Topic Editors

Department of Physical Education and Sports (EPS), University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51100 Reims, France
Laboratory of Neuromotor Physiology, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, 00179 Rome, Italy
Neuromuscular Research Lab, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Lisbon University, 1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal

Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics

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closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The achievement of voluntary human movement, whilst seemingly simple, is a rather considerably complex complex mechanism which allows many nerve structures to make decisional and/or reflexional choices. This mechanism "defines" and "controls" the movement through the nerve impulses intended for the musculoskeletal system. In the human body, more than 600 muscles are involved with 200 bones rigidifying more than 70 segments ranging from a few cm3 to several thousand cm3 through more than 100 joints. The whole system thus allows greater than 100 degrees of freedom. Biomechanics study the complexity of the human body through its behavior and performance in daily life with the respect to its musculoskeletal behavior and optimization. This discipline seems essential in today's world and considerably promising for the future. Indeed, the concepts, methods, and analytical techniques that we use to characterize human mechanics represent major economical stakes. The development of this discipline is necessarily inscribed in a vision of interactions between the physical sciences (metrology, complex mechanical and electronic systems), information sciences and technologies, and life sciences (materials, tissues, organs and limbs). The ambition of the research work carried out in biomechanics is to improve the performance of high-level athletes, the comfort and quality of life of patients, and to minimize stress on joints in real field or laboratory situations.

Biomechanics is subdivided into kinematic and kinetic analysis. Kinematics is concerned with the analysis of motion (e.g., to determine the forces applied to a joint from the inverse dynamics) while kinetics studies the forces that cause or result from it (e.g., the reaction of the ground when walking). Different models can be considered, ranging from the human body represented by its center of gravity to the model integrating both the motor control and musculoskeletal modeling of the human body. The complexity of the model required aims to replace what is complicated and visible with what is simpler and invisible, which depends on the aims of the analysis but also on the nature of the approach: kinematic or kinetic. With current medical techniques (Scanner, MRI and X-ray) and recent computer modeling, many technical and scientific advances are now possible in biomechanics. The aim is to mathematically model and simulate the mechanical behavior of the human body under the application of various constraints. While it is correlated with cases of declared pathologies, we consider behavioral control with the objective of prevention. This simulation will make it possible to predict the appearance of pathologies that may slow down the stability or progression of human mechanics in all fields combined. The recommendations will be applicable to optimize human mechanics. It is important to note that the mathematical modeling in Life Sciences or Medical Sciences is hardly developed. This modeling involves applying physical laws to analyze both human and animal movements and to quantify and analyze the discriminating parameters of movement. Given its very complex approach, "skeletal" modeling consists of representing the body by a certain number of segments (often considered undeformable to simplify calculations). The interest of this modeling lies in the possibility of combining and coordinating research. This results in an efficient way in innovative projects to achieve CAD simulation rapid prototyping.

Applications will be in medicine (e.g., the development of new orthotics) and in sport (e.g., proposing a methodology for optimizing sports clothing). In brief, biomechanical tools and methods permit to quantify and improve the discriminating parameters characterizing movement in different cases such as sports, work and patients’ daily lives. The aim of this Special Issue is to effectively combine and coordinate biomechanical research and results in order to understand and improve human mechanics in medicine, sport, and at work.

Prof. Dr. Redha Taiar
Prof. Dr. Yuri Ivanenko
Dr. João R. Vaz

Topic Editors

Keywords

  • quality of life
  • rehabilitation
  • health
  • sport performance
  • sport science
  • mechanical analyses of sports
  • sport medicine
  • gait and posture
  • injury biomechanics
  • musculoskeletal and neuromuscular biomechanics
  • human behavior
  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • ergonomy science

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.5 5.3 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2400
Osteology
osteology
- - 2021 24.4 Days CHF 1000
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.0 5.7 2012 17.3 Days CHF 2600
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 7.3 2004 24.3 Days CHF 2500
Biomechanics
biomechanics
- 1.5 2021 20.4 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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16 pages, 1046 KiB  
Review
Circular RNAs Acting as miRNAs’ Sponges and Their Roles in Stem Cells
by Juan Xiao, Shija Joseph, Mengwei Xia, Feng Teng, Xuejiao Chen, Rufeng Huang, Lihong Zhai and Wenbin Deng
