Special Issue "Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kuei-Hsiang Chao

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: power converters; application of microelectronics; power electronics; automotive electronics; micro electro mechanical systems and systems-on-chip

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your valuable research for a Special Issue of Applied Sciences on the subject area of “Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control”. The themes of this Special Issue cover advanced multimedia, computer, telecommunication, consumer electronics, renewable energy, systems and control, and digital signal processing. Original high-quality papers related to these themes are especially solicited, including theories, methodologies, and applications in computing, consumer and control. Topics to be covered in this Special Issue, include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

  • Computer Networks, Mobile Computing, and Cloud Computing Technologies
  • Digital Content, Information Security, and Web Service
  • Software Engineering, Service-Oriented Architecture, and Databases
  • Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Discovery, Heuristic Algorithms, and Fuzzy Systems
  • Digital Right and Watermarking
  • Hardware and Software for Multimedia Systems
  • Virtual Reality, AR, MR, 3D Processing and Application
  • Signal, Audio, Speech Analysis and Processing
  • Image Processing and Applications
  • Computer Vision, Motion, Tracking Algorithms and Applications
  • Wireless and Mobile Communication
  • Internet Applications
  • Systems on Chip
  • Application of Microelectronics
  • Device Modeling, Simulation and Design
  • Human-Machine Interfaces
  • Robots
  • Computer and Microprocessor-Based Control
  • Automotive Electronics
  • Display System Design and Implementation
  • Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Technologies
  • Power Conversions
  • Applications of Power Electronics in Power Systems
  • Smart Grid Systems
  • System Modeling and Simulation, Dynamics and Control
  • Intelligent and Learning Control
  • Robust and Nonlinear Control
  • Biomedical Systems and Control
  • Digital Signal Processing Theory and Methods
  • Statistical Signal Processing and Applications
  • Biomedical and Biological Signal Processing
  • Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, Expert Systems, Genetic Algorithms and Data Fusion for Signal Processing
  • Embedded Systems for Signal Processing

Prof. Kuei-Hsiang Chao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Computer Networks
  • Computing Technologies
  • Software Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer-Based Control
  • Renewable Energy Technologies
  • Smart Grid Systems
  • Intelligent Control
  • Robust and Nonlinear Control
  • Biomedical Systems and Control

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Research on Control of Intelligent Vehicle Human-Simulated Steering System Based on HSIC
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050905
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
The experienced drivers with good driving skills are used as objects of learning, and road steering test data of skilled drivers are collected in this article. First, a nonlinear fitting was made to the driving trajectory of skilled driver in order to achieve [...] Read more.
The experienced drivers with good driving skills are used as objects of learning, and road steering test data of skilled drivers are collected in this article. First, a nonlinear fitting was made to the driving trajectory of skilled driver in order to achieve human-simulated control. The segmental polynomial expression was solved for two typical steering conditions of normal right-steering and U-turn, and the hp adaptive pseudo-spectral method was used to solve the connection problem of the vehicle segmental driving trajectory. Second, a new Electric Power Steering (EPS) system was proposed, and the intelligent vehicle human-simulated steering system control model based on human simulated intelligent control (HSIC) was established in Simulink/Carsim joint simulation environment to simulate and analyze. Finally, in order to further verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in this article, an intelligent vehicle steering system test bench with a steering resistance torque simulation device was built, and the dSPACE rapid prototype controller was used to realize human-simulated intelligent control law. The results show that the human-simulated steering control algorithm is superior to the traditional proportion integration differentiation (PID) control in the tracking effect of the steering characteristic parameters and passenger comfort. The steering wheel angle and torque can better track the angle and torque variation curve of real vehicle steering experiment of the skilled driver, and the effectiveness of the intelligent vehicle human-simulated steering control algorithm based on HSIC proposed in this article is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle On the n-Dimensional Phase Portraits
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050872
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
The phase portrait for dynamic systems is a tool used to graphically determine the instantaneous behavior of its trajectories for a set of initial conditions. Classic phase portraits are limited to two dimensions and occasionally snapshots of 3D phase portraits are presented; unfortunately, [...] Read more.
