Climatic loads on structures are commonly defined under the assumption of stationary climate conditions; but, as confirmed by recent studies, they can significantly vary because of climate change effects, with relevant impacts not only for the design of new structures but also for the assessment of the existing ones. In this paper, a general methodology to evaluate the influence of climate change on climatic actions is presented, based on the analysis of observed data series and climate projections. Illustrative results in terms of changes in characteristic values of temperature, precipitation, snow, and wind loads are discussed for Italy and Germany, with reference to different climate models and radiative forcing scenarios. In this way, guidance for potential amendments in the current definition of climatic actions in structural codes is provided. Finally, the influence of climate change on the long-term structural reliability is estimated for a specific case study, showing the potential of the proposed methodology.
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