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Open AccessArticle

3D Device for Forces in Swimming Starts and Turns

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Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 91 Dr. Plácido Costa st., 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 91 Dr. Plácido Costa st., 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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Human Performance Studies Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Federal University of Amazonas, 3000 Gal. Rodrigo Octávio Jordão Ramos ave., South MiniCampus, Coroado I, Manaus 69077-000, Amazonas, Brazil
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Human Motor Behaviour Studies Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Federal University of Amazonas. 3000 Gal. Rodrigo Octávio Jordão Ramos ave., South MiniCampus, Coroado I, Manaus 69077-000, Amazonas, Brazil
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Superior Institute of Engineering of Porto, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, 431, Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida st., 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
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Centre of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Sports, Aquatic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, University of the State of Santa Catarina, 358 Pascoal Simone st., Coqueiros, Florianópolis 88080-350, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Dr. Roberto Frias st., 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173559
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanical Spectrum of Human Sport Performance)
Biomechanical tools capable of detecting external forces in swimming starts and turns have been developed since 1970. This study described the development and validation of a three-dimensional (six-degrees of freedom) instrumented block for swimming starts and turns. Seven force plates, a starting block, an underwater structure, one pair of handgrips and feet supports for starts were firstly designed, numerically simulated, manufactured and validated according to the Fédération Internationale de Natation rules. Static and dynamic force plate simulations revealed deformations between 290 to 376 µε and 279 to 545 µε in the anterior-posterior and vertical axis and 182 to 328.6 Hz resonance frequencies. Force plates were instrumented with 24 strain gauges each connected to full Wheatstone bridge circuits. Static and dynamic calibration revealed linearity ( R 2 between 0.97 and 0.99) and non-meaningful cross-talk between orthogonal (1%) axes. Laboratory and ecological validation revealed the similarity between force curve profiles. The need for discriminating each upper and lower limb force responses has implied a final nine-force plates solution with seven above and two underwater platforms. The instrumented block has given an unprecedented contribution to accurate external force measurements in swimming starts and turns. View Full-Text
Keywords: sports engineering; biomechanics; ground reaction forces; swimming; performance sports engineering; biomechanics; ground reaction forces; swimming; performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Jesus, K.; Mourão, L.; Roesler, H.; Viriato, N.; de Jesus, K.; Vaz, M.; Fernandes, R.; Vilas-Boas, J.P. 3D Device for Forces in Swimming Starts and Turns. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3559.

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