The phase portrait for dynamic systems is a tool used to graphically determine the instantaneous behavior of its trajectories for a set of initial conditions. Classic phase portraits are limited to two dimensions and occasionally snapshots of 3D phase portraits are presented; unfortunately, a single point of view of a third or higher order system usually implies information losses. To solve that limitation, some authors used an additional degree of freedom to represent phase portraits in three dimensions, for example color graphics. Other authors perform states combinations, empirically, to represent higher dimensions, but the question remains whether it is possible to extend the two-dimensional phase portraits to higher order and their mathematical basis. In this paper, it is reported that the combinations of states to generate a set of phase portraits is enough to determine without loss of information the complete behavior of the immediate system dynamics for a set of initial conditions in an n-dimensional state space. Further, new graphical tools are provided capable to represent methodically the phase portrait for higher order systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Encoding Algorithm Using Local Path on Huffman Encoding Algorithm for Compression
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040782
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Huffman encoding and arithmetic coding algorithms have shown great potential in the field of image compression. These algorithms are the origin of current image compression techniques. Nevertheless, there are some deficiencies in both algorithms that use the frequencies of the characters in the [...] Read more.
Huffman encoding and arithmetic coding algorithms have shown great potential in the field of image compression. These algorithms are the origin of current image compression techniques. Nevertheless, there are some deficiencies in both algorithms that use the frequencies of the characters in the data. They aim to represent the symbols used in the data in the shortest bit sequence. However, they represent data that has a low frequency of use with very long bit sequences. The arithmetic coding algorithm was developed to address the shortcomings of the Huffman encoding algorithm. This paper proposes an efficient, alternative encoding algorithm that uses the Huffman encoding algorithm. The main objective of the proposed algorithm is to reduce the number of bits that are symbolized with long bit codewords by the Huffman encoding algorithm. Initially, the Huffman encoding algorithm is applied to the data. The characters that are represented by the short bit sequence from the Huffman encoding algorithm are ignored. Flag bits are then added according to whether the successive symbols are on the same leaf. If the next character is not on the same leaf, flag bit “0” is added, otherwise flag bit “1” is added between the characters. In other words, the key significance of this algorithm is that it uses the effective aspects of the Huffman encoding algorithm, and it also proposes a solution to long bit sequences that cannot be efficiently represented. Most importantly, the validity of the algorithm is meticulously evaluated with three different groups of images. Randomly selected images from the USC-SIPI and STARE databases, and randomly selected standard images on internet, are used. The algorithm encodes compressing operations for images successfully. Some images that have a balanced tree structure have yielded close results compared to other algorithms. However, when the total results are inspected, the proposed encoding algorithm achieved excellent results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle S-Box Based Image Encryption Application Using a Chaotic System without Equilibrium
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040781
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Chaotic systems without equilibrium are of interest because they are the systems with hidden attractors. A nonequilibrium system with chaos is introduced in this work. Chaotic behavior of the system is verified by phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, and entropy. We have implemented a [...] Read more.
Chaotic systems without equilibrium are of interest because they are the systems with hidden attractors. A nonequilibrium system with chaos is introduced in this work. Chaotic behavior of the system is verified by phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, and entropy. We have implemented a real electronic circuit of the system and reported experimental results. By using this new chaotic system, we have constructed S-boxes which are applied to propose a novel image encryption algorithm. In the designed encryption algorithm, three S-boxes with strong cryptographic properties are used for the sub-byte operation. Particularly, the S-box for the sub-byte process is selected randomly. In addition, performance analyses of S-boxes and security analyses of the encryption processes have been presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Data-Driven Game Theoretic Strategy for Developers in Software Crowdsourcing: A Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040721
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Crowdsourcing has the advantages of being cost-effective and saving time, which is a typical embodiment of collective wisdom and community workers’ collaborative development. However, this development paradigm of software crowdsourcing has not been used widely. A very important reason is that requesters have [...] Read more.
