Special Issue "Biomechanical Spectrum of Human Sport Performance"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Redha TAIAR
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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education and Sports (EPS), University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France
Interests: Biomechanics of health disease and rehabilitation, industry engineering for medicine and high-level sport
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biology Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Interests: integrative and complementary medicine (auriculotherapy and acupuncture), mechanical vibrations
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our health and wellbeing are influenced by a range of social, cultural, economic, psychological, and environmental factors across our lives. Sport can be a vector that links many of these factors. Whether it is high-performance sport or sedentary practice, sport is very important for the improvement of the psychological well being and physical health. Our overarching aim is to increase quality of life. Sedentary practice can increase mobility and reduce the risk of disease, so changing adults’ behavior through sendentary practice could reduce illness and decrease costs to society concerning health problems. Furthermore, a higher frequency of practice can lead to improvements in technique, and optimized performance. Our objective is to summarize the most important biomechanical parameters influencing human performance related to the health sciences for all age groups, throughout their lives.

Prof. Redha TAIAR
Prof. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • injury prevention and rehabilitation
  • training, strength and conditioning
  • exercise
  • coaching
  • teaching
  • equipment
  • modelization and simulation
  • measurement acquisitions and techniques
  • human wellbeing
  • quality of life

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial “Biomechanical Spectrum of Human Sport Performance”
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051898 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
Several parameters can influence our health capital today and can have a negative impact on our performance, whether physiological or mechanical. Indeed, our health and wellbeing are influenced by a range of social, cultural, economic, psychological, and environmental factors across our lives. These [...] Read more.
Several parameters can influence our health capital today and can have a negative impact on our performance, whether physiological or mechanical. Indeed, our health and wellbeing are influenced by a range of social, cultural, economic, psychological, and environmental factors across our lives. These change as we progress through the key transition points in life—from infancy and childhood through our teenage years to adulthood, working life, retirement and the end of life. Sport can be a vector that links many of these factors. Whether it is high-performance sport or sedentary practice, sport is very important for the improvement of psychological wellbeing and physical health. Our overarching aim was to increase quality of life. Sedentary practice can increase mobility and reduce the risk of disease, so changing adults’ behavior through sedentary practice could reduce illness and decrease costs to society concerning health problems. Furthermore, a higher frequency of practice can lead to improvements in technique and optimized performance. Our objective is to summarize the latest research in sport science and to quantify the most important parameters influencing human performance related to the health sciences for all age groups, throughout their lives. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Correlational Analysis of Shuttlecock Speed Kinematic Determinants in the Badminton Jump Smash
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041248 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The forehand jump smash is an essential attacking stroke within a badminton player’s repertoire. A key determinate of the stroke’s effectiveness is post-impact shuttlecock speed, and therefore awareness of critical technique factors that impact upon speed is important to players/coaches. Three-dimensional kinematic data [...] Read more.
The forehand jump smash is an essential attacking stroke within a badminton player’s repertoire. A key determinate of the stroke’s effectiveness is post-impact shuttlecock speed, and therefore awareness of critical technique factors that impact upon speed is important to players/coaches. Three-dimensional kinematic data of player, racket and shuttlecock were recorded for 18 experienced players performing maximal effort forehand jump smashes. Joint angles and X-factor (transverse plane pelvis-thorax separation) were calculated at key instants: preparation, end of retraction, racket lowest point, turning point and shuttlecock contact. Peak shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centre linear velocities, phase durations and jump height were also calculated. Correlational analyses were performed with post-impact shuttlecock speed, revealing significant correlations to peak wrist joint centre linear velocity (r = 0.767), acceleration phase duration (r = −0.543), shoulder internal/external rotation angle at shuttlecock contact (r = 0.508) and X-factor at the end of retraction (r = −0.484). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 43.7% of the variance in shuttlecock speed could be explained by acceleration phase duration and X-factor at the end of retraction, where shorter acceleration phase durations and more negative X-factor at end of retraction caused greater shuttlecock speeds. These results suggest that motions of the proximal segments (shoulder and pelvis–thorax separation) are critical to developing greater distal linear velocities, which subsequently lead to greater post-impact shuttlecock speed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Whole-Body Dynamic Analysis of Challenging Slackline Jumping
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031094 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Maintaining balance on a slackline is a challenging task in itself. Walking on a high line, jumping and performing twists or somersaults seems nearly impossible. Contact forces are essential to understanding how humans maintain balance in such challenging situations, but they cannot always [...] Read more.