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2909; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102909 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of endogenous RNAs, have become a subject of intensive research. It has been found that circRNAs are important players in cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease development. Moreover, the expression of circRNAs is usually [...] Read more.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of endogenous RNAs, have become a subject of intensive research. It has been found that circRNAs are important players in cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease development. Moreover, the expression of circRNAs is usually not correlated with their parental gene expression, indicating that they are not only a steady-state by-product of mRNA splicing but a product of variable splicing under novel regulation. Sequence conservation analysis has also demonstrated that circRNAs have important non-coding functions. CircRNAs exist as a covalently closed loop form in mammalian cells, where they regulate cellular transcription and translation processes. CircRNAs are built from pre-messenger RNAs, and their biogenesis involves back-splicing, which is catalyzed by spliceosomes. The splicing reaction gives rise to three different types of intronic, exotic and exon–intron circular RNAs. Due to higher nuclease stability and longer half lives in cells, circRNAs are more stable than linear RNAs and have enormous clinical advantage for use as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for disease. In recent years, it has been reported that circRNAs in stem cells play a crucial role in stem cell function. In this article, we reviewed the general feature of circRNAs and the distinct roles of circRNAs in stem cell biology, including regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. CircRNAs have shown unique expression profiles during differentiation of stem cells and could serve as promising biomarkers of these cells. As circRNAs play pivotal roles in stem cell regulation as well as the development and progression of various diseases, we also discuss opportunities and challenges of circRNA-based treatment strategies in future effective therapies for promising clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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8 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
A Time-Motion and Error Analysis of Speed Climbing in the 2019 IFSC Speed Climbing World Cup Final Rounds
by Ruizhi Chen, Ziyuan Liu, Yuan Li and Jingke Gao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106003 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Speed climbing has become an Olympic event. However, there have been limited studies on the athletic performance of elite speed climbers under the current IFSC rule. Thus, this study aims to perform a statistical analysis of the performance of elite speed climbers and [...] Read more.
Speed climbing has become an Olympic event. However, there have been limited studies on the athletic performance of elite speed climbers under the current IFSC rule. Thus, this study aims to perform a statistical analysis of the performance of elite speed climbers and compare the different sex of the 2019 IFSC Speed Climbing World Cup. The 384 times climbing result in total climbing time, the time of four phases, and the start reaction time were calculated. In addition, the statistical data of men and women’s total error rate in the final round, the error rate in each final round, as well as the body position and the phase when errors occurred were gathered. Several results were not found in previous studies. Firstly, there is no statistical significance between starting reaction and climbing time of male and female. Secondly, there was no significant correlation between phases of the route for male athletes. While there was a statistical correlation between adjacent stages for women, the time of women in each stage was significantly correlated with the previous stage (p < 0.05). The error rate of both men and women in the medal competition stage reached a high rate of ~50%. While the error rate of men in each phase of route has no significant difference, While the error rate of women in the fourth phase was significantly different from the first three parts (p < 0.05), gender-specific training procedures should be developed for elite athletes. Future research should test the psychological state and pressure of speed athletes in the competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
7 pages, 8832 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Wrist Range of Motion Measurement between Inertial Measurement Unit Glove, Smartphone Device and Standard Goniometer
by Decho Surangsrirat, Tapiya Bualuangngam, Panyawut Sri-iesaranusorn, Attawit Chaiyaroj, Chatchai Buekban, Chusak Thanawattano and Sompob Poopitaya
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073418 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5326
Abstract
A goniometer is currently the gold standard for range of motion (ROM) measurements. However, trained staff are required for accurate measurements. The objective of this study is to assess an agreement between the proposed standalone inertial measurement unit glove, smartphone device, and a [...] Read more.
A goniometer is currently the gold standard for range of motion (ROM) measurements. However, trained staff are required for accurate measurements. The objective of this study is to assess an agreement between the proposed standalone inertial measurement unit glove, smartphone device, and a standard goniometer for the measurement of wrist range of motion. Twenty participants performed wrist flexion, wrist extension, pronation, supination, ulnar deviation, and radial deviation movements with three operators measuring the movements with three devices. Average measurements from the three approaches had within 1.5 degrees of difference from each other for all of the movements. Both the proposed IMU glove and smartphone showed a strong correlation to the goniometer in most of the movements, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.914 and 0.961, and between 0.929 and 0.951, respectively. Only wrist supination using the smartphone has an ICC of 0.828. In comparison with a standard goniometer, a smartphone device is a more convenient method and readily available. The proposed IMU glove requires additional hardware but is easier to use and is more suitable for measuring and monitoring dynamic motion than a smartphone or a goniometer. These patient-friendly approaches could be used by the patients at home and provide remote quantitative monitoring during the wrist rehabilitation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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11 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Standing Trunk Extension Angle and Medial Elbow Injuries in Young Baseball Pitchers
by Megumi Gonno, Noriyuki Kida, Teruo Nomura, Tomoyuki Matsui, Yoshikazu Azuma, Machiko Hiramoto, Ruo Hashimoto, Tetsuya Miyazaki, Maki Tanaka, Yuya Watanabe, Yoshihiro Kai and Toru Morihara
