Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies

A topical collection in Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710). This collection belongs to the section "Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
1. Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (CI&DETS), Agrarian Higher School—Department of Food Industries, Quinta da Alagoa - Estrada de Nelas, 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
2. CQ-VR, Chemistry Research Centre, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wine; grapes; phenolic compounds; enology; winemaking; wine aging process
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Collection Editor
Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: food science and technology; winemaking; alcoholic beverages; grapes; wine; wine stability; wine quality; wine aging; wine safety; fining; phenolic compounds; proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Department of Food, Enviromental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Interests: microbiology; biotechnology; wine microbiology; microbial biodiversity; Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, yeast physiology; malolactic bacteria; melatonin; microbial biocontrol
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine and fermented beverages are currently a relevant topic in the food industries; in many countries, beverages are among the sectors with the highest added value.

Wine is probably the food with the highest number of references worldwide (more than 1 million). In fact, is difficult to find another human product with such a number of brands and labels, besides perhaps books or music. Simultaneously, wine is the most complex food from a sensory point of view, with a composition of several thousand molecules that makes it the most interesting beverage from a gustative perspective. Additionally, wine, as well as other fermented beverages, is a sensible product that needs gentle management from grape to bottle in order to maintain a high level of quality. This means that the production steps of grape processing, conservation fermentation, stabilization, ageing, bottling and storage must be designed to preserve and protect wine sensory profile. The use of traditional processes assisted by many emerging technologies and biotechnologies is essential to serve the consumer with a top product.

This Topical Collection, entitled “Wine and Beverages: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies”, covers many aspects of the fermentation and conservation technologies that are used to produce high quality wines and other fermented beverages, including: grape and other raw material quality assessment, fermentation technologies and biotechnologies, use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, controlled fermentations, malolactic fermentation, natural stabilization processes, stabilization additives, emerging non-thermal technologies, conventional and innovative ageing processes, control of spoilage microorganisms, and sensory quality.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Morata
Prof. Dr. António Manuel Jordão
Prof. Dr. Fernanda Cosme
Prof. Dr. Ileana Vigentini
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

22 pages, 1355 KiB  
Article
Fast and Non-Invasive Evaluation of Yeast Viability in Fermentation Processes Using Raman Spectroscopy and Machine Learning
by Raoul Heese, Jens Wetschky, Carina Rohmer, Susanne M. Bailer and Michael Bortz
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030068 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Fermentation processes used for producing alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and cider have a long history, having been developed early on across different civilizations. In most instances, yeast strains are used for fermentation processes, e.g., at breweries and wineries. Monitoring of yeast [...] Read more.
Fermentation processes used for producing alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and cider have a long history, having been developed early on across different civilizations. In most instances, yeast strains are used for fermentation processes, e.g., at breweries and wineries. Monitoring of yeast viability, cell count, and growth behavior is essential to ensure a controlled fermentation process. However, classical microbiological techniques to monitor fermentation process parameters are time-consuming and require sampling, along with the risk of contamination. Nowadays, industries are moving toward automation and digitalization. This necessitates state-of-the-art process analytical technologies to ensure an efficient and controlled process to obtain high-quality product outputs. Hence, there is a strong need for a fast, non-invasive, and generally applicable method to evaluate the viability of yeast cells during fermentation to warrant the standardization and purity of produced products in industrial applications. The aim of our study is to discriminate between viable and non-viable yeast in various culture media using Raman spectroscopy (RS) followed by data analysis with machine learning (ML) tools. These techniques allow for rapid, non-invasive analysis addressing the limitations of traditional methods. The present work primarily focuses on the evaluation of RS combined with predictive ML models in a non-real-time setting. Our goal is to adapt these techniques for future application in real-time monitoring and determination of yeast viability in biotechnological processes. We demonstrate that RS, in combination with ML, is a promising tool for non-invasive inline monitoring of fermentation processes. Full article
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17 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Isotonic Drinks Based on Organic Grape Juice and Naturally Flavored with Herb and Spice Extracts
by Yasmina Bendaali, Cristian Vaquero, Carlos Escott, Carmen González and Antonio Morata
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020049 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The aim of this study was the elaboration of isotonic drinks rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity using organic ingredients and without synthetic additives. Grape juice was used as a natural source of sugars and phenolic compounds, combined with lemon juice and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the elaboration of isotonic drinks rich in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity using organic ingredients and without synthetic additives. Grape juice was used as a natural source of sugars and phenolic compounds, combined with lemon juice and natural flavors from herb and spice extracts. The ingredients were diluted in two types of water with different mineralization, to which three different determined concentrations of salts (sodium chloride and potassium chloride) were added. The beverages had a sugar content ranging from 72.73 ± 0.23 to 78.43 ± 0.06 g/L, total soluble solids between 4.23 ± 0.06 and 4.83 ± 0.29 °Brix, and total acids from 1.75 ± 0.02 to 2.39 ± 0.08 g/L. Generally, antioxidant activity was higher in the beverages flavored with herb and spice extracts, ranging from 3.28 ± 0.01 to 4.27 ± 0.09 µmols Trolox equivalent/mL. Color intensity showed an increase of up to 129.39% in all samples during the storage period, being higher in beverages prepared with high-mineral water and having high pH values. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the flavored beverages had higher values of global perception than the controls. Thus, the functional properties of grape juice have been increased, and these beverages can be alternative natural and healthy products because their formulation is based only on organic and natural ingredients. Full article
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15 pages, 4351 KiB  
Article
Different SO2 Doses and the Impact on Amino Acid and Volatile Profiles of White Wines
by Cátia V. Almeida Santos, Catarina Pereira, Nuno Martins, Maria João Cabrita and Marco Gomes da Silva
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020033 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1915
Abstract
SO2 is a preservative often used in the food industry, particularly in the wine industry. However, regulatory authorities and consumers have been strongly suggesting its reduction or even its replacement. In order to understand the impact of SO2 on the profiles [...] Read more.