Maintaining balance on a slackline is a challenging task in itself. Walking on a high line, jumping and performing twists or somersaults seems nearly impossible. Contact forces are essential to understanding how humans maintain balance in such challenging situations, but they cannot always be measured directly. Therefore, we propose a contact model for slackline balancing that includes the interaction forces and torques as well as the position of the Center of Pressure. We apply this model within an optimization framework to perform a fully dynamic motion reconstruction of a jump with a rotation of approximately 180 ° . Newton’s equations of motions are implemented as constraints to the optimization, hence the optimized motion is physically feasible. We show that a conventional kinematic analysis results in dynamic inconsistencies. The advantage of our method becomes apparent during the flight phase of the motion and when comparing the center of mass and angular momentum dynamics. With our motion reconstruction method all momentum is conserved, whereas the conventional analysis shows momentum changes of up to 30%. Furthermore, we get additional and reliable information on the interaction forces and the joint torque that allow us to further analyze slackline balancing strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Soccer Training on Body Balance in Young Female Athletes Assessed Using Computerized Dynamic Posturography
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031003 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regular soccer training on the balance system for young women. Computerized dynamic posturography of female footballers (n = 25) and control group (n = 50) was assessed during three tests: Sensory Organization [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regular soccer training on the balance system for young women. Computerized dynamic posturography of female footballers (n = 25) and control group (n = 50) was assessed during three tests: Sensory Organization Test, Motor Control Test, and Adaptation Test. Statistically significant differences between the groups was found in Composite Equilibrium Score with higher values, indicating better postural stability, for footballers. Regular trainees also showed better usefulness of vestibular system while maintaining balance. Weight symmetry of the lower limbs during Motor Control Test also showed statistically significant differences between the groups. This study shows that female footballers have better postural stability than their inactive peers and that regular workouts may improve the balance system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Commercial Ropes Applied as Artificial Tendons in Robotic Rehabilitation Orthoses
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030920 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aims to present the design, selection and testing of commercial ropes (artificial tendons) used on robotic orthosis to perform the hand movements for stroke individuals over upper limb rehabilitation. It was determined the load applied in the rope would through direct [...] Read more.
This study aims to present the design, selection and testing of commercial ropes (artificial tendons) used on robotic orthosis to perform the hand movements for stroke individuals over upper limb rehabilitation. It was determined the load applied in the rope would through direct measurements performed on four individuals after stroke using a bulb dynamometer. A tensile strength test was performed using eight commercial ropes in order to evaluate the maximum breaking force and select the most suitable to be used in this application. Finally, a pilot test was performed with a user of the device to ratify the effectiveness of the rope. The load on the cable was 12.38 kgf (121.4 N) in the stroke-affected hand, which is the maximum tensile force that the rope must to supports. Paragliding rope (DuPont Kevlar ® ) supporting a load of 250 N at a strain of 37 mm was selected. The clinical test proved the effectiveness of the rope, supporting the requested efforts, without presenting permanent deformation, effectively performing the participant’s finger opening. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Texture Analysis is a Useful Tool to Assess the Complexity Profile of Microcirculatory Blood Flow
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030911 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The quantitative assessment of cardiovascular functions is particularly complicated, especially during any physiological challenge (e.g., exercise), with physiological signals showing intricate oscillatory properties. Signal complexity is one of such properties, and reflects the adaptability of the physiological systems that generated them. However, it [...] Read more.
The quantitative assessment of cardiovascular functions is particularly complicated, especially during any physiological challenge (e.g., exercise), with physiological signals showing intricate oscillatory properties. Signal complexity is one of such properties, and reflects the adaptability of the physiological systems that generated them. However, it is still underexplored in vascular physiology. In the present study, we calculate the complexity of photoplethysmography (PPG) signals and their frequency components obtained with the wavelet transform (WT), with two analytical tools—(i) texture analysis (TA) of WT scalograms, and (ii) multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis. PPG signals were collected from twelve healthy young subjects (26.0 ± 5.0 y.o.) during a unilateral leg lowering maneuver to evoke the venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) while lying supine, with the contralateral leg remaining stationary. Results showed that TA was able to detect a decrease in complexity, viewed as an increase in texture entropy (TE), of the PPG scalograms during VAR, similarly to MSE, suggesting that a decrease in the competence of vascular regulation mechanisms might be present during VAR. Nonetheless, TA showed lower sensitivity than MSE for low frequency spectral regions. TA seems to be a promising and straightforward analytical tool for the assessment of the complexity of PPG perfusion signals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The ‘DEEP’ Landing Error Scoring System
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030892 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is an injury-risk screening tool used in sports; but scoring is time consuming, clinician-dependent, and generally inaccessible outside of elite sports. Our aim is to evidence that LESS scores can be automated using deep-learning-based computer vision combined [...] Read more.