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073895 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the standing trunk extension angle and medial elbow injuries. Subjects and methods: The study participants were 90 male baseball pitchers (10–12 years) belonging to youth baseball teams. Pitching elbow injuries were [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the standing trunk extension angle and medial elbow injuries. Subjects and methods: The study participants were 90 male baseball pitchers (10–12 years) belonging to youth baseball teams. Pitching elbow injuries were evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon using ultrasound scans and physical examination findings. A single optical three-dimensional motion analysis system was used for the trunk extension measurements, with three-dimensional coordinates captured. The overall, upper, and lower trunk angles were then analyzed. Results: Trunk extension angle during standing trunk extension was significantly smaller among participants who were positive for medial elbow injuries on ultrasound scans (positive: 71.4° ± 10.3°; negative: 75.7° ± 9.2°; t = 2.05, p < 0.05). The upper trunk extension angle was significantly smaller than the lower trunk extension angle among participants who were positive for medial elbow injuries on physical examination (upper: 33.0° ± 6.9°; lower: 41.2° ± 8.2°; t = −2.42, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Trunk extension angle during standing trunk extension is associated with medial elbow injuries. Evaluating the trunk extension angle as multiple segments rather than a single rigid body is valuable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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20 pages, 6201 KiB  
Article
Virgin Passive Colon Biomechanics and a Literature Review of Active Contraction Constitutive Models
by Aroj Bhattarai, Andreas Johannes Horbach, Manfred Staat, Wojciech Kowalczyk and Thanh Ngoc Tran
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 138-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020013 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3330
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to present our findings on the biomechanical aspects of the virgin passive anisotropic hyperelasticity of the porcine colon based on equibiaxial tensile experiments. Firstly, the characterization of the intestine tissues is discussed for a nearly incompressible hyperelastic [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to present our findings on the biomechanical aspects of the virgin passive anisotropic hyperelasticity of the porcine colon based on equibiaxial tensile experiments. Firstly, the characterization of the intestine tissues is discussed for a nearly incompressible hyperelastic fiber-reinforced Holzapfel–Gasser–Ogden constitutive model in virgin passive loading conditions. The stability of the evaluated material parameters is checked for the polyconvexity of the adopted strain energy function using positive eigenvalue constraints of the Hessian matrix with MATLAB. The constitutive material description of the intestine with two collagen fibers in the submucosal and muscular layer each has been implemented in the FORTRAN platform of the commercial finite element software LS-DYNA, and two equibiaxial tensile simulations are presented to validate the results with the optical strain images obtained from the experiments. Furthermore, this paper also reviews the existing models of the active smooth muscle cells, but these models have not been computationally studied here. The review part shows that the constitutive models originally developed for the active contraction of skeletal muscle based on Hill’s three-element model, Murphy’s four-state cross-bridge chemical kinetic model and Huxley’s sliding-filament hypothesis, which are mainly used for arteries, are appropriate for numerical contraction numerical analysis of the large intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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18 pages, 8459 KiB  
Article
Can a Priori Unknown Values of Biomechanical Parameters Be Determined with Sufficient Accuracy in MBS Using Sensitivity Analysis? Analyzing the Characteristics of the Interaction between Cervical Vertebra and Pedicle Screw
by Ivanna Kramer and Sabine Bauer
Biomechanics 2022, 2(1), 107-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2010011 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Finite element (FE) modeling is a commonly used method to investigate the influence of medical devices, such as implants and screws, on the biomechanical behavior of the spine. Another simulation method is multibody simulation (MBS), where the model is composed of several non-deformable [...] Read more.
Finite element (FE) modeling is a commonly used method to investigate the influence of medical devices, such as implants and screws, on the biomechanical behavior of the spine. Another simulation method is multibody simulation (MBS), where the model is composed of several non-deformable bodies. MBS solvers generally require a very short computing time for dynamic tasks, compared with an FE analysis. Considering this computational advantage, in this study, we examine whether parameters for which values are not known a priori can be determined with sufficient accuracy using an MBS model. Therefore, we propose a many-at-a-time sensitivity analysis method that allows us to approximate these a priori unknown parameters without requiring long simulation times. This method enables a high degree of MBS model optimization to be achieved in an iterative process. The sensitivity analysis method was applied to a simplified screw–vertebra model, consisting of an anterior anchor implant screw and vertebral body of C4. An experiment described in the literature was used as the basis for developing and assessing the potential of the method for sensitivity analyses and for validating the model’s action. The optimal model parameters for the MBS model were determined to be c = 823,224 N/m for stiffness and d = 488 Ns/m for damping. The presented method of parameter identification can be used in studies including more complex MBS spine models or to set initial parameter values that are not available as initial values for FE models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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22 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
3D Stereophotogrammetric Quantitative Evaluation of Posture and Spine Proprioception in Subacute and Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain
by Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta, Tiziana Pietrangelo and Moreno D’Amico
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030546 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
The literature shows that low back pain causes a reduced lumbar range of movement, affecting patients’ proprioception and motor control. Nevertheless, studies have found that proprioception and motor control of the spine and posture are vague and individually expressed even in healthy young [...] Read more.