Crowdsourcing has the advantages of being cost-effective and saving time, which is a typical embodiment of collective wisdom and community workers’ collaborative development. However, this development paradigm of software crowdsourcing has not been used widely. A very important reason is that requesters have limited knowledge about crowd workers’ professional skills and qualities. Another reason is that the crowd workers in the competition cannot get the appropriate reward, which affects their motivation. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of maximizing reward based on the crowdsourcing ability of workers, they can choose tasks according to their own abilities to obtain appropriate bonuses. Our method includes two steps: Firstly, it puts forward a method to evaluate the crowd workers’ ability, then it analyzes the intensity of competition for tasks at Topcoder.com—an open community crowdsourcing platform—on the basis of the workers’ crowdsourcing ability; secondly, it follows dynamic programming ideas and builds game models under complete information in different cases, offering a strategy of reward maximization for workers by solving a mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium. This paper employs crowdsourcing data from Topcoder.com to carry out experiments. The experimental results show that the distribution of workers’ crowdsourcing ability is uneven, and to some extent it can show the activity degree of crowdsourcing tasks. Meanwhile, according to the strategy of reward maximization, a crowd worker can get the theoretically maximum reward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Defining the Minimum Security Baseline in a Multiple Security Standards Environment by Graph Theory Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040681
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
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Abstract
One of the best ways to protect an organization’s assets is to implement security requirements defined by different standards or best practices. However, such an approach is complicated and requires specific skills and knowledge. In case an organization applies multiple security standards, several [...] Read more.
One of the best ways to protect an organization’s assets is to implement security requirements defined by different standards or best practices. However, such an approach is complicated and requires specific skills and knowledge. In case an organization applies multiple security standards, several problems can arise related to overlapping or conflicting security requirements, increased expenses on security requirement implementation, and convenience of security requirement monitoring. To solve these issues, we propose using graph theory techniques. Graphs allow the presentation of security requirements of a standard as graph vertexes and edges between vertexes, and would show the relations between different requirements. A vertex cover algorithm is proposed for minimum security requirement identification, while graph isomorphism is proposed for comparing existing organization controls against a set of minimum requirements identified in the previous step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Fiber Weave Structure in Printed Circuit Boards on Signal Transmission Characteristics
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020353
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we characterized and compared signal transmission performances of traces with different specifications of fiber weave. Measurements demonstrated that the dielectric constant, impedance fluctuation, and differential skew were all affected by fiber weave style. For flattened fiber weaves, the dielectric constant [...] Read more.
In this paper, we characterized and compared signal transmission performances of traces with different specifications of fiber weave. Measurements demonstrated that the dielectric constant, impedance fluctuation, and differential skew were all affected by fiber weave style. For flattened fiber weaves, the dielectric constant fluctuation reached 0.18, the impedance fluctuation amplitude was 1.0 Ω, and the differential skew was 2 ps/in. For conventional fiber weaves, the three parameters were 0.44, 2.5 Ω, and 4 ps/inch respectively. Flattened fiber weave was more favorable for high-speed signal control. We also discussed the other methods to improve the fiber weave effect. It turned out that NE-glass (new electronic glass) fiber weave also had better performance in reducing impedance fluctuation and differential skew. Furthermore, made the signal traces and fiber weave bundles with an angle or designing the long signal line parallel to the weft direction both are simple and effective methods to solve this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Spreadsheets as Interoperability Solution for Business Process Representation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020345
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
Business process models help to visualize processes of an organization. In enterprises, these processes are often specified in internal regulations, resolutions or other law acts of a company. Such descriptions, like task lists, have mostly form of enumerated lists or spreadsheets. In this [...] Read more.
Business process models help to visualize processes of an organization. In enterprises, these processes are often specified in internal regulations, resolutions or other law acts of a company. Such descriptions, like task lists, have mostly form of enumerated lists or spreadsheets. In this paper, we present a mapping of process model elements into a spreadsheet representation. As a process model can be represented in various notations, this can be seen as an interoperability solution for process knowledge interchange between different representations. In presenting the details of the solution, we focus on the popular BPMN representation, which is a de facto standard for business process modeling. We present a method how to generate a BPMN process model from a spreadsheet-based representation. In contrast to the other existing approaches concerning spreadsheets, our method does not require explicit specification of gateways in the spreadsheet, but it takes advantage of nested list form. Such a spreadsheet can be created either manually or merged from the task list specifications provided by users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Parameter Identification of a Lower Extremity Exoskeleton Using RLS-PSO
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020324
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
The lower extremity exoskeleton is a device for auxiliary assistance of human movement. The interaction performance between the exoskeleton and the human is determined by the lower extremity exoskeleton’s controller. The performance of the controller is affected by the accuracy of the dynamic [...] Read more.