The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is an injury-risk screening tool used in sports; but scoring is time consuming, clinician-dependent, and generally inaccessible outside of elite sports. Our aim is to evidence that LESS scores can be automated using deep-learning-based computer vision combined with machine learning and compare the accuracy of LESS predictions using different video cropping and machine learning methods. Two-dimensional videos from 320 double-leg drop-jump landings with known LESS scores were analysed in OpenPose. Videos were cropped to key frames manually (clinician) and automatically (computer vision), and 42 kinematic features were extracted. A series of 10 × 10-fold cross-validation experiments were applied on full and balanced datasets to predict LESS scores. Random forest for regression outperformed linear and dummy regression models, yielding the lowest mean absolute error (1.23) and highest correlation (r = 0.63) between manual and automated scores. Sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.77) were reasonable for risk categorization (high-risk LESS ≥ 5 errors). Experiments using either a balanced (versus unbalanced) dataset or manual (versus automated) cropping method did not improve predictions. Further research on the automation would enhance the strength of the agreement between clinical and automated scores beyond its current levels, enabling quasi real-time scoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationships between Body Build and Knee Joint Flexor and Extensor Torque of Polish First-Division Soccer Players
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030783 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the study is to identify the relationships between anthropometric variables and knee joint extensor peak torque, knee joint flexor peak torque, and conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in Polish first-division soccer players. The study examined 37 soccer players aged 19 to 30 [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to identify the relationships between anthropometric variables and knee joint extensor peak torque, knee joint flexor peak torque, and conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in Polish first-division soccer players. The study examined 37 soccer players aged 19 to 30 years (body mass: 76.8 ± 7.2 kg, body height 1.82 ± 0.06 m). Muscle torques of the knee joint were measured under isometric conditions using a Biodex 4 Pro dynamometer. The anthropometric variables such as body part lengths, breadths, and girths and skinfold thickness were measured. The strongest relationships of knee joint extensors were observed with body mass and variables describing skeleton size and lower-limb muscles. Regarding knee flexor torque, a significant relationship was found only with body mass. However, no significant relationships were observed between the conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio and the anthropometric variables studied. The regression analysis results identified body height, body mass, and thigh and calf girth as the features most associated with knee joint torque. However, anthropometric measurements do not provide full information about the torque proportions of antagonist muscle groups, which is very important for injury prevention. Therefore, measurements using special biomechanical equipment are also necessary for the comprehensive analyses and control of the effects of sports training. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Landing Posture on Jump Height Calculated from Flight Time
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030776 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Flight time is widely used to calculate jump height because of its simple and inexpensive application. However, this method is known to give different results than the calculation from vertical velocity at takeoff. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect [...] Read more.
Flight time is widely used to calculate jump height because of its simple and inexpensive application. However, this method is known to give different results than the calculation from vertical velocity at takeoff. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of postural changes between takeoff and landing on the jump height from flight time. Twenty-seven participants performed three vertical jumps with arm swing. Three-dimensional coordinates of anatomical landmarks and the ground reaction force were analyzed. Two methods of calculating jump height were used: (1) the vertical velocity of the whole-body center of mass (COMwb) at takeoff and (2) flight time. The jump height from flight time was overestimated by 0.025 m compared to the jump height from the takeoff velocity (p < 0.05) due to the lower COMwb height at landing by −0.053 m (p < 0.05). The postural changes in foot, shank, and arm segments mainly contributed to decreasing the COMwb height (−0.025, −0.014, and −0.017 m, respectively). The flight time method is reliable and had low intra-participant variability, but it cannot be recommended for a vertical jump when comparing with others (such as at tryouts) because of the potential “cheating” effect of differences in landing posture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electromyographic Evaluation of Specific Elastic Band Exercises Targeting Neck and Shoulder Muscle Activation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030756 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Specific strength training at a high intensity is effective in reducing work related neck/shoulder pain. However, it remains to be documented as to which exercises most specifically target neck and shoulder muscles at high activation level while using simple equipment as e.g., [...] Read more.
Background: Specific strength training at a high intensity is effective in reducing work related neck/shoulder pain. However, it remains to be documented as to which exercises most specifically target neck and shoulder muscles at high activation level while using simple equipment as e.g., elastic bands. We hypothezised that selected exercises would specifically target the respective muscles, as follows: (1) shrugs and reverse flyes: the upper trapezius muscle, (2) cervical extension and lateral flexion: the upper neck extensor muscle, and (3) cervical flexion and rotation: the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. Methods: Eleven healthy males (25.9 ± 1.4 years, BMI 24.3 ± 1.4) with no neck/shoulder pain (VAS = 0) performed the six exercises with elastic bands at 12RM (repetition maximum) and 20RM in a randomized order. Electromyography was bilaterally recorded from the three muscles and it was normalized to maximal voluntary activation (%MVE). Exercises that evoke more than 60%MVE were considered as high intensity activation. Results: High muscle activation level was attained during 12RM in the upper trapezius muscle during shrugs (100.3 ± 29.8%MVE) and reverse flyes (91.6 ± 32.8%MVE) and in the upper neck extensor muscle during cervical extension (67.6 ± 29.8%MVE) and shrugs (61.9 ± 16.8%MVE). In the sternocleidomastoideus muscle, the highest activity was recorded during cervical flexion (51.7 ± 16.4%MVE) but it did not exceed 60%MVE. The overall activity was ~10% higher during 12RM when compared to 20RM. Conclusion: The simple exercises shrugs and reverse flyes resulted in high intensity activation of both the upper trapezius and neck extensors, while no exercises activated sternocleidomastoideus at high intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Configurable 3D Rowing Model Renders Realistic Forces on a Simulator for Indoor Training
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030734 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In rowing, rowers need outdoor and indoor training to develop a proficient technique. Although numerous indoor rowing machines have been proposed, none of the devices can realistically render the haptic, visual, and auditory characteristics of an actual rowing scenario. In our laboratory, we [...] Read more.