SO2 is a preservative often used in the food industry, particularly in the wine industry. However, regulatory authorities and consumers have been strongly suggesting its reduction or even its replacement. In order to understand the impact of SO2 on the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as amino acids (AAs), the aging of two white wines (one being a varietal and another being a blend) under identical conditions and in the presence of different doses of total SO2 was studied. After alcoholic fermentation (t = 0), either no SO2 was added (0 mg/L), or 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg/L of SO2 was applied. The samples under study were kept on fine lees for 3 months (t = 3). After 3 months (t = 6) and 9 months (t = 12), the wines were bottled and analyzed. For t = 0 and t = 3, the samples were submitted to HS-SPME-GC/MS for VOC analysis and LC-DAD for AA analysis. From the principal component analysis of the detected VOCs, it was observed that the blended wine in comparison with the varietal wine, was less impacted by the applied SO2 doses and aging time. From the AA profile, it was also observed in this study that maturation on fine lees resulted in an increase in the total concentration of AAs as would be expected. Full article
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12 pages, 4715 KiB  
Article
Effects of Sorghum Grain and Wort Composition on Dry Grind Fermentation Performance: A Model for Baijiu Production
by Siong H. Tan, Christopher L. Blanchard, Thomas H. Roberts, Daniel L. E. Waters and A. John Mawson
Beverages 2023, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9020029 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Sorghum grain is the principal raw material for Baijiu production, but the effects of grain and wort composition on fermentation performance are unclear. Ethanol production at laboratory scale using grains of 11 commercial sorghum cultivars from a field trial was investigated using dry [...] Read more.
Sorghum grain is the principal raw material for Baijiu production, but the effects of grain and wort composition on fermentation performance are unclear. Ethanol production at laboratory scale using grains of 11 commercial sorghum cultivars from a field trial was investigated using dry grind fermentation. Initial wort glucose content was 141–150 g/L and fermentability (glucose-to-ethanol conversion rate) was 87–90%. Ethanol production rate among sorghum genotypes ranged from 1.18 to 2.04 mL of ethanol per litre wort per hour of fermentation. The cultivars were categorised into four groups according to a fermentation endpoint of 60–69 h, 70–79 h, 80–89 h and >90 h. All but one of the sorghums produced a final ethanol content of 9.47–9.76% v/v. Cultivars with high-starch and low-protein grains were the most suitable for fermentation due to the high final ethanol content and fermentability achieved. Initial wort glucose content and yeast assimilable nitrogen content were not correlated with grain starch content, protein content, ethanol content, fermentability, ethanol production rate or glucose consumption rate. Knowledge of the effects of sorghum grain quality on fermentation performance can pave the way for further research to optimise solid-state fermentation for Baijiu production. Full article
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11 pages, 3982 KiB  
Article
Use of Fumaric Acid to Inhibit Malolactic Fermentation in Bottled Rioja Wines: Effect in pH and Volatile Acidity Control
by Antonio Morata, Elena Adell, Carmen López, Felipe Palomero, Elena Suárez, Silvia Pedrero, María Antonia Bañuelos and Carmen González
Beverages 2023, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9010016 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Fumaric acid (FH2) is an additive allowed by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) that can be used for wine acidification but also to inhibit malolactic fermentation (MLF). FH2 has a positive effect in the reduction in [...] Read more.
