Next Article in Journal
Typological Characterisation of Mineral and Combustion Airborne Particles Indoors in Primary Schools
Next Article in Special Issue
Multiscale Applications of Two Online-Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Models during Recent Field Campaigns in Australia, Part II: Comparison of WRF/Chem and WRF/Chem-ROMS and Impacts of Air-Sea Interactions and Boundary Conditions
Previous Article in Journal
Structural Characteristics of the Yangtze-Huaihe Cold Shear Line over Eastern China in Summer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Multiscale Applications of Two Online-Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Models during Recent Field Campaigns in Australia, Part I: Model Description and WRF/Chem-ROMS Evaluation Using Surface and Satellite Data and Sensitivity to Spatial Grid Resolutions
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Vehicle Ammonia Emissions Measured in An Urban Environment in Sydney, Australia, Using Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy

1
Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia
2
SMART, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia
3
Office of Environment and Heritage, Government of NSW, Lidcombe 2141, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040208
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in New South Wales, Australia)
  |  
PDF [11332 KB, uploaded 19 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk in urban settings. Ammonia (NH3) from vehicle exhaust is an under-recognised ingredient in the formation of inorganic PM and there remains a shortage of data to properly quantify the role of NH3 from vehicles in PM formation. An Open-path Fourier transform infra-red (OP-FTIR) spectrometer measured atmospheric NH3, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at high temporal resolution (5 min) in Western Sydney over 11 months. The oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO; NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured at an adjacent air quality monitoring station. NH3 levels were maxima in the morning and evening coincident with peak traffic. During peak traffic NH3:CO ratio ranged from 0.018 to 0.022 ppbv:ppbv. Results were compared with the Greater Metropolitan Region 2008 (GMR2008) emissions inventory. Measured NH3:CO was higher during peak traffic times than the GMR2008 emissions estimates, indicating an underestimation of vehicle NH3 emissions in the inventory. Measurements also indicated the urban atmosphere was NH3 rich for the formation of ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) particulate was SO2 limited while the formation of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) was NH3 limited. Any reduction in NOx emissions with improved catalytic converter efficiency will be accompanied by an increase in NH3 production and potentially with an increase in NH4NO3 particulate. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; NH3; urban; air quality; carbon monoxide; CO; vehicle; particulate matter; open path FTIR spectroscopy; emissions ammonia; NH3; urban; air quality; carbon monoxide; CO; vehicle; particulate matter; open path FTIR spectroscopy; emissions
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Phillips, F.A.; Naylor, T.; Forehead, H.; Griffith, D.W.T.; Kirkwood, J.; Paton-Walsh, C. Vehicle Ammonia Emissions Measured in An Urban Environment in Sydney, Australia, Using Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 208.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top