In rowing, rowers need outdoor and indoor training to develop a proficient technique. Although numerous indoor rowing machines have been proposed, none of the devices can realistically render the haptic, visual, and auditory characteristics of an actual rowing scenario. In our laboratory, we developed a simulator to support rowing training indoors. However, rendered forces with the initial rowing model, which was based on a simplified fluid dynamic model that approximated the drag/lift forces, were not perceived realistic enough for indoor training by expert rowers. Therefore, we implemented a new model for the blade–water interaction forces, which incorporates the three-dimensional rotation of the oar and continuously adjusts drag/lift coefficients. Ten expert rowers were asked to evaluate both models for various rowing aspects. In addition, the effect of individualization of model parameters on the perceived realism of rowing forces was elaborated. Based on the answers of the experts, we concluded that the new model rendered realistically resistive forces and ensured a smooth transition of forces within a rowing cycle. Additionally, we found that individualization of parameters significantly improved the perceived realism of the simulator. Equipped with a configurable rowing model, our simulator provides a realistic indoor training platform for rowers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immediate Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Skin Temperature and Lower-Limb Blood Flow in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Pilot Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020690 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of a single whole-body vibration (WBV) training session to peripheral skin temperature and peripheral blood flow of older adults with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted following the Consolidated [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of a single whole-body vibration (WBV) training session to peripheral skin temperature and peripheral blood flow of older adults with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. A single session of WBV (24 Hz; amplitude 4 mm; vibration time 45 s, with a series of eight repetitions with recovery between repetitions of 30 s; total time of 10 min) or sham vibration on the Kikos P204 Vibrating Platform was employed. To assess skin temperature, the FLIR E40bxs thermographic camera and the ultrasonic vascular Doppler for flow velocity were used. Evaluation occurred before and after a WBV or sham intervention. The sample consisted of three men and 17 women. In the WBV group, there was a decrease in the temperature from 29.7 °C (±1.83) to 26.6 °C (±2.27), with p = 0.01. Temperature following sham decreased from 28.6 °C (±1.84) to 26.3 °C (±2.49), with p = 0.01. Regarding blood flow, there was a decrease in the analyzed arteries, especially the left posterior tibial artery, where there was a statistically significant flow reduction from 27.1 m/s (±25.36) to 20.5 m/s (±19.66), post WBV (p = 0.01). In the sham group, an increased flow velocity was observed for all the arteries analyzed, except for the left dorsal artery. Immediately following a full-body vibration session, peripheral skin temperature and lower-limb blood flow tend to decrease in diabetic patients. However, from the design of study developed, we cannot infer the maintenance of this effect in the medium and long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Segmental Coordination during a Unilateral 180° Jump in Elite Rugby Players: Implications for Prospective Identification of Injuries
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020427 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Musculoskeletal injuries often occur during the execution of dynamic sporting tasks that involve rotation. The prescription of appropriate prevention strategies of musculoskeletal injury relies on assessments to identify risk, but current assessment tools focus on uniplanar movements. The purpose of this paper is [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal injuries often occur during the execution of dynamic sporting tasks that involve rotation. The prescription of appropriate prevention strategies of musculoskeletal injury relies on assessments to identify risk, but current assessment tools focus on uniplanar movements. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of the unilateral 180° jump as a potential assessment tool for injury risk in the lower body by (1) providing descriptive kinematics of the knee, thigh, and pelvis (2) conducting inter-segmental coordination analysis, and (3) comparing the knee kinematics between the dominant and non-dominant limb (NDL) during the loading (LOP) and landing phase (LAP). Elite rugby players completed one session, performing five 180° unilateral jumps on each limb while collecting kinematic data. Independent t-tests were used to compare peak angles of DL and NDL. Continuous Relative Phase (CRP) plots were constructed for thorax and pelvis in the transverse plane. At the loading phase, the non-dominant limb had greater peak knee abduction (ABD) (p = 0.01). At the landing phase, the dominant limb had greater peak knee adduction (ADD) (p = 0.05). At the landing phase, the non-dominant limb had greater peak knee ABD (p = 0.01). CRP plots indicate participants can utilize a thorax-led, pelvis-led, or synchronized rotational method. Bilateral asymmetries were observed, indicated by significant differences in the bilateral landing phase peak ADD/ABD, which is of particular interest considering all participants were healthy. Therefore, additional research is needed to determine thresholds for injury risk during rotational tasks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Do Grade II Ankle Sprains Have Chronic Effects on the Functional Ability of Ballet Dancers Performing Single-Leg Flat-Foot Stance? An Observational Cross-Sectional Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010155 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ballet dancers have a higher risk than the general population of ankle sprains. Ankle proprioception is of the utmost importance for executing static and dynamic positions typical of ballet dancing. Ankle sprains can create changes in functional ability that may affect ballet performance. [...] Read more.