Fumaric acid (FH2) is an additive allowed by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) that can be used for wine acidification but also to inhibit malolactic fermentation (MLF). FH2 has a positive effect in the reduction in SO2 doses by controlling LAB and other bacteria and by preserving molecular SO2 due to pH effect. This article reports the use of FH2 at 600 mg/L in wines produced with 3 varieties of Vitis vinifera L. grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha and Viura) made in vintages 2018, 2020 and 2021. Wines treated with 600 mg/L of FH2 were more stable in the long term and showed lower pH by the preservation of malic acid due to both the absence of MLF (which reduced the pH in 0.1–0.2 units compared with controls) and the effect of FH2 acidification (what produced and additional reduction of 0.05–0.1 pH units). The wines treated with FH2 also remained with very low volatile acidity contents close to 0.2 mg/L or lower. These results corroborate that FH2 can be used to successfully control malolactic fermentation in all still wine types (red, white, and rose) from either of the studied varieties. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

14 pages, 1067 KiB  
Review
Metabolomics of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Fermented Beverages
by Daniel J. Ellis, Edward D. Kerr, Gerhard Schenk and Benjamin L. Schulz
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030041 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4623
Abstract
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are [...] Read more.
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are driving the diversification and use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The diversity of flavours, aromas, and other sensory characteristics that can be obtained by using non-Saccharomyces yeasts in fermentation is, in large part, due to the diverse secondary metabolites they produce compared to conventional Saccharomyces yeast. Here, we review the use of metabolomic analyses of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to explore their impact on the sensory characteristics of fermented beverages. We highlight several key species currently used in the industry, including Brettanomyces, Torulaspora, Lachancea, and Saccharomycodes, and emphasize the future potential for the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of diverse fermented beverages. Full article
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13 pages, 1277 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Sweetener Type on Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Rheology of Guava Nectar during Storage Time
by Napassorn Peasura and Pornrat Sinchaipanit
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020024 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3755
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the differences in physicochemical properties, antioxidant properties, and rheology between guava nectar with sucrose and guava nectar with neotame and stevia addition (0.01% and 0.05%). All parameters were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 15 days. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the differences in physicochemical properties, antioxidant properties, and rheology between guava nectar with sucrose and guava nectar with neotame and stevia addition (0.01% and 0.05%). All parameters were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 15 days. The result showed that all sweetened guava juice samples led to the juice with the greatest presence of overall appearance and antioxidant property. The flow behavior of sweetened guava juice was shear-thinning which was not different from guava juice without sweetener. However, the major volatile flavor compounds identified in all guava juice samples were β-caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, bisabolene, aromadendrene, α-humulene, and nerolidol, which is not different from guava juice without sweeteners during storage. It indicated that stevia and neotame are good alternative sweeteners to produce low caloric juice production. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

15 pages, 317 KiB  
Article
Towards Accelerated Autolysis? Dynamics of Phenolics, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids in Response to Novel Treatments and during Ageing of Sparkling Wine
by Gail B. Gnoinski, Dugald C. Close, Simon A. Schmidt and Fiona L. Kerslake
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030050 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
Premium sparkling wine produced by the traditional method (analogous to the French méthode champenoise) is characterised by the development of aged wine character as a result of a second fermentation in the bottle with lees contact and lengthy ageing. Treatments (microwave, ultrasound, [...] Read more.
Premium sparkling wine produced by the traditional method (analogous to the French méthode champenoise) is characterised by the development of aged wine character as a result of a second fermentation in the bottle with lees contact and lengthy ageing. Treatments (microwave, ultrasound, or β-glucanase enzymes) were applied to disrupt the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and added to the tirage liquor for the second fermentation of Chardonnay-Pinot Noir base wine cuvée and compared to a control, to assess effects on the release of phenolics, proteins, amino acids, and lipids at 6, 12 and 18 months post-tirage. General responses to wine ageing included a 60% increase in the total phenolic content of older sparkling wines relative to younger wines and an increase in protein concentration from 6 to 12 months bottle age. Microwave and β-glucanase enzyme treatments of yeast during tirage preparation were associated with a 10% increase in total free amino acid concentration and a 10% increase in proline concentration at 18 months bottle age, compared to control and ultrasound treatment. Furthermore, microwave treatment was associated with elevated asparagine content in wine at 18 months bottle age, relative to the control and the other wines. The β-glucanase enzyme and ultrasound treatments were associated with significant accumulation of total lipids, which were driven by 2-fold increases in the phospholipid and monoacylglycerol components in wine at 18 months bottle age and, furthermore, the microwave treatment was associated with elevated triacylglycerol at 18 months bottle age. This study demonstrates that the use of yeast treatments at the tirage stage of sparkling wine production presents an opportunity to manipulate wine composition. Full article
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15 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Volatile and Non-Volatile Characterization of White and Rosé Wines from Different Spanish Protected Designations of Origin
by Rubén Del Barrio-Galán, Héctor del Valle-Herrero, Marta Bueno-Herrera, Pedro López-de-la-Cuesta and Silvia Pérez-Magariño
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030049 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3381
Abstract
The quality of wines has often been associated with their geographical area of production, as well as the grape variety used in their elaboration. Many research studies have been carried out to characterize and differentiate between red wines labeled with Protected Designation of [...] Read more.
