Special Issue "Selected Papers from the NMJ2018"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Anming Hu

509 Dougherty Engineering Building, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-865-974-5993
Fax: +1-865-974-5274
Interests: ultrafast laser materials interaction and processing; laser micro-nano manufacturing; laser 3D printing; nano-photonics; nanotechnology for electronics; sensing, energy and environmental applications
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jolanta Janczak-Rusch

Überlandstrasse 129, Laboratory for Joining Technologies and Corrosion, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41 58 765 4529
Interests: micro- and nano-joining, soldering, brazing and diffusion bonding, new joining materials and technologies, nano-multilayers, composite materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tomokazu Sano

Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: laser nano-micro-macro-processing, laser nano/micro-joining, laser-matter interaction
Guest Editor
Dr. Peng Peng

Department of Materials Processing and Control Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (+86)-130-5148-3485
Interests: micro/nano-joining and manufacturing, laser sintering, low temperature packaging for electronics, nanoengineering for water treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

After the successful conferences in Niagara Falls, Canada in 2016 (NMJ2016), Emmetten, Switzerland in 2014 (NMJ2014) and Beijing, China in 2012 (NMJ2012), it is our pleasure to invite you to the 4th International Conference on Nanojoining and Microjoining (NMJ2018), which will be held in Nara, Japan on December 2–5, 2018. The conference provides a platform for scientific and industrial discussion and exchange in the emerging fields of nano and micro joining technologies, as follows:

  • Joining for integration of nano-/micro-scale materials and devices
  • Micro joining for assembly of implantable medical devices
  • Method development for nano/micro joint characterization
  • Mechanisms and materials science of nano-/micro joining
  • Process issues in nano/micro joining

The main goal of this special issue, “special issue of NMJ2018”, is to advance the new science and technology in the fields of e.g. micro-electronics, medical implants, sensing devices and packaging, which have an urgent need for advanced joining technologies to integrate, package and assemble nano- and micro-scale materials and components at ever-low temperatures. In the micro-devices and micro-systems, innovative microjoining are still needed to allow faster and more reliable fabrication and long life services. In the field of nanojoining, printed electronics, wearable and flexible electronics, 3D printing at nanoscale resolution and molecular electronics are the emergent applications in the coming decades. We invite investigators interested in nano- and microjoining innovation to contribute to this issue with 400CHF publication discount, the topics will cover all fields of NMJ2018.