The literature shows that low back pain causes a reduced lumbar range of movement, affecting patients’ proprioception and motor control. Nevertheless, studies have found that proprioception and motor control of the spine and posture are vague and individually expressed even in healthy young adults. This study aimed to investigate the standing posture and its modifications induced by an instinctive self-correction manoeuvre in subacute and chronic nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) patients to clarify how NSLBP relates to body upright posture, proprioception, and motor control and how these are modified in patients compared to healthy young adults (121 healthy young adults: 57 females and 64 males). A cohort of 83 NSLBP patients (43 females, 40 males) were recruited in a cross-sectional observational study. Patients’ entire body posture, including 3D spine shape reconstruction, was measured using a non-ionising 3D optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric approach. Thirteen quantitative biomechanical parameters describing the nature of body posture were computed. The statistical analysis was performed using multivariate methods. NSLBP patients did not present an altered proprioception and motor control ability compared to healthy young adults. Furthermore, as for healthy subjects, NSLBP patients could not focus and control their posture globally. Proprioception and motor control in natural erect standing are vague for most people regardless of gender and concurrent nonspecific low back pain. Self-correction manoeuvres improving body posture and spine shape must be learned with specific postural training focusing on the lumbar spine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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17 pages, 3101 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Gait in Patients with Stroke Using Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation: A Case-Control Study
by Yungon Lee and Sunghoon Shin
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020425 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Patients with stroke suffer from impaired locomotion, exhibiting unstable walking with increased gait variability. Effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation on unstable gait of patients with chronic stroke are unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation on the gait [...] Read more.
Patients with stroke suffer from impaired locomotion, exhibiting unstable walking with increased gait variability. Effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation on unstable gait of patients with chronic stroke are unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation on the gait of patients with chronic stroke. Twenty older adults with stroke and twenty age- and gender-matched healthy controls walked 60 m under four conditions: normal walking with no stimulation, walking with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) through an earphone in the ear, walking with rhythmic somatosensory stimulation (RSS) through a haptic device on the wrist of each participant, and walking with rhythmic combined stimulation (RCS: RAS + RSS). Gait performance in the stroke group significantly improved during walking with RAS, RSS, and RCS compared to that during normal walking (p < 0.008). Gait variability significantly decreased under the RAS, RSS, and RCS conditions compared to that during normal walking (p < 0.008). Rhythmic sensory stimulation is effective in improving the gait of patients with chronic stroke, regardless of the type of rhythmic stimuli, compared to healthy controls. The effect was greater in patients with reduced mobility, assessed by the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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17 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Backward Fall Technique on the Sagittal Linear Acceleration of the Head during a Fall
by Andrzej Mroczkowski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020753 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
(1) Background: This research aimed to determine the effect of the backward fall technique on the sagittal linear acceleration of the head in students training in different sports. (2) Methods: The study involved 41 students divided into two study groups. Group A included [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This research aimed to determine the effect of the backward fall technique on the sagittal linear acceleration of the head in students training in different sports. (2) Methods: The study involved 41 students divided into two study groups. Group A included 19 students training in martial arts who practised falls with side aligning of the body. Group B included 22 handball players who practised falls performed in a way similar to a gymnastic backward roll. A rotating training simulator (RTS) was used to force falls, and Wiva ® Science apparatus was used to assess acceleration. (3) Results: Significant changes in head acceleration were only obtained between immediate fall tests (IFTs) and forced fall tests (FFTs) in group B. Significant differences were noted between groups for the IFT and FFT. Greater changes in head acceleration were noted in group B. (4) Conclusions: Smaller changes in head acceleration in group A students indicate a lower susceptibility to head, pelvic and cervical spine injuries in falls performed backward with side aligning of the body. This technique in group A limited the differences in head acceleration between IFTs and FFTs. Negative acceleration values obtained in group B confirmed that the head may suffer a moment of force, tilting it backwards, but then forward when the buttocks hit the ground. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Effect of Combined Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise Protocols on the Postural Stability of Patients with Non-Specific Chronic Neck Pain. A Secondary Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial
by Carlos Bernal-Utrera, Ernesto Anarte-Lazo, Juan Jose Gonzalez-Gerez, Manuel Saavedra-Hernandez, Elena De-La-Barrera-Aranda, Maria Angeles Serrera-Figallo, Maribel Gonzalez-Martin and Cleofas Rodriguez-Blanco
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010084 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 26332
Abstract
Postural stability is a little-studied factor in non-specific chronic neck pain; the causes that can alter it are unknown. The relationship with chronic pain could be a determining factor for its deficit. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between [...] Read more.
