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Applied Sciences in Dentistry

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 108529

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale e per la Romagna, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Interests: oral pathology; pediatric dentistry; orthodontics; periodontology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM) - Section of Dentistry, University “Aldo Moro” of Bari, Clinica odontoiatrica del Policlinico di Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: dentistry; oral medicine; oral pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Via Luigi de Crecchio, 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
Interests: dentistry; oral medicine; oral pathology; oral immunology; imaging in oral diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applied sciences in dentistry aims to cover all the latest outstanding developments of applied sciences in dentistry. This Special Issue will describe recent research and developments in the field of dentistry. Applied sciences in dentistry is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of medical and material sciences, towards the development of therapeutic strategies in dentistry. The study of applied sciences has yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in dentistry. The objective of this Special Issue is to present some research underlying new diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful in dentistry and, in the current scenario, challenges and perspectives in dentistry. The growth of pharmaceutics and biomaterials as a research field has provided a novel set of therapeutic strategies for dental applications. The knowledge that has arisen from studies in the dental area may translate into new methods for caring or improving the alternatives used to treat patients in daily clinics.

Prof. Dr. Lauritano Dorina
Prof. Petruzzi Massimo
Prof. Lucchese Alberta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dentistry
  • oral surgery
  • oral medicine
  • oral biology
  • periodontics
  • dental materials
  • implantology
  • restorative dentistry

Published Papers (29 papers)