The lower extremity exoskeleton is a device for auxiliary assistance of human movement. The interaction performance between the exoskeleton and the human is determined by the lower extremity exoskeleton’s controller. The performance of the controller is affected by the accuracy of the dynamic equation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamic parameter identification of lower extremity exoskeleton. The existing dynamic parameter identification algorithms for lower extremity exoskeletons are generally based on Least Square (LS). There are some internal drawbacks, such as complicated experimental processes and low identification accuracy. A dynamic parameter identification algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with search space defined by Recursive Least Square (RLS) is developed in this investigation. The developed algorithm is named RLS-PSO. By defining the search space of PSO, RLS-PSO not only avoids the convergence of identified parameters to the local minima, but also improves the identification accuracy of exoskeleton dynamic parameters. Under the same experimental conditions, the identification accuracy of RLS-PSO, PSO and LS was quantitatively compared and analyzed. The results demonstrated that the identification accuracy of RLS-PSO is higher than that of LS and PSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Background Knowledge Based Multi-Stream Neural Network for Text Classification
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122472
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a foundation and typical task in natural language processing, text classification has been widely applied in many fields. However, as the basis of text classification, most existing corpus are imbalanced and often result in the classifier tending its performance to those categories [...] Read more.
As a foundation and typical task in natural language processing, text classification has been widely applied in many fields. However, as the basis of text classification, most existing corpus are imbalanced and often result in the classifier tending its performance to those categories with more texts. In this paper, we propose a background knowledge based multi-stream neural network to make up for the imbalance or insufficient information caused by the limitations of training corpus. The multi-stream network mainly consists of the basal stream, which retained original sequence information, and background knowledge based streams. Background knowledge is composed of keywords and co-occurred words which are extracted from external corpus. Background knowledge based streams are devoted to realizing supplemental information and reinforce basal stream. To better fuse the features extracted from different streams, early-fusion and two after-fusion strategies are employed. According to the results obtained from both Chinese corpus and English corpus, it is demonstrated that the proposed background knowledge based multi-stream neural network performs well in classification tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Routing Protocol Using the History of Delivery Predictability in Opportunistic Networks
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112215
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
In opportunistic networks such as delay tolerant network, a message is delivered to a final destination node using the opportunistic routing protocol since there is no guaranteed routing path from a sending node to a receiving node and most of the connections between [...] Read more.
In opportunistic networks such as delay tolerant network, a message is delivered to a final destination node using the opportunistic routing protocol since there is no guaranteed routing path from a sending node to a receiving node and most of the connections between nodes are temporary. In opportunistic routing, a message is delivered using a ‘store-carry-forward’ strategy, where a message is stored in the buffer of a node, a node carries the message while moving, and the message is forwarded to another node when a contact occurs. In this paper, we propose an efficient opportunistic routing protocol using the history of delivery predictability of mobile nodes. In the proposed routing protocol, if a node receives a message from another node, the value of the delivery predictability of the receiving node to the destination node for the message is managed, which is defined as the previous delivery predictability. Then, when two nodes contact, a message is forwarded only if the delivery predictability of the other node is higher than both the delivery predictability and previous delivery predictability of the sending node. Performance analysis results show that the proposed protocol performs best, in terms of delivery ratio, overhead ratio, and delivery latency for varying buffer size, message generation interval, and the number of nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Chaotic System with Infinite Equilibria and Its S-Box Constructing Application
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112132
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
Systems with many equilibrium points have attracted considerable interest recently. A chaotic system with a line equilibrium has been studied in this work. The system has infinite equilibria and exhibits coexisting chaotic attractors. The system with an infinite number of equilibria has been [...] Read more.
Systems with many equilibrium points have attracted considerable interest recently. A chaotic system with a line equilibrium has been studied in this work. The system has infinite equilibria and exhibits coexisting chaotic attractors. The system with an infinite number of equilibria has been realized by an electronic circuit, which confirms the feasibility of the system. Based on such a system, we have developed a new S-Box generation algorithm. With the developed algorithm, two new S-Boxes are produced. Performance tests of S-Boxes are performed. The tests have shown that proposed S-Boxes have good performance results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Research of Message Scheduling for In-Vehicle FlexRay Network Static Segment Based on Next Fit Decreasing (NFD) Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112071
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
FlexRay is becoming the in-vehicle communication network of the next generation. In this study, the main contents are the FlexRay network static segment scheduling algorithm and optimization strategy, improve the scheduling efficiency of vehicle network and optimize the performance of communication network. The [...] Read more.
