Special Issue "Air Quality in New South Wales, Australia"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Howard A. Bridgman

1. Editor, Air Quality and Climate Change
2. President, Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand
3. School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 2308 NSW, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: air pollution meteorology; air pollution management; air pollution sources and emissions; air pollution impacts; aerosol and particle pollution
Guest Editor
Dr. Robyn Schofield

Director of the Environmental Science Hub, School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: spectroscopic observations of trace gas species; radiative transfer modelling; stratospheric ozone loss kinetics; tropical tropopause layer processes driving stratospheric composition; microphysical modelling; coupled chemistry-climate modelling; urban air quality and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This proposed Special Issue on “Air Quality in New South Wales” presents the findings of new air quality research in Australia undertaken by (or in association with) the Clean Air and Urban Landscapes hub, which is funded by the National Environmental Science Program on behalf of the Australian Government’s Department of the Environment (see https://www.nespurban.edu.au/ ).

Air quality in Sydney, like most Australian cities, is generally quite good, with typical concentrations of key pollutants at much lower levels than experienced in many other parts of the world. Nevertheless, Australian cities do experience occasional exceedances in ozone and PM2.5, as well as extreme pollution events, often as a result of bushfires or dust storms. Even in the absence of extreme events, natural emissions play a significant role in influencing the Australian urban air-sheds, due to the remoteness from large regional anthropogenic sources. By studying air quality in regions such as New South Wales, we can gain a greater understanding of the underlying atmospheric chemistry in cleaner atmospheric environments. These conditions may be representative of future air quality scenarios for parts of the Northern Hemisphere, as legislation and cleaner technologies reduce man-made air pollution in European, American and Asian cities.

The proposed Special Issue will bring together a comprehensive examination of air quality in Sydney and the greater metropolitan region of New South Wales. It will include a series of papers that describe detailed atmospheric composition and spatial and temporal variability of air quality in the region, using data from the statutory air quality monitoring network and a number of targeted measurement campaigns, including:

  • The Western Air-Shed Particulate Study for Sydney (WASPSS ).
  • Roadside Atmospheric Particulates in Sydney (RAPS)
  • Measurements of Urban Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA)
  • The Sydney Particle Study 1 & 2 (SPS1 and SPS2)

This characterization of atmospheric composition in the region is a significant advance on what currently exists in the scientific literature.

The results of the first major intercomparison of air quality models in Australia are presented in a series of papers within the special issue. The modelling intercomparison uses data from 3 measurement campaigns described above (SPS1, SPS2 and MUMBA). 6 models were used including:

  • 2 versions of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model and Chemical Transport Model (CCAM –CTM) – including a benchmarking paper
  • 2 versions of Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem)
  • 1 version of WRF/Chem with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) (WRF/Chem-ROMS)
  • 1 version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model

All the papers examine aspects of air quality within the greater metropolitan region of New South Wales, making the papers a clear coherent set.

