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On the n-Dimensional Phase Portraits

Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, CONACYT-Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Guanajuato 38010, Mexico
Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Guanajuato 38010, Mexico
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CITEDI, Tijuana BC 22435, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 872;
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences Based on and Related to Computer and Control)
The phase portrait for dynamic systems is a tool used to graphically determine the instantaneous behavior of its trajectories for a set of initial conditions. Classic phase portraits are limited to two dimensions and occasionally snapshots of 3D phase portraits are presented; unfortunately, a single point of view of a third or higher order system usually implies information losses. To solve that limitation, some authors used an additional degree of freedom to represent phase portraits in three dimensions, for example color graphics. Other authors perform states combinations, empirically, to represent higher dimensions, but the question remains whether it is possible to extend the two-dimensional phase portraits to higher order and their mathematical basis. In this paper, it is reported that the combinations of states to generate a set of phase portraits is enough to determine without loss of information the complete behavior of the immediate system dynamics for a set of initial conditions in an n-dimensional state space. Further, new graphical tools are provided capable to represent methodically the phase portrait for higher order systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: high order system; n-dimensional; phase portrait high order system; n-dimensional; phase portrait
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Licea, M.-A.; Perez-Pinal, F.-J.; Nuñez-Pérez, J.-C.; Sandoval-Ibarra, Y. On the n-Dimensional Phase Portraits. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 872.

AMA Style

Rodríguez-Licea M-A, Perez-Pinal F-J, Nuñez-Pérez J-C, Sandoval-Ibarra Y. On the n-Dimensional Phase Portraits. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(5):872.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez-Licea, Martín-Antonio, Francisco-J. Perez-Pinal, José-Cruz Nuñez-Pérez, and Yuma Sandoval-Ibarra. 2019. "On the n-Dimensional Phase Portraits" Applied Sciences 9, no. 5: 872.

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