Dr. Anming Hu
Prof. Dr. Jolanta Janczak-Rusch
Dr. Sano Tomokazu
Dr. Peng Peng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanojoining Microjoining Interfacial diffusions for micro- and nanojoining
  • Micro- and nanoscopic additive manufacturing
  • nano-/micro-scale materials
  • nano-/micro-scale devices
  • implantable medical devices
  • nano/micro joint characterization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Modified Interposer Fabrication Process by Copper Nano-Pillars Filled in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Film for 3D Electronic Package
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112188
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
Though copper nano-pillars (CNPs) filled in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film has been developed for many years, the high pore-filling percentage in AAO is still a bottleneck. We have demonstrated a new electrodeposition method to fill CNPs in AAO without the seed layer
[...] Read more.
Though copper nano-pillars (CNPs) filled in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film has been developed for many years, the high pore-filling percentage in AAO is still a bottleneck. We have demonstrated a new electrodeposition method to fill CNPs in AAO without the seed layer which is required in the traditional electrodeposition process. CNPs with uniform heights were obtained and the pore-filling percentage reached up to 97.5%. Low current density is beneficial for the high pore-filling percentage due to the uniform growing rate in different nanoscale pores. The high temperature increased the diffusion velocity of ions and enhanced the pore filling percentage but also corroded the AAO film simultaneously. Results showed that CNPs grains with <220> orientation were fabricated. Electrodeposition with low electric current could contribute to the forming of CNPs with (220) preferred orientation due to the promotion of dehydration reduction processes. The thermal conductivities of Cu-AAO interposers reaches 92.34 W/(m·K) and 3.19 W/(m·K) in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Ink Printed Composite Electrodes on Plastic Substrates
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112101
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Printed flexible electrodes with conductive inks have attracted much attention in wearable electronics, flexible displays, radio-frequency identification, etc. Conventional conductive inks contain large amount of polymer which would increase the electrical resistivity of as-printed electrodes and require high sintering temperature. Here, composite electrodes
[...] Read more.
Printed flexible electrodes with conductive inks have attracted much attention in wearable electronics, flexible displays, radio-frequency identification, etc. Conventional conductive inks contain large amount of polymer which would increase the electrical resistivity of as-printed electrodes and require high sintering temperature. Here, composite electrodes without cracks were printed on polyimide substrate using binder-free silver nanoparticle based inks with zero-dimensional (activated carbon), one-dimensional (silver nanowire and carbon nanotube) or two-dimensional (graphene) fillers. The effect of fillers on resistivity and flexibility of printed composite electrodes were evaluated. The graphene filler could reduce the resistivity of electrodes, reaching 1.7 × 10−7 Ω·m after low power laser sintering, while the silver nanowire filler improved their flexibility largely during bending tests. The microstructural changes were examined to understand the nanojoining process and their properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Property of Sn-58Bi Solder Paste Strengthened by Resin
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112024
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Sn-58Bi solder has been widely used for microelectronics packaging due to its low melting point temperature, good wetting performance, good mechanical properties, and low cost. Compared with Sn-Bi solder alloy and Sn-Pb solder alloy, the strength and plasticity of Sn-Bi solder are not
[...] Read more.
Sn-58Bi solder has been widely used for microelectronics packaging due to its low melting point temperature, good wetting performance, good mechanical properties, and low cost. Compared with Sn-Bi solder alloy and Sn-Pb solder alloy, the strength and plasticity of Sn-Bi solder are not enough, due to the higher brittleness of bismuth, which thus limits the application of Sn-Bi solder. In order to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solder, a novel solder paste strengthened with resin was developed by mixing epoxy resin (ER) with Sn-58Bi solder, which enhanced the joint strength at a low cost. Aimed at the electronic industry, in this study, the spreadability of the novel solder paste was investigated, and the mechanical properties and microstructure of solder joints after reflow soldering were tested and analyzed. The results showed that when the content of epoxy resin was in the optimum range, the shear strength was significantly higher, reaching nearly twice that of Sn-58Bi solder alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Microstructure and Fatigue Damage Mechanism of 6082 Aluminum Alloy T-Type Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welded Joint
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101741
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
In this experiment, the T-joint of a 6082 aluminum alloy was welded by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and a fatigue test was carried out at room temperature. The mechanisms of generating pores and of fatigue fracture in welded joints are revealed in
[...] Read more.
In this experiment, the T-joint of a 6082 aluminum alloy was welded by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and a fatigue test was carried out at room temperature. The mechanisms of generating pores and of fatigue fracture in welded joints are revealed in the case of incomplete penetration. There are two main types of pores: pores that are not welded and pores that are near the upper weld line of the weld. During welding, bubbles in the molten pool are adsorbed on the surface oxide film that is not penetrated, and cannot be floated to form pores; since it is a T-shaped welded joint, the molten pool is overhanged during welding, thereby forming pores near the fusion line. The fatigue strength of the welded joint based on the S–N curve at 107 cycles is estimated to be 37.6 MPa, which can reliably be predicted in engineering applications. Fatigue tests show that fatigue cracks are all generated in the pores of the incomplete penetration, and it and the pores form a long precrack, which leads to large stress concentration, and the fracture occurs under a small applied load. Grain morphology around the pores also has a large effect on the fatigue properties of the T-weld joint. In the weld’s fatigue fracture, it was found that the crack stable-extension zone exhibited ductile-fracture characteristics, and the instantaneous fault zone is composed of a large number of tear-type dimples showing ductile fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Reliability of Sn50Pb49Sb1/Cu Solder Joints Subjected to γ-ray Irradiation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101706