FlexRay is becoming the in-vehicle communication network of the next generation. In this study, the main contents are the FlexRay network static segment scheduling algorithm and optimization strategy, improve the scheduling efficiency of vehicle network and optimize the performance of communication network. The FlexRay static segment characteristic was first analyzed, then selected bandwidth utilization as the performance metrics to scheduling problem. A signal packing method is proposed based on Next Fit Decreasing (NFD) algorithm. Then Frame ID (FID) multiplexing method was used to minimize the number of FIDs. Finally, experimental simulation by CANoe. FlexRay software, that shows the model can quickly obtain the message schedule of each node, effectively control the message payload size and reduced bus payload by 16.3%, the number of FID drops 53.8% while improving bandwidth utilization by 32.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Co-Occurrence Network of High-Frequency Words in the Bioinformatics Literature: Structural Characteristics and Evolution
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101994
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The subjects of literature are the direct expression of the author’s research results. Mining valuable knowledge helps to save time for the readers to understand the content and direction of the literature quickly. Therefore, the co-occurrence network of high-frequency words in the bioinformatics [...] Read more.
The subjects of literature are the direct expression of the author’s research results. Mining valuable knowledge helps to save time for the readers to understand the content and direction of the literature quickly. Therefore, the co-occurrence network of high-frequency words in the bioinformatics literature and its structural characteristics and evolution were analysed in this paper. First, 242,891 articles from 47 top bioinformatics periodicals were chosen as the object of the study. Second, the co-occurrence relationship among high-frequency words of these articles was analysed by word segmentation and high-frequency word selection. Then, a co-occurrence network of high-frequency words in bioinformatics literature was built. Finally, the conclusions were drawn by analysing its structural characteristics and evolution. The results showed that the co-occurrence network of high-frequency words in the bioinformatics literature was a small-world network with scale-free distribution, rich-club phenomenon and disassortative matching characteristics. At the same time, the high-frequency words used by authors changed little in 2–3 years but varied greatly in four years because of the influence of the state-of-the-art technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Method of Free-Space Point-of-Regard Estimation Based on 3D Eye Model and Stereo Vision
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101769
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a 3D point-of-regard estimation method based on 3D eye model and a corresponding head-mounted gaze tracking device. Firstly, a head-mounted gaze tracking system is given. The gaze tracking device uses two pairs of stereo cameras to capture the left and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a 3D point-of-regard estimation method based on 3D eye model and a corresponding head-mounted gaze tracking device. Firstly, a head-mounted gaze tracking system is given. The gaze tracking device uses two pairs of stereo cameras to capture the left and right eye images, respectively, and then sets a pair of scene cameras to capture the scene images. Secondly, a 3D eye model and the calibration process are established. Common eye features are used to estimate the eye model parameters. Thirdly, a 3D point-of-regard estimation algorithm is proposed. Three main parts of this method are summarized as follows: (1) the spatial coordinates of the eye features are directly calculated by using stereo cameras; (2) the pupil center normal is used to the initial value for the estimation of optical axis; (3) a pair of scene cameras are used to solve the actual position of the objects being watched in the calibration process, and the calibration for the proposed eye model does not need the assistance of the light source. Experimental results show that the proposed method can output the coordinates of 3D point-of-regard more accurately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle H Robust Load Frequency Control for Multi-Area Interconnected Power System with Hybrid Energy Storage System
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101748
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
To enhance the quality of output power from regional interconnected power grid and strengthen the stability of overall system, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) is applied to traditional multi-area interconnected power system to improve the performance of load frequency control. A novel [...] Read more.
