EEG and Event-Related Potentials

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neural Engineering, Neuroergonomics and Neurorobotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 18 November 2024 | Viewed by 6091

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Psychology, Sigmund Freud Private University, Freudplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Interests: non-conscious affective and cognitive brain processes; memory; perception; self-referential processing; olfaction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electroencephalography (EEG) allows us to observe the brain at work, which enables us to tap into the non-conscious world of human brain functions with a millisecond time resolution. The true functioning of the brain is not entirely revealed to consciousness, and in order to get access to this knowledge, the design of an event-related experiment is most promising in terms of results. Well-selected stimuli are presented to study participants as independent variables, and as participants follow certain task instructions, their brain potentials are recorded and later calculated into even-related potentials (ERPs). Crucially, the non-conscious mind can think differently compared to the conscious mind. This is particularly so in the case of affective processing, which was never meant to be verbalized and is thus prone to misleading explicit responses (i.e. cognitive pollution of affective content). This Special Issue aims to collect papers that demonstrate how well ERPs show non-conscious cognitive and affective processing in the human brain.

Dr. Peter Walla
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • EEG
  • ERP
  • cognitive processing
  • affective processing
  • non-conscious
  • brain potentials
  • brain imaging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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14 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
Temporal–Posterior Alpha Power in Resting-State Electroencephalography as a Potential Marker of Complex Childhood Trauma in Institutionalized Adolescents
by Gabriela Mariana Marcu, Ciprian Ionuț Băcilă and Ana-Maria Zăgrean
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060584 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The present study explored whether, given the association of temporal alpha with fear circuitry (learning and conditioning), exposure to complex childhood trauma (CCT) is reflected in the temporal–posterior alpha power in resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) in complex trauma-exposed adolescents in a sample of 25 [...] Read more.
The present study explored whether, given the association of temporal alpha with fear circuitry (learning and conditioning), exposure to complex childhood trauma (CCT) is reflected in the temporal–posterior alpha power in resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) in complex trauma-exposed adolescents in a sample of 25 adolescents and similar controls aged 12–17 years. Both trauma and psychopathology were screened or assessed, and resting-state EEG was recorded following a preregistered protocol for data collection. Temporal–posterior alpha power, corresponding to the T5 and T6 electrode locations (international 10–20 system), was extracted from resting-state EEG in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. We found that in the eyes-open condition, temporal–posterior alpha was significantly lower in adolescents exposed to CCT relative to healthy controls, suggesting that childhood trauma exposure may have a measurable impact on alpha oscillatory patterns. Our study highlights the importance of considering potential neural markers, such as temporal–posterior alpha power, to understanding the long-term consequences of CCT exposure in developmental samples, with possible important clinical implications in guiding neuroregulation interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG and Event-Related Potentials)
17 pages, 2305 KiB  
Article
Motor Imagery Classification Using Effective Channel Selection of Multichannel EEG
by Abdullah Al Shiam, Kazi Mahmudul Hassan, Md. Rabiul Islam, Ahmed M. M. Almassri, Hiroaki Wagatsuma and Md. Khademul Islam Molla
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(5), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14050462 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Electroencephalography (EEG) is effectively employed to describe cognitive patterns corresponding to different tasks of motor functions for brain–computer interface (BCI) implementation. Explicit information processing is necessary to reduce the computational complexity of practical BCI systems. This paper presents an entropy-based approach to select [...] Read more.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is effectively employed to describe cognitive patterns corresponding to different tasks of motor functions for brain–computer interface (BCI) implementation. Explicit information processing is necessary to reduce the computational complexity of practical BCI systems. This paper presents an entropy-based approach to select effective EEG channels for motor imagery (MI) classification in brain–computer interface (BCI) systems. The method identifies channels with higher entropy scores, which is an indication of greater information content. It discards redundant or noisy channels leading to reduced computational complexity and improved classification accuracy. High entropy means a more disordered pattern, whereas low entropy means a less disordered pattern with less information. The entropy of each channel for individual trials is calculated. The weight of each channel is represented by the mean entropy of the channel over all the trials. A set of channels with higher mean entropy are selected as effective channels for MI classification. A limited number of sub-band signals are created by decomposing the selected channels. To extract the spatial features, the common spatial pattern (CSP) is applied to each sub-band space of EEG signals. The CSP-based features are used to classify the right-hand and right-foot MI tasks using a support vector machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated using two publicly available EEG datasets, known as BCI competition III–IV(A) and BCI competition IV–I. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach surpasses cutting-edge techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG and Event-Related Potentials)
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17 pages, 3049 KiB  
Article
Sonic Influence on Initially Neutral Brands: Using EEG to Unveil the Secrets of Audio Evaluative Conditioning
by Shannon Bosshard and Peter Walla
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13101393 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
The present study addresses the question of whether explicit, survey-type measures of attitude differ in sensitivity when compared to implicit, non-conscious measures of attitude in the context of attitude changes in response to evaluative conditioning (EC). In the frame of a pre-test, participants [...] Read more.