Ballet dancers have a higher risk than the general population of ankle sprains. Ankle proprioception is of the utmost importance for executing static and dynamic positions typical of ballet dancing. Ankle sprains can create changes in functional ability that may affect ballet performance. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study is to evaluate if non-professional ballet dancers that were previously injured with a grade II ankle sprain carry a long-term stability deficit in ballet specific positions (passé, arabesque) and in single-leg flat-foot stance, thereby affecting ballet performance. We enrolled 22 amateur female ballet dancers, 11 who previously had a grade II ankle injury and 11 who had no history of ankle injury. Stabilometric data (Center of Pressure Speed and Elipse Area) were assessed with the postural electronic multisensory baropodometer in normal, arabesque, and passè positions with both open and closed eyes. Using an unpaired t-test, we compared healthy and pathological feet of the ankle injury group for a standard monopodalic position and two ballet-specific positions. No difference between pathological and healthy feet of non-professional ballet dancers who suffered grade II ankle injury was detected. According to the parameters considered in this study, grade II ankle sprains seem to have a favorable prognosis in the sample that we evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Whole-Body Vibration and Auriculotherapy on the Functionality of Knee Osteoarthritis Individuals
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5194; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235194 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative disease of the knee joint. This study aims to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV), auriculotherapy (AT), and the association of these techniques with the functionality of KOA individuals. Individuals (n = 120) were allocated an [...] Read more.
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative disease of the knee joint. This study aims to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV), auriculotherapy (AT), and the association of these techniques with the functionality of KOA individuals. Individuals (n = 120) were allocated an AT group (GAT), a WBV group (GWBV), an association group (GWBV + AT), and their respective controls (CGAT, CGWBMV, CGWBMV + AT). The WBV intervention was performed with 5–14 Hz in 3 min of working time with 1 min rest. The control group performed the protocol with the vibrating platform (VP) turned off. The AT intervention was performed with adhesive tapes, with seeds placed in the both ears on the Shenmen point, knee joint, and kidney. The control groups had seedless tape placed on both ears. The participants were instructed to press the adhesive tapes with the fingers three times per day (for 6 days) and to remove the adhesive tapes on the seventh day, before returning to the laboratory. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the short physical performance battery (SPPB), and the anterior trunk flexibility (ATF) tests were applied. Acute and cumulative effects were determined. In first session (acute effect of the first session), significant improvements were observed in the groups GWBV (p = 0.03) and GWBV + AT (p = 0.04), and in the cumulative effect a significant improvement was observed in the groups GWBV (p = 0.02) and GWBV + AT (p = 0.01). Concerning the overall score of the SPPB, significant improvements were observed in the individuals of the GWBV (p = 0.01) and GWBV + AT (p = 0.03) groups (cumulative effect). No changes were found in the score for the IKDC. The WBV alone or associated with AT, besides being a safe and feasible strategy, likely produces physiological responses that improve the functionality of KOA individuals, considering the findings of the ATF and the score of the SPPB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Exercises on Parameters Related to the Sleep Quality in Metabolic Syndrome Individuals: A Clinical Trial Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5183; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235183 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an undesirable clinical condition with physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that contribute to increased cardiovascular risks (CR). A poor sleep quality might be found in obese and MetS individuals. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been used on the [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an undesirable clinical condition with physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that contribute to increased cardiovascular risks (CR). A poor sleep quality might be found in obese and MetS individuals. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been used on the management of MetS individuals. This clinical trial investigated the effect of WBV exercise on parameters related to the sleep quality in MetS individuals. After randomization, nine individuals (seven women and two men) were exposed to a fixed frequency (FF) and ten individuals (eight women and two men) were exposed to a variable frequency (VF). Both groups performed the protocol twice a week, for 6 weeks. All of the evaluations were performed before the first and after the last sessions. Anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Berlin Questionnaire were also used to evaluate the quality of the sleep. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of the waist circumference in the VFG and an increase of the heart rate were found in the FFG and VFG group. The score of the PSQI of the both groups decreased significantly (p = 0.01). The score of the ESS decreased (p = 0.04) only in the VF group. The scores of the Berlin Questionnaire were not altered in both groups. In conclusion, WBV intervention was capable in interfering with physiological mechanisms with effects on the WC and HR, leading to the improvement of the quality of sleep in MetS individuals. WBV exercise might be an important clinical intervention to the management of some factors associated with poor quality of sleep (FFG and VFG) and in the daytime sleepiness in MetS individuals with variable frequencies (5–16 Hz) (VFG). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration Exercise on Neuromuscular Activation Through Electromyographic Pattern of Vastus Lateralis Muscle and on Range of Motion of Knees in Metabolic Syndrome: A Quasi-Randomized Cross-Over Controlled Trial