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Cosmic radiation has always been the most obvious barrier to planetary travels, especially in long-duration deep space exploration missions. Therefore, the reliability of satellite materials and the requirements of satellite miniaturization have received considerable attention. In this paper, the effect of γ-ray
[...] Read more.
Cosmic radiation has always been the most obvious barrier to planetary travels, especially in long-duration deep space exploration missions. Therefore, the reliability of satellite materials and the requirements of satellite miniaturization have received considerable attention. In this paper, the effect of γ-ray irradiation on the reliability of Sn50Pb49Sb1/Cu solder joints was investigated. It was found that the influence of γ-ray irradiation on the thickness and morphology of the intermetallic compound layer in Sn50Pb49Sb1/Cu was not obvious. However, the formation and growth of micro-voids and micro-cracks was observed in Pb-based solid solutions. Due to the Compton effect, the γ-ray photon could knock the electron out of its orbit, which created the energetic electron. The accumulation of dislocated atoms and lattice vacancies generated by energetic electrons could be the main factor that caused the formation of micro-voids and micro-cracks. The pull force of Sn50Pb49Sb1/Cu solder joints was reduced by 22% after being irradiated at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy(Si)/s for 960 h. Fractographic analysis showed that after irradiation, the fracture type of solder joints was still ductile but the ductility of the solder joints decreased with slightly inconspicuous dimples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Preheating Temperature on Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) Welding–Brazing of Aluminium Alloy/Galvanized Steel
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091659
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Bead-on-plate cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing and overlap CMT welding–brazing of 7075 aluminium alloy and galvanized steel at different preheating temperatures were studied. The results indicated that AlSi5 filler wire had good wettability to galvanized steel. The preheating treatment can promote the spreadability
[...] Read more.
Bead-on-plate cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing and overlap CMT welding–brazing of 7075 aluminium alloy and galvanized steel at different preheating temperatures were studied. The results indicated that AlSi5 filler wire had good wettability to galvanized steel. The preheating treatment can promote the spreadability of liquid AlSi5. For the overlap CMT welding–brazed joint, the microstructure of the joint was divided into four zones, namely, the interfacial layer, weld metal zone, zinc-rich zone, and heat affected zone (HAZ). The load force of the joints without preheating and 100 °C preheating temperature was 8580 N and 9730 N, respectively. Both of the joints were fractured in the fusion line with a ductile fracture. Further increasing the preheating temperature to 200 °C would decrease the load force of the joint, which fractured in the interfacial layer with a brittle fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Self-Powered Fast Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Ni/Al Reactive Multilayer Films
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060985
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
PDF Full-text (6305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Self-powered brazing of Ti-6Al-4V was performed using Ni/Al reactive multilayer films (RMFs) as self-propagated heat resources. BAlSi-4 was first coated on Ti-6Al-4V by plasma welding, then alternating layers of Ni and Al were successfully deposited on BAlSi-4 up to 32.9 μm thick with
[...] Read more.
Self-powered brazing of Ti-6Al-4V was performed using Ni/Al reactive multilayer films (RMFs) as self-propagated heat resources. BAlSi-4 was first coated on Ti-6Al-4V by plasma welding, then alternating layers of Ni and Al were successfully deposited on BAlSi-4 up to 32.9 μm thick with e-beam deposition. The joint microstructure was investigated and the AlNi and Ni5Al3 phases were identified in the RMF. The cause for the two phases was determined to be differences in the diffusivity of Ni and Al, ultrafast brazing time, and faster cooling at the interface between brazing filler metal and the RMF. The maximum temperature of 683 °C was reached in the brazed joint, with a total RMF thickness of 135 μm, which is more than sufficient to melt the BAlSi-4 brazing material. The maximum bonding strength obtained was 10.6 MPa, with a self-power brazing procedure conducted in a minute. It is possible to further improve the bonding strength by using more ductile RMFs and/or modifying the bonding interface configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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Open AccessArticle Diode Laser Welding/Brazing of Aluminum Alloy to Steel Using a Nickel Coating
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060922
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Joining Al alloy to steel is of great interest for application in the automotive industry. Although a vast number of studies have been conducted to join Al to steel, the joining of Al to steel is still challenging due to the formation of
[...] Read more.
Joining Al alloy to steel is of great interest for application in the automotive industry. Although a vast number of studies have been conducted to join Al to steel, the joining of Al to steel is still challenging due to the formation of brittle Fe–Al intermetallic compounds. In this work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar Al/steel joints with and without a nickel coating are comparatively investigated. A homogenous reaction layer composed of FeZn10 and Fe2Al5 is formed at the interface in the joints without Ni coating, and the joint facture load is only 743 N. To prevent the formation of brittle Fe2Al5, Ni electroplated coating is applied onto a steel surface. It has been shown that a nonhomogeneous reaction layer is observed at the interfacial region: Ni5Zn21 is formed at the direct irradiation zone, while Al3Ni is formed at the fusion zone root. The microhardness of the interfacial layer is reduced, which leads to the improvement of the joint mechanical properties. The average fracture load of the Al/Ni-coated steel joints reaches 930 N. In all of the cases, failure occurs at the Ni coating/fusion zone interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the NMJ2018)
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