The present study addresses the question of whether explicit, survey-type measures of attitude differ in sensitivity when compared to implicit, non-conscious measures of attitude in the context of attitude changes in response to evaluative conditioning (EC). In the frame of a pre-test, participants rated 300 brand names on a Likert-type scale, the results of which were then used to create personalised lists of neutral brands. After this initial online component, the participants were exposed to one, five, and ten rounds of EC (during three separate sessions), during which half of the brands were paired with pleasant audio excerpts (positive EC) and the remainder were paired with unpleasant audio excerpts (negative EC). Following each conditioning round, the participants rated the brand names again, whilst changes in the brain’s electrical activity in response to the brands were recorded via electroencephalography (EEG). After having rated the brand names, the participants also completed two implicit association tests (IAT; one for each of the neutral conditions). The results revealed that self-reported, explicit responses of brand names remained unchanged despite having been conditioned. Similarly, the IAT did not reveal any declines in reaction time. In contrast, the EEG data appeared to not only be sensitive to initial brand ratings, but also the conditioning effects of initially neutral brands. Respective neurophysiological effects were found at frontal electrode locations AF3 and AF4 for a 1 s-long time window starting at 400 ms after stimulus onset. Furthermore, the EEG revealed that changes in brand attitude are more susceptible to the effects of negative conditioning than positive conditioning. Given the rather small sample size, any generalizability seems vague, but the present results provide scientific evidence that EEG could indeed be a valuable additional method to investigate EC effects. The results of this study support the notion of utilising a multidimensional approach, inclusive of neuroscience, to understanding consumer attitudes instead of solely relying on self-report measures. In the end, the brain knows more than it admits to consciousness and language, which is why objective methods should always be included in any study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG and Event-Related Potentials)
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19 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
The Use of Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) to Assess Post-COVID-19 Concentration Disorders in Professional Pilots: An Initial Concept
by Marta Kopańska, Łukasz Rydzik, Joanna Błajda, Izabela Sarzyńska, Katarzyna Jachymek, Tomasz Pałka, Tadeusz Ambroży and Jacek Szczygielski
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(9), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13091264 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Announced by WHO in 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected many people, leading to serious health consequences. These consequences are observed in the daily lives of infected patients as various dysfunctions and limitations. More and more people are suffering [...] Read more.
Announced by WHO in 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected many people, leading to serious health consequences. These consequences are observed in the daily lives of infected patients as various dysfunctions and limitations. More and more people are suffering post-COVID-19 complications that interfere with or completely prevent them from working or even functioning independently on a daily basis. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that innovative quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) can be used to assess cognitive function disorders reported after the COVID-19 pandemic. It is worth noting that no similar study has been conducted to date in a group of pilots. The QEEG method we used is currently one of the basic neurological examinations, enabling easy observation of post-COVID-19 changes in the nervous system. With the innovativeness of this technique, our study shows that the use of quantitative electroencephalography can be a precursor in identifying complications associated with cognitive function disorders after COVID-19. Our study was conducted on twelve 26-year-old pilots. All participants had attended the same flight academy and had contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pilots began to suspect COVID-19 infection when they developed typical symptoms such as loss of smell and taste, respiratory problems, and rapid fatigue. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), which is one of the most innovative forms of diagnostics, was used to diagnose the patients. Comparison of the results between the study and control groups showed significantly higher values of all measurements of alpha, theta, and beta2 waves in the study group. In the case of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), the measurement results were significantly higher in the control group compared to the study group. Our study, conducted on pilots who had recovered from COVID-19, showed changes in the amplitudes of brain waves associated with relaxation and concentration. The results confirmed the issues reported by pilots as evidenced by the increased amplitudes of alfa, theta, and beta2 waves. It should be emphasized that the modern diagnostic method (QEEG) presented here has significant importance in the medical diagnosis of various symptoms and observation of treatment effects in individuals who have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The present study demonstrated an innovative approach to the diagnosis of neurological complications after COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG and Event-Related Potentials)
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28 pages, 3584 KiB  
Systematic Review
Neuronal Correlates of Empathy: A Systematic Review of Event-Related Potentials Studies in Perceptual Tasks
by Rita Almeida, Catarina Prata, Mariana R. Pereira, Fernando Barbosa and Fernando Ferreira-Santos
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14050504 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Empathy is a crucial component to infer and understand others’ emotions. However, a synthesis of studies regarding empathy and its neuronal correlates in perceptual tasks using event-related potentials (ERPs) has yet to occur. The current systematic review aimed to provide that overview. Upon [...] Read more.
Empathy is a crucial component to infer and understand others’ emotions. However, a synthesis of studies regarding empathy and its neuronal correlates in perceptual tasks using event-related potentials (ERPs) has yet to occur. The current systematic review aimed to provide that overview. Upon bibliographic research, 30 studies featuring empathy assessments and at least one perceptual task measuring ERP components in healthy participants were included. Four main focus categories were identified, as follows: Affective Pictures, Facial Stimuli, Mental States, and Social Language. The Late Positive Potential was the most analyzed in Affective Pictures and was reported to be positively correlated with cognitive and affective empathy, along with other late components. In contrast, for Facial Stimuli, early components presented significant correlations with empathy scales. Particularly, the N170 presented negative correlations with cognitive and affective empathy. Finally, augmented N400 was suggested to be associated with higher empathy scores in the Mental States and Social Language categories. These findings highlight the relevance of early perceptual stages of empathic processing and how different EEG/ERP methodologies provide relevant information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EEG and Event-Related Potentials)
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