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 4997; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9234997 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is related to overweight and obesity, and contributes to clinical limitations. Exercise is used for the management of MetS individuals, who are often not motivated to perform this practice. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) produces several biological effects, besides being [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is related to overweight and obesity, and contributes to clinical limitations. Exercise is used for the management of MetS individuals, who are often not motivated to perform this practice. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) produces several biological effects, besides being safe, effective, and feasible for MetS individuals. This pseudo-randomized and cross-over controlled trial study aimed to analyze the effects of WBVE on MetS individuals’ neuromuscular activation using the surface electromyography (sEMG) pattern (root mean square (RMS)) of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and on the range of motion (ROM) of the knees. Participants (n = 39) were allocated to two groups: the treatment group (TG), which was exposed to WBVE, and the control group (CG). WBVE interventions were performed twice a week, for a period of 5 weeks. ROM and sEMG were analyzed at baseline, after the first session, and before and after the last session. sEMG (%RMS) significantly increased in the acute effect of the last session of WBVE (108.00 ± 5.07, p < 0.008, right leg; 106.20 ± 3.53, p < 0.02, left leg) compared to the CG. ROM did not significantly change in TG or CG. In conclusion, 5 weeks of WBVE exerted neuromuscular effects capable of increasing VL muscle RMS in individuals with MetS, this effect being potentially useful in the physical rehabilitation of these individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Test-Retest Reliability of Kinematic Parameters of Timed Up and Go in People with Type 2 Diabetes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4709; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214709 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease defined as a state of hyperglycaemia in fasting or postprandial states. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often show reduced physical function, including low levels of strength, balance or mobility. In this regard, the timed up [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease defined as a state of hyperglycaemia in fasting or postprandial states. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often show reduced physical function, including low levels of strength, balance or mobility. In this regard, the timed up and go (TUG) is a widely used physical fitness test in people with T2DM. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the properties TUG in this population. The present study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of kinetic and kinematic parameters obtained from TUG in the diabetic population with different levels of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 56 patients with T2DM participated in the study. They were divided into three groups according to the vibration threshold: (a) severe neuropathy, (b) moderate neuropathy and (c) normal perception. The TUG was performed using two force platforms to assess kinematic measurements. The results show that both kinetic and kinematic variables had good to excellent reliability. The reliability of TUG was excellent for the whole sample and the groups with non-severe neuropathy. However, it was just good for the group with severe neuropathy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
No Evidence That Frontal Optical Flow Affects Perceived Locomotor Speed and Locomotor Biomechanics When Running on a Treadmill
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4589; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214589 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We investigated how the presentation and the manipulation of an optical flow while running on a treadmill affect perceived locomotor speed (Experiment 1) and gait parameters (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 12 healthy participants were instructed to run at an imposed speed and [...] Read more.
We investigated how the presentation and the manipulation of an optical flow while running on a treadmill affect perceived locomotor speed (Experiment 1) and gait parameters (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 12 healthy participants were instructed to run at an imposed speed and to focus on their sensorimotor sensations to be able to reproduce this running speed later. After a pause, they had to retrieve the reference locomotor speed by manipulating the treadmill speed while being presented with different optical flow conditions, namely no optical flow or a matching/slower/faster optical flow. In Experiment 2, 20 healthy participants ran at a previously self-selected constant speed while being presented with different optical flow conditions (see Experiment 1). The results did not show any effect of the presence and manipulation of the optical flow either on perceived locomotor speed or on the biomechanics of treadmill running. Specifically, the ability to retrieve the reference locomotor speed was similar for all optical flow conditions. Manipulating the speed of the optical flow did not affect the spatiotemporal gait parameters and also failed to affect the treadmill running accommodation process. Nevertheless, the virtual reality conditions affected the heart rate of the participants but without affecting perceived effort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Patellofemoral Joint Loads during Running Immediately Changed by Shoes with Different Minimalist Indices: A Cross-sectional Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194176 - 06 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Purpose: Given the high incidence of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) in runners, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effect of shoes with different minimalist indices (MI) on the mechanical loads of the patellofemoral joint. Methods: Fifteen healthy male rearfoot strike runners were [...] Read more.