Prof. Howard A. Bridgman


Dr. Robyn Schofield
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of CCAM-CTM Regional Airshed Modelling for the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region
Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120486
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
A comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the coupled Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) and Chemical Transport Model (CTM) (CCAM-CTM) for the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region (NSW GMR) was conducted based on modelling results for two periods coinciding with measurement campaigns
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the coupled Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) and Chemical Transport Model (CTM) (CCAM-CTM) for the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region (NSW GMR) was conducted based on modelling results for two periods coinciding with measurement campaigns undertaken during the Sydney Particle Study (SPS), namely the summer in 2011 (SPS1) and the autumn in 2012 (SPS2). The model performance was evaluated for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against air quality data from the NSW Government’s air quality monitoring network, and PM2.5 components were compared with speciated PM measurements from the Sydney Particle Study’s Westmead sampling site. The model tends to overpredict PM2.5 with normalised mean bias (NMB) less than 20%, however, moderate underpredictions of the daily peak are found on high PM2.5 days. The PM2.5 predictions at all sites comply with performance criteria for mean fractional bias (MFB) of ±60%, but only PM2.5 predictions at Earlwood further comply with the performance goal for MFB of ±30% during both periods. The model generally captures the diurnal variations in ozone with a slight underestimation. The model also tends to underpredict daily maximum hourly ozone. Ozone predictions across regions in SPS1, as well as in Sydney East, Sydney Northwest and Illawarra regions in SPS2 comply with the benchmark of MFB of ±15%, however, none of the regions comply with the benchmark for mean fractional error (MFE) of 35%. The model reproduces the diurnal variations and magnitudes of NO2 well, with a slightly underestimating tendency across the regions. The MFE and normalised mean error (NME) for NO2 predictions fall well within the ranges inferred from other studies. Model results are within a factor of two of measured averages for sulphate, nitrate, sodium and organic matter, with elemental carbon, chloride, magnesium and ammonium being underpredicted. The overall performance of CCAM-CTM modelling system for the NSW GMR is comparable to similar model predictions by other regional airshed models documented in the literature. The performance of the modelling system is found to be variable according to benchmark criteria and depend on the location of the sites, as well as the time of the year. The benchmarking of CCAM-CTM modelling system supports the application of this model for air quality impact assessment and policy scenario modelling to inform air quality management in NSW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in New South Wales, Australia)
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Open AccessArticle Hot Summers: Effect of Extreme Temperatures on Ozone in Sydney, Australia
Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120466
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Poor air quality is often associated with hot weather, but the quantitative attribution of high temperatures on air quality remains unclear. In this study, the effect of elevated temperatures on air quality is investigated in Greater Sydney using January 2013, a period of
[...] Read more.
Poor air quality is often associated with hot weather, but the quantitative attribution of high temperatures on air quality remains unclear. In this study, the effect of elevated temperatures on air quality is investigated in Greater Sydney using January 2013, a period of extreme heat during which temperatures at times exceeded 40 °C, as a case study. Using observations from 17 measurement sites and the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, we analyse the effect of elevated temperatures on ozone in Sydney by running a number of sensitivity studies in which: (1) the model is run with biogenic emissions generated by MEGAN and separately run with monthly average Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature ( MEGAN) biogenic emissions (for January 2013); (2) the model results from the standard run are compared with those in which average temperatures (for January 2013) are only applied to the chemistry; (3) the model is run using both averaged biogenic emissions and temperatures; and (4 and 5) the model is run with half and zero biogenic emissions. The results show that the impact on simulated ozone through the effect of temperature on reaction rates is similar to the impact via the effect of temperature on biogenic emissions and the relative impacts are largely additive when compared to the run in which both are averaged. When averaged across 17 sites in Greater Sydney, the differences between ozone simulated under standard and averaged model conditions are as high as 16 ppbv. Removing biogenic emissions in the model has the effect of removing all simulated ozone episodes during extreme heat periods, highlighting the important role of biogenic emissions in Australia, where Eucalypts are a key biogenic source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in New South Wales, Australia)
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Open AccessArticle Source Contributions to Ozone Formation in the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region, Australia
Atmosphere 2018, 9(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110443
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Ozone and fine particles (PM2.5) are the two main air pollutants of concern in the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region (NSW GMR) due to their contribution to poor air quality days in the region. This paper focuses on source contributions
[...] Read more.
Ozone and fine particles (PM2.5) are the two main air pollutants of concern in the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region (NSW GMR) due to their contribution to poor air quality days in the region. This paper focuses on source contributions to ambient ozone concentrations for different parts of the NSW GMR, based on source emissions across the greater Sydney region. The observation-based Integrated Empirical Rate model (IER) was applied to delineate the different regions within the GMR based on the photochemical smog profile of each region. Ozone source contribution was then modelled using the CCAM-CTM (Cubic Conformal Atmospheric model-Chemical Transport model) modelling system and the latest air emission inventory for the greater Sydney region. Source contributions to ozone varied between regions, and also varied depending on the air quality metric applied (e.g., average or maximum ozone). Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were found to contribute significantly to median and maximum ozone concentration in North West Sydney during summer. After commercial and domestic sources, power generation was found to be the next largest anthropogenic source of maximum ozone concentrations in North West Sydney. However, in South West Sydney, beside commercial and domestic sources, on-road vehicles were predicted to be the most significant contributor to maximum ozone levels, followed by biogenic sources and power stations. The results provide information that policy makers can use to devise various options to control ozone levels in different parts of the NSW Greater Metropolitan Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in New South Wales, Australia)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title:Evaluation of regional air quality models over Sydney, Australia: Part 1 Meteorological model comparison
Authors:Khalia Monk, Elise-Andree Guérette, Steven Utembe, Jeremy David Silver, Kathryn Emmerson, Alan Griffiths, Hiep Duc, Lisa Tzu-Chi Chang, Toan Trieu, Ningbo Jiang, Yang Zhang, Yvonne Scorgie, Martin Cope and Clare Paton-Walsh

Title:Evaluation of regional air quality models over Sydney, Australia: Part 2 Model performance for surface ozone and PM2.5
Authors:Elise-Andree Guerette, Khalia Monk, Steven Utembe, Jeremy David Silver, Kathryn Emmerson, Alan Griffiths, Hiep Duc, Lisa Tzu-Chi Chang, Toan Trieu, Ningbo Jiang, Yang Zhang, Yvonne Scorgie, Martin Cope and Clare Paton-Walsh