To enhance the quality of output power from regional interconnected power grid and strengthen the stability of overall system, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) is applied to traditional multi-area interconnected power system to improve the performance of load frequency control. A novel topology structure of interconnected power system with the HESS is proposed. Considering the external disturbances of the system and the interconnected factors between each control area, the dynamic mathematical model of each area in the new topology is established in the form of state-space equation. Combining the state feedback robust control theory with linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory, the controller is designed to calculate how much power the HESS should provide to power grid in real time, according to the load change of system. Taking the four-area interconnected power system as study object, the simulation results obtained by MATLAB prove that the application of HESS can well improve the frequency stability of multi-area interconnected system and the H robust controller proposed in this paper is effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Secure Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Communications Based on F–M Synchronization of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Non-Identical Dimensions and Orders
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101746
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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This paper investigates the FM synchronization between non-identical fractional-order systems characterized by different dimensions and different orders. FM synchronization combines the inverse generalized synchronization with the matrix projective synchronization. In particular, the proposed approach enables the FM [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the F M synchronization between non-identical fractional-order systems characterized by different dimensions and different orders. F M synchronization combines the inverse generalized synchronization with the matrix projective synchronization. In particular, the proposed approach enables the F M synchronization to be achieved between an n-dimensional master system and an m-dimensional slave system. The developed approach is applied to chaotic and hyperchaotic fractional systems with the aim of illustrating its applicability and suitability. A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secure communication system is also developed by using the F M synchronization and verified through computer simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Memory-Enhanced Dynamic Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Lp Decomposition
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091673
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithms provide a good framework for static multi-objective optimization. Nevertheless, there are few studies on their use in dynamic optimization. To solve dynamic multi-objective optimization problems, this paper integrates the framework into dynamic multi-objective optimization and proposes a memory-enhanced dynamic [...] Read more.
Decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithms provide a good framework for static multi-objective optimization. Nevertheless, there are few studies on their use in dynamic optimization. To solve dynamic multi-objective optimization problems, this paper integrates the framework into dynamic multi-objective optimization and proposes a memory-enhanced dynamic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on L p decomposition (denoted by dMOEA/D- L p ). Specifically, dMOEA/D- L p decomposes a dynamic multi-objective optimization problem into a number of dynamic scalar optimization subproblems and coevolves them simultaneously, where the L p decomposition method is adopted for decomposition. Meanwhile, a subproblem-based bunchy memory scheme that stores good solutions from old environments and reuses them as necessary is designed to respond to environmental change. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the L p decomposition method in dynamic multi-objective optimization. Moreover, the proposed dMOEA/D- L p achieves better performance than other popular memory-enhanced dynamic multi-objective optimization algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle A Low Cost Vision-Based Road-Following System for Mobile Robots
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091635
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Navigation is necessary for autonomous mobile robots that need to track the roads in outdoor environments. These functions could be achieved by fusing data from costly sensors, such as GPS/IMU, lasers and cameras. In this paper, we propose a novel method for road [...] Read more.
Navigation is necessary for autonomous mobile robots that need to track the roads in outdoor environments. These functions could be achieved by fusing data from costly sensors, such as GPS/IMU, lasers and cameras. In this paper, we propose a novel method for road detection and road following without prior knowledge, which is more suitable with small single lane roads. The proposed system consists of a road detection system and road tracking system. A color-based road detector and a texture line detector are designed separately and fused to track the target in the road detection system. The top middle area of the road detection result is regarded as the road-following target and is delivered to the road tracking system for the robot. The road tracking system maps the tracking position in camera coordinates to position in world coordinates, which is used to calculate the control commands by the traditional tracking controllers. The robustness of the system is enhanced with the development of an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). The UKF estimates the best road borders from the measurement and presents a smooth road transition between frame to frame, especially in situations such as occlusion or discontinuous roads. The system is tested to achieve a recognition rate of about 98.7% under regular illumination conditions and with minimal road-following error within a variety of environments under various lighting conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Robust Control of Path Following and Rudder Roll Reduction for a Container Ship in Heavy Waves
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091631
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an optimal approach to the multi-objective synthesis of path following and rudder roll reduction for a container ship in heavy waves. An improved line of sight principle with course-keeping in track-belt is proposed to guide the ship in accordance with [...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimal approach to the multi-objective synthesis of path following and rudder roll reduction for a container ship in heavy waves. An improved line of sight principle with course-keeping in track-belt is proposed to guide the ship in accordance with marine practice. Concise robust controllers for the course and roll motion based on Backstepping and closed-loop gain shaping are developed. The control parameters have obvious physical significance. The determination method is given and much effort is made to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the closed-loop systems by Lyapunov synthesis. Furthermore, the multi-objective optimization method a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the restrictions caused by the model perturbation, external disturbance and performance trade-off. Contrasting with the existing literature, the research strategy and control performance are more in line with marine engineering practice. Simulation results illustrate the performances and effectiveness of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Channel Estimation Based on Statistical Frames and Confidence Level in OFDM Systems
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091607
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Channel estimation is an important module for improving the performance of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The pilot-based least square (LS) algorithm can improve the channel estimation accuracy and the symbol error rate (SER) performance of the communication system. In pilot-based [...] Read more.