Purpose: Given the high incidence of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) in runners, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effect of shoes with different minimalist indices (MI) on the mechanical loads of the patellofemoral joint. Methods: Fifteen healthy male rearfoot strike runners were recruited to complete overground running trials at 3.33 m/s (±5%) in two running shoe conditions (MI = 26% versus MI = 86%). The amount of ten Vicon infrared cameras (100 Hz) and two Kistler force plates (1000 Hz) were used to collect kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data simultaneously. Quadriceps strength, patellofemoral contact force, patellofemoral contact area, and patellofemoral contact stress were calculated. Results: No significant differences were observed in the impact force and the second peak of the vertical GRF between the two shoe conditions. Compared to wearing low-MI shoes, wearing high-MI shoes showed that the maximum flexion angle of the knee, the contact area of patellofemoral joint and the peak knee extension moment reduced significantly (p < 0.01), and the peak patellofemoral contact force and stress decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that wearing high-MI shoes significantly decreases the patellofemoral contact force and patellofemoral joint stress by reducing the moment of knee extension, thus effectively reducing the load of the patellofemoral joint during the stance phase of running and potentially lowering the risk of PFPS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simple Assessment of Height and Length of Flight in Complex Gymnastic Skills: Validity and Reliability of a Two-Dimensional Video Analysis Method
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3975; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193975 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In artistic gymnastics, the possibility of using 2D video analysis to measure the peak height (hpeak) and length of flight (L) during routine training in order to monitor the execution and development of difficult elements is intriguing. However, the validity and [...] Read more.
In artistic gymnastics, the possibility of using 2D video analysis to measure the peak height (hpeak) and length of flight (L) during routine training in order to monitor the execution and development of difficult elements is intriguing. However, the validity and reliability of such measurements remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, the hpeak and L of 38 vaults, performed by top-level gymnasts, were assessed by 2D and 3D analysis in order to evaluate criterion validity and both intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2D method. Validity calculations showed higher accuracy for hpeak (±95% LoA: ±3.6% of average peak height) than for L (±95% LoA: ±7.6% of average length). Minor random errors, but no systematic errors, were observed in the examination of intrarater reliability (hpeak: CV% = 0.44%, p = 0.81; L: CV% = 0.87%, p = 0.14) and interrater reliability (hpeak: CV% = 0.51%, p = 0.55; L: CV% = 0.72%, p = 0.44). In conclusion, the validity and reliability of the 2D method are deemed sufficient (particularly for hpeak, but with some limitations for L) to justify its use in routine training of the vault. Due to its simplicity and low cost, this method could be an attractive monitoring tool for gymnastics coaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shoe Cushioning Effects on Foot Loading and Comfort Perception during Typical Basketball Maneuvers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3893; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183893 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the relationship between foot loading and comfort perception in two basketball shoes during basketball-specific maneuvers. Methods: Twelve male collegiate basketball players were required to complete three basketball maneuvers (i.e., side-step cutting, 90° L-direction running, and lay-up jumping) [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the relationship between foot loading and comfort perception in two basketball shoes during basketball-specific maneuvers. Methods: Twelve male collegiate basketball players were required to complete three basketball maneuvers (i.e., side-step cutting, 90° L-direction running, and lay-up jumping) in two basketball shoe conditions (shoe L and shoe N, with different midsole cushioning types). Two Kistler force plates and a Medilogic insole plantar pressure system were used to collect kinetic data (i.e., impact force, peak loading rate, and plantar pressure variables). Perception scales were used to evaluate comfort perception. Results: No significant difference was observed between the two shoes during maneuvers in terms of ground reaction force. However, the plantar pressure of shoe L in the midfoot and lateral foot regions was significantly greater than that of shoe N during side-step cutting and lay-up jumping. Shoe N was significantly superior to shoe L, especially in dynamic scale in terms of the perception of comfort. The plantar pressure and perception characteristics in the two shoes were significantly different but inconsistent with each other. Conclusion: The biomechanical characteristics of the shoes themselves and the perception evaluation of the athletes should be considered in comprehensive shoe-cushioning design and evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Integrative Neuromuscular Training in Young Athletes, Injury Prevention, and Performance Optimization: A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3839; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183839 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence by assessing the effectiveness of integrative neuromuscular training programs in injury prevention and sports performance in young athletes. Different data sources were analyzed up to January 2018. Eligible studies contained information [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence by assessing the effectiveness of integrative neuromuscular training programs in injury prevention and sports performance in young athletes. Different data sources were analyzed up to January 2018. Eligible studies contained information on population (young athletes), intervention (neuromuscular training), comparator (control group or another exercise intervention), outcomes (injury prevention or sport performance), and study design (randomized trials or prospective studies). The trials were restricted based on the language (English) and for publication date (after 1 January 2007). Fourteen randomized controlled trials were included: Seven included dynamic stability-related outcomes. Three assessed the coordination performing fundamental movements and sport-specific skills, while other five studies analyzed muscle strength and two assessed plyometric tests. Agility was evaluated in three studies and speed tests were also considered by four studies. Finally, fatigue resistance in three studies and injury risk in four were assessed. This review provides evidence that integrative neuromuscular training programs can enhance performance and injury prevention in young athletes, taken into account that adherence to the training program is adequate. Collectively, well-designed, randomized studies are necessary to collaborate with the present findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Device for Forces in Swimming Starts and Turns
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173559 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Biomechanical tools capable of detecting external forces in swimming starts and turns have been developed since 1970. This study described the development and validation of a three-dimensional (six-degrees of freedom) instrumented block for swimming starts and turns. Seven force plates, a starting block, [...] Read more.