Postural stability is a little-studied factor in non-specific chronic neck pain; the causes that can alter it are unknown. The relationship with chronic pain could be a determining factor for its deficit. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sustained pain and a postural stability deficit. A randomized and blinded clinical trial (double-blind; placebo control; 12 weeks follow-up) was conducted with a total of 69 subjects divided into three groups, two experimental (manual therapy and specific exercise) and a control treatment, and carried out over a treatment period of three weeks with a follow-up after 12 weeks. Their postural stability was assessed through the overall balance index (OBI). The postural stability of subjects with non-specific chronic neck pain improved in the experimental treatments. There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental groups. This trial found that manual therapy and therapeutic exercise significantly improved OBI compared to the control group. Trial registration: Brazilian Clinical Trial Registry, RBR-2vj7sw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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14 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Injury Metrics for Assessing the Risk of Acute Subdural Hematoma in Traumatic Events
by Silvia García-Vilana, David Sánchez-Molina, Juan Velázquez-Ameijide and Jordi Llumà
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413296 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Worldwide, the ocurrence of acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in road traffic crashes is a major public health problem. ASDHs are usually produced by loss of structural integrity of one of the cerebral bridging veins (CBVs) linking the parasagittal sinus to the brain. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the ocurrence of acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in road traffic crashes is a major public health problem. ASDHs are usually produced by loss of structural integrity of one of the cerebral bridging veins (CBVs) linking the parasagittal sinus to the brain. Therefore, to assess the risk of ASDH it is important to know the mechanical conditions to which the CBVs are subjected during a potentially traumatic event (such as a traffic accident or a fall from height). Recently, new studies on CBVs have been published allowing much more accurate prediction of the likelihood of mechanical failure of CBVs. These new data can be used to propose new damage metrics, which make more accurate predictions about the probability of occurrence of ASDH in road crashes. This would allow a better assessement of the effects of passive safety countermeasures and, consequently, to improve vehicle restraint systems. Currently, some widely used damage metrics are based on partially obsolete data and measurements of the mechanical behavior of CBVs that have not been confirmed by subsequent studies. This paper proposes a revision of some existing metrics and constructs a new metric based on more accurate recent data on the mechanical failure of human CBVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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14 pages, 3282 KiB  
Article
Arch-Support Induced Changes in Foot-Ankle Coordination in Young Males with Flatfoot during Unplanned Gait Termination
by Xuanzhen Cen, Lidong Gao, Meimei Yang, Minjun Liang, István Bíró and Yaodong Gu
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5539; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235539 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Objective: The efficacy of arch orthoses in posture adjustment and joint coordination improvement during steady-state gait is well documented; however, the biomechanical changes of gait sub-tasks caused by arch support (AS), especially during gait termination, are poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
Objective: The efficacy of arch orthoses in posture adjustment and joint coordination improvement during steady-state gait is well documented; however, the biomechanical changes of gait sub-tasks caused by arch support (AS), especially during gait termination, are poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate how the acute arch-supporting intervention affects foot–ankle coordination and coordination variability (CV) in individuals with flatfoot during unplanned gait termination (UGT). Methods: Twenty-five male patients with flatfoot were selected as subjects participated in this AS manipulation study. A motion capture system was used for the collection of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) and ankle kinematics during UGT. MPJ-Ankle coordination and CV were quantified using an optimized vector coding technique during the three sub-phases of UGT. A paired-sample t-test from the one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping of one-dimensional was applied to examine the data significance. Results: Significant differences for the joint kinematics between non-arch-support (NAS) and AS were exhibited only in the MPJ transverse plane during the middle and later periods of UGT (p = 0.04–0.026). Frontal plane MPJ-ankle coordination under AS during stimulus delay significantly decreased from 177.16 ± 27.41° to 157.75 ± 32.54° compared with under NAS (p = 0.026); however, the coordination pattern had not changed. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the coupling angle variability between NAS and AS in three planes during sub-phases of UGT (all p > 0.5). Conclusions: The detailed intrinsic characteristic of AS induced acute changes in lower extremity segment coordination in patients with mild flatfoot has been recorded. This dataset on foot-ankle coordination characteristics during UGT is essential for explaining foot function and injury prediction concerning AS manipulation. Further studies are expected to reflect lower limb inter-joint coordination during gait termination through the long-term effects of AS orthoses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
Immediate Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Associated with Squatting Exercises on Hemodynamic Parameters in Sarcopenic Older People: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Fabiana Angélica de Paula, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Vanessa Kelly da Silva Lage, Guilherme Pinto da Silva, Hellen Cristina de Almeida, Liliana Pereira Lima, Joyce Noelly Vítor Santos, Daniela Pereira de Castro, Camila Franciele da Paixão, Ana Luiza da Silva Nunes Teixeira Rodrigues, Vinícius Cunha de Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Scheidt Figueiredo, Mario Bernardo-Filho, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda and Redha Taiar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211852 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises have recently been introduced as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for sarcopenic older people. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of WBV exercise on hemodynamic parameters in sarcopenic older people. Forty older people, divided into groups of nonsarcopenic [...] Read more.
Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises have recently been introduced as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for sarcopenic older people. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of WBV exercise on hemodynamic parameters in sarcopenic older people. Forty older people, divided into groups of nonsarcopenic (NSG = 20) and sarcopenic (SG = 20), participated in the study and were cross randomized into two interventions of eight sets of 40 s each, these being squatting with WBV and squatting without WBV. Heart rate (HR), peak heart rate (peak HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), double product (DP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and subjective perception of effort (SPE), were assessed at baseline, during, and after a single WBV session. The HR, peak HR, and DP variables were similar at baseline between groups. WBV exercise increased all the hemodynamic parameters both during and immediately after the intervention, in both groups (SG and NSG). The MAP values were similar at baseline between groups; however, in the NSG there was a significant increase during and immediately after the squatting with WBV intervention (p < 0.05). The HR behavior, in both groups, showed that there was an increase in HR after the first set of exercises with vibration and this increase was maintained until the final set. The absence of adverse effects of WBV exercise on the cardiovascular system and fatigue suggests this exercise modality is adequate and safe for sarcopenic older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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14 pages, 2683 KiB  
Article
Alleviation of Osteoarthritis-Induced Pain and Motor Deficits in Rats by a Novel Device for the Intramuscular Insertion of Cog Polydioxanone Filament
by Kilyong Lee, Geung Gyu Gang, Yun Gyu Kang, Sung Sam Jung, Hee-Gon Park and Jun Ho Jang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10534; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210534 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The importance of skeletal muscles in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) is known. However, in OA, strengthening the muscle is arduous process. This study investigated the effects of muscle enhancement and support therapy (MEST), a novel device for the intramuscular insertion of cog [...] Read more.
The importance of skeletal muscles in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) is known. However, in OA, strengthening the muscle is arduous process. This study investigated the effects of muscle enhancement and support therapy (MEST), a novel device for the intramuscular insertion of cog polydioxanone filament intended to hold and stimulate surrounding muscles, on OA-induced symptoms. In our results, the MEST attenuated OA-induced pain and mobility limitations, as evidenced by increases in withdrawal thresholds, rearing duration and travelled distance in an open cage, and fall latency from rotarod. It further restored atrophic rectus femoris muscle (RFM) in OA animals by increasing mass, decreasing nucleus density, and increasing the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers. Decreased collagen and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in OA animals were restored without affecting the interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in RFM. No evidence of structural improvement in the knee was observed via computed tomography after MEST. These results suggest that MEST in the quadriceps is effective for relieving pain and motor impairment in knee OA animals by restoring atrophic muscles, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for OA symptom management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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12 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
The Consequences of Mechanical Vibration Exposure on the Lower Back of Bus Drivers: A Systematic Review
by Hyago Gabriel Oliveira Mendes, Bianca de Moraes Tomaz, Ana Carolina Coelho-Oliveira, Juliana Pessanha de Freitas, Márcia Cristina Moura-Fernandes, Marco Antônio de Souza-Gama, Francisco José Salustiano da Silva, Arlete Francisca-Santos, Luiz Felipe Ferreira-Souza, Aderito Seixas, Redha Taiar, Mario Bernardo-Filho and Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9986; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219986 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
Professional drivers are exposed to whole-body vibration while driving, which contributes to an increased risk of developing physical problems, such as pain in the lower back. This article aims to review the effects of vibration exposure on bus drivers. Searches were performed on [...] Read more.
Professional drivers are exposed to whole-body vibration while driving, which contributes to an increased risk of developing physical problems, such as pain in the lower back. This article aims to review the effects of vibration exposure on bus drivers. Searches were performed on the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Only full articles of observational and experimental studies that investigated the effects of vibration on bus drivers with consequences in the lumbar region published in English were included. Data on driver demographics, study design, objectives, bus model, seat model, length of exposure to vibration, and outcomes were extracted. Two studies were classified as evidence level III-2 and three studies as level III-3. The methodological quality of the publications presented one with a moderate and four with a serious risk of bias. In all the publications, pain in the lumbar spine was reported. In conclusion, the results of this systematic review suggest that bus drivers are exposed to mechanical vibration in their work routine, and this might be considered a risk factor for the development of pain in the lumbar spine, bearing in mind that the exposure is for long periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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14 pages, 476 KiB  
Systematic Review
Ballroom Dance as a Form of Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review
by Meredith Wells and Feng Yang
Biomechanics 2021, 1(3), 307-320; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics1030026 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5028
Abstract
Chronic health problems, such as neurological conditions or long-lasting diseases, impair patients’ physical and mental functions with a subsequent reduction in overall quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize how ballroom dance is being investigated as a rehabilitative [...] Read more.