The quality of wines has often been associated with their geographical area of production, as well as the grape variety used in their elaboration. Many research studies have been carried out to characterize and differentiate between red wines labeled with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) from different geographical areas, but very few have been carried out on white and rosé wines. The objective of this work was to characterize white and rosé PDO wines from different geographical areas of Spain very close to each other elaborated with different grape varieties and select the variables that most contribute to their differentiation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used as statistical methods. The ethanol content was the nonvolatile variable that most contributed to differentiating between some of the white and rosé wines according to their PDO. The white wines from RD (Ribera del Duero) and BI (Bierzo) were characterized by a high terpenic content (floral notes) while the wines from RU (Rueda), TO (Toro) and CI (Cigales)by a high content of ethyl esters and alcohol acetates (fruity aromas). The rosé wines elaborated with the Mencía grape variety from BI were characterized by their highest polysaccharidic content, which could have a positive sensory effect on the mouthfeel. The rosé wines from CI were characterized by their volatile profile complexity, having the highest content of volatile compounds from the oak wood, terpenes and C6 alcohols which provide pleasant woody, floral and herbaceous aromas. On the contrary, the RD wines were richest in alcohol acetates responsible for fruity aromas. Full article
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14 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Effect of Immobilization Support and Fermentation Temperature on Beer and Fermented Milk Aroma Profiles
by Panagiotis Kandylis, Dimitra Dimitrellou, Mantha Gousi, Eleana Kordouli and Maria Kanellaki
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030047 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
The food industry increasingly produces wastes like coconut and peanut shells. In addition, low temperature fermentation is always a challenge. Therefore, in the present study, a sustainable exploitation of these by-products is proposed through the production of carriers for immobilized cells of yeast [...] Read more.
The food industry increasingly produces wastes like coconut and peanut shells. In addition, low temperature fermentation is always a challenge. Therefore, in the present study, a sustainable exploitation of these by-products is proposed through the production of carriers for immobilized cells of yeast and bacteria. The immobilized cells, after thermally drying, were evaluated for their efficiency in beer and milk fermentations respectively, in various fermentation temperatures and storage for up to three months. The beers and fermented milks were evaluated for their aroma and the results showed products of high quality. Coconut shells resulted in better products with increased fruity ester content in fermented milks and reduced dimethyl sulfite and vicinal diketones and increased ratio of esters to alcohol in beers. These results reveal the possibilities of immobilized cells in coconut and peanut shells for application in food industry, however, more research is needed to evaluate their effect on sensory characteristics and possible prebiotic and probiotic potential especially in the case of fermented milks. Full article
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10 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Wine Fermentation Performance of Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus Strains Isolated in a Piedmont Vineyard
by Antonella Costantini, Maria Carla Cravero, Loretta Panero, Federica Bonello, Enrico Vaudano, Laura Pulcini and Emilia Garcia-Moruno
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020030 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4005
Abstract
The role of yeast in wine quality is very important. The use of selected autochthonous yeasts is becoming more and more frequent in enology, not only to obtain a diversification of wines, but also as a link between the wine and its territory [...] Read more.
The role of yeast in wine quality is very important. The use of selected autochthonous yeasts is becoming more and more frequent in enology, not only to obtain a diversification of wines, but also as a link between the wine and its territory of origin. The objectives of this work were to test two indigenous yeasts in a cellar on a pilot scale. The yeasts were a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus previously isolated in a vineyard in Piedmont (Italy). Studying the oenological characteristics of S. paradoxus is of particular interest, as it is rarely found in the cellar–vineyard environment. Molecular biology methods confirmed the predominance of the strain inoculated in the various fermentation tests. Additionally, products of yeast metabolism, including volatile compounds, were quantified at the end of the alcoholic fermentation and sensory profile of wines was tested by a trained panel of tasters. Our results indicated that both strains have good characteristics to be used as starter in winemaking; S. paradoxus was characterized by a high production of glycerol and the ability to degrade malic acid, together with a lower production of ethanol and a low volatile acidity, while S. cerevisiae conferred to the wine a pleasant smell of rose, as highlighted in the sessions of sensory analysis. Full article
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