Channel estimation is an important module for improving the performance of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The pilot-based least square (LS) algorithm can improve the channel estimation accuracy and the symbol error rate (SER) performance of the communication system. In pilot-based channel estimation, a certain number of pilots are inserted at fixed intervals between OFDM symbols to estimate the initial channel information, and channel estimation results can be obtained by one-dimensional linear interpolation. The minimum mean square error (MMSE) and linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) algorithms involve the inverse operation of the channel matrix. If the number of subcarriers increases, the dimension of the matrix becomes large. Therefore, the inverse operation is more complex. To overcome the disadvantages of the conventional channel estimation methods, this paper proposes a novel OFDM channel estimation method based on statistical frames and the confidence level. The noise variance in the estimated channel impulse response (CIR) can be largely reduced under statistical frames and the confidence level; therefore, it reduces the computational complexity and improves the accuracy of channel estimation. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed channel estimation method based on the confidence level in time-varying dynamic wireless channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to Participatory Business Process Modeling: BPMN Model Generation Using Constraint Programming and Graph Composition
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091428
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Designing business process models plays a vital role in business process management. The acquisition of such models may consume up to 60% of the project time. This time can be shortened using methods for the automatic or semi-automatic generation of process models. In [...] Read more.
Designing business process models plays a vital role in business process management. The acquisition of such models may consume up to 60% of the project time. This time can be shortened using methods for the automatic or semi-automatic generation of process models. In this paper, we present a user-friendly method of business process composition. It uses a set of predefined constraints to generate a synthetic log of the process based on a simplified, unordered specification, which describes activities to be performed. Such a log can be used to generate a correct BPMN model. To achieve this, we propose the use of one of the existing process discovery algorithms or executing the activity graph-based composition algorithm, which generates the process model directly from the input log file. The proposed approach allows process participants to take part in process modeling. Moreover, it can be a support for business analysts or process designers in visualizing the workflow without the necessity to design the model explicitly in a graphical editor. The BPMN diagram is generated as an interchangeable XML file, which allows its further modification and adjustment. The included comparative analysis shows that our method is capable of generating process models characterized by high flow complexity and can support BPMN constructs, which are sufficient for about 70% of business cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Opportunistic Routing Protocol Based on Context Information of Mobile Nodes
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081344
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Delay tolerant network (DTN) protocol was proposed for a network where connectivity is not available. In DTN, a message is delivered to a destination node via store-carry-forward approach while using opportunistic contacts. Probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected networks (PRoPHET) is one of [...] Read more.
Delay tolerant network (DTN) protocol was proposed for a network where connectivity is not available. In DTN, a message is delivered to a destination node via store-carry-forward approach while using opportunistic contacts. Probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected networks (PRoPHET) is one of the widely studied DTN protocols. In PRoPHET, a message is forwarded to a contact node, if the contact node has a higher delivery predictability to the destination node of the message. In this paper, we propose an improved opportunistic routing protocol, where context information of average distance travelled and average time elapsed from the reception of a message to the delivery of the message to the destination node is used. In the proposed protocol, the average distance and average time are updated whenever a message is delivered to a destination node. Then, both average distance and average time as well as delivery predictability of PRoPHET protocol are used to decide a message forwarding. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of PRoPHET and reachable probability centrality (RPC) protocol, which is one of the latest protocols using the contact history information of a mobile node. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has better performance than both PRoPHET and RPC, from the aspect of delivery ratio, overhead ratio, and delivery latency for varying buffer size, message generation interval, and the number of nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
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