Chronic health problems, such as neurological conditions or long-lasting diseases, impair patients’ physical and mental functions with a subsequent reduction in overall quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize how ballroom dance is being investigated as a rehabilitative method in individuals with neurological or medical diseases. A systematic literature search was conducted in databases including MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed. Of 728 articles located and titles and abstracts screened, 12 studies were included in this review. Study groups included Parkinson’s disease (4 studies), multiple sclerosis (2), spinal cord injury (1), stroke (1), dementia (1), cancer (2), and diabetes (1). Ballroom dances utilized included a combination of smooth and rhythm dances. Results revealed that ballroom dance is effective in improving gait functions, balance, and quality of life among various populations living with chronic neurological or medical conditions. In addition, ballroom dance is safe and associated with a low attrition rate (7.7%). There is increasing evidence to support ballroom dance as a feasible and effective intervention for adults with chronic neurological disorders or medical diseases. Further large-scale, randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the mechanisms, effectiveness, retention, and safety of ballroom dance as a rehabilitative intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Circulating Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Nitric Oxide (NO) Levels Are Significantly Reduced in HIV Patients Concomitant with Increased Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
by Rahib K. Islam, Erinn Donnelly and Kazi N. Islam
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194460 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and weakens the ability to fight infections/disease. Furthermore, HIV infection confers approximately two-fold higher risk of cardiac events compared with the general population. The pathological mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system and weakens the ability to fight infections/disease. Furthermore, HIV infection confers approximately two-fold higher risk of cardiac events compared with the general population. The pathological mechanisms responsible for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in HIV patients are largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress and attenuated circulating levels of the cardioprotective gaseous signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were involved in the cardiovascular pathobiology observed in HIV patients. Plasma samples from both HIV patients and age–matched normal subjects were used for all assays. Oxidative stress was determined by analyzing the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and H2O2. Antioxidant levels were determined by measuring the levels of trolox equivalent capacity. ADMA, hs-CRP, and IL-6 were determined by using ELISA. The levels of H2S (free H2S and sulfane sulfur) and NO2 (nitrite) were determined in the plasma samples by using gas chromatography and HPLC, respectively. In the present study we observed a marked induction in the levels of oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status in the plasma of HIV patients as compared with the controls. Circulating levels of the cardiovascular disease biomarkers: ADMA, hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and IL-6 were significantly increased in the circulatory system of HIV patients. The levels of both nitrite and H2S/sulfane sulfur were significantly reduced in the plasma of HIV patients as compared with normal subjects. Our data demonstrate significant increases in circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardiovascular (CV) in conjunction with decreased bioavailability of H2S and NO in HIV patients. Diminished levels of these two cardioprotective gaseous signaling molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of CV disease in the setting of HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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10 pages, 728 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Kinematics Following Gait Perturbation in Individuals Who Did or Did Not Undergo Total Knee Replacement
by Vicktoria Elkarif, Leonid Kandel, Debbie Rand, Isabella Schwartz, Alexander Greenberg, Rivkin Gurion and Sigal Portnoy
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7453; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167453 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
We aimed to compare the spatiotemporal parameters and joint kinematics during unperturbed and perturbed gait between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) who did or did not undergo total knee replacement (TKR) one year post a baseline evaluation. OA subjects scheduled for TKR (TKR group; [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare the spatiotemporal parameters and joint kinematics during unperturbed and perturbed gait between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) who did or did not undergo total knee replacement (TKR) one year post a baseline evaluation. OA subjects scheduled for TKR (TKR group; n = 14) and not scheduled for TKR (NTKR group; n = 17) were age-matched. Outcome measures included: joint range of motion, timed up and go, joint pain levels, Oxford score, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale. In addition, spatiotemporal gait parameters and joint kinematics were recorded during perturbed and unperturbed gait. After one year, most of the TKR group (71%), but only 41% of the NTKR group, increased their gait velocity by more than 0.1m/sec, which is the meaningful clinical important difference for gait velocity. After perturbation of the contralateral limb, the TKR group showed a greater decrease in the maximal extension of the OA hip compared to the NTKR group (p = 0.031). After perturbation of the OA limb, more subjects decreased their OA knee flexion–extension range in the NTKR group compared to the TKR group (p = 0.011) and more subjects decreased their maximal ankle plantar flexion in the TKR group (p = 0.049). Although the surgery was successful in terms of pain reduction and increased functionality, individuals following TKR exhibited unique compensatory strategies in response to the perturbation of both limbs. These findings might suggest that balance deficits remain in individuals following TKR and therefore are associated with a risk of falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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13 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Non-Slender n-Link Chain Driven by Single-Joint and Multi-Joint Muscle Actuators: Closed-Form Dynamic Equations and Joint Reaction Forces
by Andrea Biscarini
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6860; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156860 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
The author has derived the closed-form dynamic equations for a planar musculoskeletal chain composed of a generic number n of rigid links connected by ideal revolute joints. Single-joint and multi-joint muscles have been modeled as linear force actuators that can span from one [...] Read more.