Biomechanical tools capable of detecting external forces in swimming starts and turns have been developed since 1970. This study described the development and validation of a three-dimensional (six-degrees of freedom) instrumented block for swimming starts and turns. Seven force plates, a starting block, an underwater structure, one pair of handgrips and feet supports for starts were firstly designed, numerically simulated, manufactured and validated according to the Fédération Internationale de Natation rules. Static and dynamic force plate simulations revealed deformations between 290 to 376 µε and 279 to 545 µε in the anterior-posterior and vertical axis and 182 to 328.6 Hz resonance frequencies. Force plates were instrumented with 24 strain gauges each connected to full Wheatstone bridge circuits. Static and dynamic calibration revealed linearity ( R 2 between 0.97 and 0.99) and non-meaningful cross-talk between orthogonal (1%) axes. Laboratory and ecological validation revealed the similarity between force curve profiles. The need for discriminating each upper and lower limb force responses has implied a final nine-force plates solution with seven above and two underwater platforms. The instrumented block has given an unprecedented contribution to accurate external force measurements in swimming starts and turns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isokinetic Strength in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Reliability Study
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173542 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although there are studies assessing the effects of interventions on the knee strength of patients undergoing dialysis, there are no previous studies investigating the test–retest reliability of isokinetic measures in people undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Although there are studies assessing the effects of interventions on the knee strength of patients undergoing dialysis, there are no previous studies investigating the test–retest reliability of isokinetic measures in people undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The objective of this study was to determine the relative and absolute reliability of peak torque and work measurements for isokinetic concentric knee and elbow extension and flexion in peritoneal dialysis patients. Thirty-one patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (19 males) participated in the current study. All isokinetic tests were performed using a Biodex System 3. Participants performed three concentric repetitions of each test (flexion or extension) with the dominant limb (knee and elbow) at 60°/s. Peak torque (Nm) and work (J) were extracted. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The results showed that all knee peak torque and work measures had an ICC of >0.90. On the other hand, the ICC for peak torque and work in the elbow concentric extension was <0.90, while the remaining elbow-related variables achieved an excellent reliability. Therefore, isokinetic dynamometry is a reliable technique to evaluate peak torque and work for concentric flexion and extension in both the knee and elbow joints in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Kinematic Variables of Jump Throwing and Ball Velocity in Elite Handball Players
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163423 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between the kinematic variables of the right hand and left leg with ball velocity during jump-throwing phases in handball for better-informed training. We investigated ball velocity and the key kinematic variables of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between the kinematic variables of the right hand and left leg with ball velocity during jump-throwing phases in handball for better-informed training. We investigated ball velocity and the key kinematic variables of jump throwing during different throwing phases in three strides. Ten right-handed male handball professional players who had competed in the Egyptian Handball Super League participated in this study. Jump throwing performance was divided into three phases (cocking, acceleration and follow-through), which included eight events during the throwing. Five trials were captured for each player, and a 3D analysis was performed on the best trial. Results indicated that the velocity of the throwing hand was the most important variable during jump throwing, which was correlated with ball velocity during the three phases of performance in four events: Initial contact (IC) (r = 0.66*), initial flight (IF) (r = 63*), maximum height of the throwing hand (Max-HH) (r = 0.78*) and ground contact (GC) (r = 0.83*). In addition, the initial flight was the most important event in which players need to be using the best angles during performance, particularly the shoulder angle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphology-Related Foot Function Analysis: Implications for Jumping and Running
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163236 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Barefoot and shod running has received increased attention in recent years, however, the influence of morphology-related foot function has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate morphology-related jumping and running biomechanical functions in habitually barefoot and shod males. A total of 90 [...] Read more.
Barefoot and shod running has received increased attention in recent years, however, the influence of morphology-related foot function has not been explored. This study aimed to investigate morphology-related jumping and running biomechanical functions in habitually barefoot and shod males. A total of 90 barefoot males (Indians) and 130 shod males (Chinese), with significant forefoot and toe morphology differences, participated in a vertical jump and running test to enable the collection of kinematic and kinetic data. The difference of pressure distribution in the hallux and forefoot was shown while jumping and running. The unrestricted forefoot and toes of the barefoot group presented flexible movement and leverage functions to expand the forefoot loading area during performance of the two tasks. Findings related to morphology functions, especially in the forefoot and toe may provide useful information for footwear design. Full article
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