate Gyrus and Vice Versa
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9010005 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2513
Abstract
The nucleus accumbens (NA) and the cingulate gyrus (CG) are two vital limbic brain structures. They have attracted attention as deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets in the treatment of common refractory psychiatric illness. The primary purpose of this article was to review the [...] Read more.
The nucleus accumbens (NA) and the cingulate gyrus (CG) are two vital limbic brain structures. They have attracted attention as deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets in the treatment of common refractory psychiatric illness. The primary purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge regarding the way that NA DBS affects the CG and vice versa. Methodologically, a thorough literature review was performed. According to the current literature, NA DBS modulates the function of several brain areas including the CG cortex. It specifically causes activation in the ipsilateral CG cortex and voltage-dependent reduction of its blood oxygenation. It also reverses anterior mid-CG cortex dysfunction and decreases metabolism in the subgenual CG. Moreover, NA DBS that induces mirth inhibits the function of the anterior CG cortex and enhances effective connectivity from anterior CG to the ventral striatum. On the other hand, although it is highly probable that CG DBS affects the NA, the exact nature of its effects remains unclear. Despite the increasing interest in psychiatric DBS, the available data on how NA DBS affects the CG and vice versa are restricted. This conclusion probably reflects the high complexity of the limbic circuits and necessitates further research. Full article
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Other

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Perspective
Neural Circuit and Clinical Insights from Intraoperative Recordings During Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(7), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9070173 - 20 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Observations using invasive neural recordings from patient populations undergoing neurosurgical interventions have led to critical breakthroughs in our understanding of human neural circuit function and malfunction. The opportunity to interact with patients during neurophysiological mapping allowed for early insights in functional localization to [...] Read more.
Observations using invasive neural recordings from patient populations undergoing neurosurgical interventions have led to critical breakthroughs in our understanding of human neural circuit function and malfunction. The opportunity to interact with patients during neurophysiological mapping allowed for early insights in functional localization to improve surgical outcomes, but has since expanded into exploring fundamental aspects of human cognition including reward processing, language, the storage and retrieval of memory, decision-making, as well as sensory and motor processing. The increasing use of chronic neuromodulation, via deep brain stimulation, for a spectrum of neurological and psychiatric conditions has in tandem led to increased opportunity for linking theories of cognitive processing and neural circuit function. Our purpose here is to motivate the neuroscience and neurosurgical community to capitalize on the opportunities that this next decade will bring. To this end, we will highlight recent studies that have successfully leveraged invasive recordings during deep brain stimulation surgery to advance our understanding of human cognition with an emphasis on reward processing, improving clinical outcomes, and informing advances in neuromodulatory interventions. Full article
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