The author has derived the closed-form dynamic equations for a planar musculoskeletal chain composed of a generic number n of rigid links connected by ideal revolute joints. Single-joint and multi-joint muscles have been modeled as linear force actuators that can span from one joint to all the joints of the chain. The generic shape and size of each individual link of the chain accounts for different alignments among the center of mass of the link, the centers of rotation of the joints that articulate the link with its neighbors, and the points of application of the muscle forces and the possible contact external resistances acting on the link. The joint torque and the reaction force acting on each joint have been determined in closed-form by analytical quantification of the unique contribution of each individual kinematic and kinetic variable: (1) force of each single-joint or multi-joint muscle spanning or non-spanning the joint; (2) weight and contact external resistances acting on each individual link of the chain; (3) position, angular velocity, and angular acceleration of each individual link of the chain. The analytical results derived in this study can be applied to multilink musculoskeletal chains with deep/superficial and segmental/global muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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9 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
Objective Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of ADHD Medication by Analyzing Movements Using a Smart Chair with Piezoelectric Material
by Rei-Cheng Yang, Rong-Ching Wu, Ching-Tai Chiang, Yi-Hung Chiu, Chen-Sen Ouyang, Ying-Tong Lin and Lung-Chang Lin
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5478; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125478 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in schoolchildren. Several methods are available to evaluate ADHD therapeutic effects, including the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) questionnaire, the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale, and the visual analog scale. However, these scales [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in schoolchildren. Several methods are available to evaluate ADHD therapeutic effects, including the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) questionnaire, the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale, and the visual analog scale. However, these scales are subjective. In this study, a piezoelectric material was applied to a medical chair to objectively evaluate the therapeutic effect of ADHD medication before and after treatment. A total of 22 patients (18 boys and 4 girls) with ADHD were enrolled. During the appointment, the patients’ movements were recorded by the piezoelectric material before being analyzed. The variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate of movements were used to analyze the signal in this study. The results showed the variance, zero-crossing rate, and high energy rate in patients with ADHD all decreased significantly after 1 month of methylphenidate use. Although the hyperactivity subscales of SNAP obtained from parents and teachers demonstrated significant decreases after 1 month of medication, the reduction rate of the three aforementioned measurements decreased more than hyperactivity subscales. This suggests that the use of a smart chair equipped with a piezoelectric material is an objective and useful method for evaluating the therapeutic effects of ADHD medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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9 pages, 626 KiB  
Article
Association between Appendicitis and Incident Systemic Sclerosis
by Kuang-Tsu Yang, James Cheng-Chung Wei, Renin Chang, Chi-Chien Lin and Hsin-Hua Chen
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112337 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
Objective: This nationwide study aimed to investigate the association between newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis (SSc) and previous appendicitis history. Methods: A total of 1595 patients who were newly diagnosed with SSc were recruited as the SSc cases from the 2003 to 2012 claims [...] Read more.
Objective: This nationwide study aimed to investigate the association between newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis (SSc) and previous appendicitis history. Methods: A total of 1595 patients who were newly diagnosed with SSc were recruited as the SSc cases from the 2003 to 2012 claims data of the entire population in Taiwan. The other 15,950 individuals who had never been diagnosed with SSc during 2003 and 2012 were selected as the non-SSc controls to match the SSc cases. We defined that the index date as the first date of SSc diagnosis of SSc cases and the first date of ambulatory visit for any reason of non-SSc controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied for the association between appendicitis and the risk of the incident SSc, tested by estimating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential confounders, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), a history of periodontal disease, salmonella infection, and intestinal infection, were controlled. We further designed sensitivity analyses by varying the definition of appendicitis according to the status of receiving primary appendectomy. Results: The mean age was 51 years in the case and control groups. Females accounted for 77.5%. A total of 17 (1.1%) out of 1595 SSc cases and 81 (0.5%) out of 15,950 non-SSc controls had a history of appendicitis before the index date had a history of appendicitis. A significant association between appendicitis and the risk of SSc was confirmed (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.14–3.60) after adjusting potential confounders. CCI ≥ 1 (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 7.50–9.58) and periodontal disease (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.39–1.74) were also significantly associated with the risk of SSc. The association between appendicitis and SSc risk remained robust using various definitions of appendicitis. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated appendicitis was associated with the incident SSc. CCI ≥ 1 and periodontal disease also contributed to the risk of developing SSc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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