Title:Multiscale Applications of Two Online-Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Models during Recent Field Campaigns in Australia: Evaluation, Intercomparison, and Sensitivity Simulations
Authors:Yang Zhang, Chinmay Jena, Kai Wang, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guerette, Steven Utembe, Jeremy David Silver, et al

Title:Performance evaluation of CCAM-CTM regional airshed modelling for the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region
Authors:Lisa Tzu-Chi Chang, Hiep Nguyen Duc, Toan Trieu, Yvonne Scorgie, Khalia Monk, Ningbo Jiang

Title:Hot summers: effect of elevated temperature on air quality in Sydney, Australia
Authors:Steven Utembe, Peter Rayner, Jeremy Silver, Elise-Andree Guerette, Jenny Fisher, Kathryn Emmerson, Clare Paton-Walsh, Hiep Duc, Yvonne Scorgie

Title:Source contributions to ozone formation in the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region
Authors:Hiep Nguyen Duc, Toan Trieu, Lisa Tzu-Chi Chang, Yvonne Scorgie

Title:Major Source Contributions to Ambient PM2.5 Exposures within the New South Wales Greater Metropolitan Region
Authors:Yvonne Scorgie, Lisa Tzu-Chi Chang, Hiep Nguyen Duc, Toan Trieu, David Fuchs, Mandana Mazaheri

Title:Understanding Spatial Variability of Air Quality in Sydney using Suburban and Roadside Case Studies
Authors:Imogen Wadlow, Clare Paton-Walsh, Prashant Kumar, Frances Phillips, Travis Naylor, Élise-Andrée Guérette, Joel Graham, Thomas Keatley, Hugh Forehead, Pascal Perez, Owen Gendek, John Kirkwood, et al.

Title:Understanding Seasonal Variability of Air Quality in Sydney using Indigenous Knowledge of Weather Cycles
Authors:Stephanie Beaupark, Clare Paton-Walsh, Élise-Andrée Guérette, Jade Kennedy, et al.

Title:Ammonia emissions measured in an urban environment in Sydney, Australia using Open Path FTIR spectroscopy
Authors:FA Phillips, DWT Griffith, T Naylor, H Forehead, Clare Paton-Walsh

Title:Characterising spatial and temporal variability in urban climate and pollution observations using Radon-222
Authors:S.D. Chambers, A.G. Williams, A.D. Griffiths, J. Crawford, Ningbo Jiang, et al.

Title:Observation of Particle Formation in an Urban Marine Coastal Environment
Authors:Doreena Dominick, Stephen R. Wilson, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guérette, Ruhi Humphries, Melita Keywood, Paul Selleck, Dagmar Kubistin, Ben Marwick

Title:Urban Influences on Air Quality in Wollongong during the MUMBA campaign
Authors:Clare Paton-Walsh, Élise-Andrée Guérette, Dagmar Kubistin, Ruhi Humphries,Stephen Wilson, Géraldine Rea1, David Griffith, Rebecca Buchholz, Doreena Dominick, Ian Galbally, Melita Keywood, Sarah Lawson, Paul Selleck, Min Cheng, Suzie Molloy, Alan Griffiths and Scott Chambers

Title:An Analysis of Uncertainty applied to the Air Quality Emissions Inventory for the Greater Metropolitan Region of New South Wales, Australia
Authors:I.E. Galbally, S.B. Molloy and M.D. Keywood

Title:Investigations of the formation and growth of ultrafine particles in a coastal urban environment
Authors:Melita Keywood, Martin Cope, Kathryn Emmerson, Ian Galbally, Min Cheng, Rosemary Fedele, Rob Gillett , Sarah Lawson, Branka Miljevic, Fabienne Reisen, Zoran Ristovski, Paul Selleck, Jason Ward

Title:Spatial variability in PM2.5 and AOD: WASPSS ensemble and comparison with satellite data
Authors:J Silver, E-A Guerette, S Wilson, C Paton-Walsh, Y Scorgie, S Utembe, Y Zhang, L T-C Chang, K Emmerson, T Trieu, H Duc , P Rayner

Title:Cloud condensation nuclei and urban aerosol
Authors:Rosemary Fedele and Melita Keywood

Title:The influence of urban aerosol sources on CCN during Sydney Particle Study 1
Authors:Melita Keywood et al.

Title:Secondary aerosol during the Sydney Particle Study
Authors:Melita Keywood et al.

Title:Process analysis of fine particle characteristics in a temperate, maritime region. Investigating the trichotomy of particle emissions, transport and transformation
Authors:Martin Cope et al.

 

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