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10 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis in Comparison to Chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Khalid H. Almadi, Muhammad Adeel Ahmed, Tuba Ghazal, Rizwan Jouhar, Mazen F. Alkahtany, Tariq Abduljabbar and Fahim Vohra
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083469 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Propolis is proposed to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which can be used in endodontic applications. However, evidence on its efficacy in comparison to chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is controversial. The aim of the current study was to compare [...] Read more.
Propolis is proposed to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, which can be used in endodontic applications. However, evidence on its efficacy in comparison to chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is controversial. The aim of the current study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of Propolis and chlorhexidine as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis in extracted human permanent teeth. The focused question was, “Does Propolis show better antibacterial efficacy than Chlorhexidine (CHX) as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis in extracted human permanent teeth?”. Databases including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, ISI-Web of Science were searched from 1990 to August 2020 using different combinations of the following keywords: “Propolis”, “Intracanal medicament”, “E. faecalis”, “Antibacterial activity” and “Chlorhexidine”. Ten studies fulfilling inclusion criteria were considered for qualitative analysis, followed by quantitative analysis of eight studies. Heterogeneity was calculated for colony forming units (CFU) of E. Faecalis using the Chi-square test and I2 statistics. Forest plots were computed reporting standard mean difference (SMD) of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals. The overall mean difference for CFU of E. faecalis showed a statistically significant difference between the antibacterial efficacy of Propolis and CHX (SMD = 3.20 [1.70, 4.69] Z = 4.20; p < 0.001). CHX showed superior antibacterial efficacy against E. faecalis compared to Propolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic Platform for Examination of Effect of Chewing Xylitol Gum on Salivary pH, O2, and CO2
by Ivana Podunavac, Stevan Hinić, Sanja Kojić, Nina Jelenčiakova, Vasa Radonić, Bojan Petrović and Goran M. Stojanović
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052049 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Miniaturization of different measurement processes and a scaled-down approach open the possibility for rapid measurements with the small amounts of samples and reagents into a compact platform with integrated sensors and different measuring components. In this paper, we report a microfluidic approach for [...] Read more.
Miniaturization of different measurement processes and a scaled-down approach open the possibility for rapid measurements with the small amounts of samples and reagents into a compact platform with integrated sensors and different measuring components. In this paper, we report a microfluidic approach for measurements of salivary pH, dissolved O2, and CO2 during chewing xylitol gum. The study was done with the samples of 30 healthy volunteers who were chewing a xylitol gum, and the measurements were performed in the microfluidic (MF) chip with integrated commercial PreSens sensors. Xylitol exhibited a significant effect on the pH of saliva in terms of its initial drop, which was the most significant between the 5th and 10th minutes. The effect of xylitol on the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in saliva cannot be confirmed. The employed microfluidic platform was shown to be applicable and effective in the analysis of salivary biomarkers relevant to caries development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 1219 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method to Measure the Powder Consumption of Dental Air-Polishing Devices
by Marcel Donnet, Maxime Fournier, Patrick R. Schmidlin and Adrian Lussi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031101 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5836
Abstract
Background: Oral preventive measures should be efficient, minimally invasive, and painless. Air-polishing has this potential. As the efficiency and abrasivity of powders are dependent on the amount of powder projected, a better understanding of this characteristic will help us to determine the most [...] Read more.
Background: Oral preventive measures should be efficient, minimally invasive, and painless. Air-polishing has this potential. As the efficiency and abrasivity of powders are dependent on the amount of powder projected, a better understanding of this characteristic will help us to determine the most effective and least invasive device. Method: A new laboratory set-up was designed using light diffusion to measure powder consumption with high accuracy due to its high sampling rate, even at short time intervals (<1 s). We tested six different marketed air-polishers of two different working types: Table-top and Handy. Results: All of the devices presented some powder delivery fluctuations. These differences were manufacturer-dependent. The powder delivery stability varied by up to two times, and ranged among the Table-top devices in the following order: E1 < M2 < N2. The mean powder consumption also varied by up to 2.9 times, in the following order: E1 < N2 < M3. All of the Handy devices presented a short treatment time and poor flow regularity, and consumed significantly more powder than the Table-top devices (by approximately +25%). Conclusion: The powder consumption analysis showed distinct differences between the devices. Therefore, the clinical results among the devices cannot be compared, as their working mechanisms are very different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Analysis of the Effect of Three-Dimensional Preformed Titanium Mesh on Peri-Implant Non-Contained Horizontal Defects in 100 Consecutive Cases
by In-Oh Choi, Ji-Su Oh, Sang-Joun Yu, Byung-Ock Kim and Won-Pyo Lee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020872 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
This study aimed to clinically and radiographically evaluate the results of guided bone regeneration (GBR) using three-dimensional preformed titanium mesh (3-D-PFTM) for non-contained horizontal defects in 100 consecutive cases. This study involved 100 patients (129 implants) with peri-implant non-contained horizontal defects. The patients [...] Read more.
This study aimed to clinically and radiographically evaluate the results of guided bone regeneration (GBR) using three-dimensional preformed titanium mesh (3-D-PFTM) for non-contained horizontal defects in 100 consecutive cases. This study involved 100 patients (129 implants) with peri-implant non-contained horizontal defects. The patients were divided into three groups: 3-D-PFTM alone (Group 1), 3-D-PFTM plus cross-linked collagen membrane (Group 2), and 3-D-PFTM plus non-cross-linked collagen membrane (Group 3). Each implant was evaluated radiographically using CBCT at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. At the platform level, the mean horizontal hard tissue gain of all the sites was 3.1 ± 1.3 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The mean rate of mesh exposure was 11.8% in Group 1, 4.2% in Group 2, and 5.0% in Group 3. The mean hard tissue gain rate was 71.0 ± 23.0% in group 1, 84.2 ± 21.5% in group 2, and 84.0 ± 22.9% in group 3. Groups 2 and 3 showed significantly higher hard tissue gain rates than group 1. However, there was no significant difference between the rates in groups 2 and 3. Within the limitations of this study, 3-D-PFTM should be considered as a valuable option for GBR for peri-implant non-contained horizontal defects. The use of an additional resorbable collagen membrane provides additional advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
A New Approach to Set the Absolute Midsagittal Plane of the Mandible Using a Similarity Index in Skeletal Class III Patients with Facial Asymmetry
by Woo-Jin Han, Jae Joon Hwang, Yun-Hoa Jung, Bong-Hae Cho, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu and Sung-Hwan Choi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8550; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238550 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
This study sought to test the feasibility of a newly developed plane called computed modified absolute mandibular midsagittal plane (cmAMP) based on the similarity index (SI) for evaluating the stereoscopical symmetry of the mandible by comparison with other proposed midsagittal planes. This study [...] Read more.
This study sought to test the feasibility of a newly developed plane called computed modified absolute mandibular midsagittal plane (cmAMP) based on the similarity index (SI) for evaluating the stereoscopical symmetry of the mandible by comparison with other proposed midsagittal planes. This study involved 29 adult patients (15 men, 14 women; average age, 23.1 ± 6.9 years) with skeletal Class III facial asymmetry who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Using cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and 1 year after surgery, cmAMP with the highest SI value between the two anterior segments of the hemi-mandible was set by a computer algorithm. Results show that the SI using cmAMP had the highest value (0.83 ± 0.04) before surgery compared to the other midsagittal planes, and was not significantly different from the SI (0.80 ± 0.05) using a facial midsagittal plane (MSP) after surgery. The distance (1.15 ± 0.74 mm) and angle (2.02 ± 0.82°) between MSP and cmAMP after surgery were significantly smaller than those between MSP and other midsagittal planes. In conclusion, the cmAMP plane best matches the two anterior segments of hemi-mandible symmetrically and is the closest to MSP after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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8 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Using a Patient Simulator with Real-Time Feedback to Improve Light-Curing Skills of Dental Students
by Tobias T. Tauböck, Matej Par, Thomas Attin and Phoebe Burrer
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8269; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228269 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
The present study investigated the effectiveness of employing a patient simulator with an integrated visual feedback mechanism to improve the light-curing skills of dental students. A total of 44 third-year dental students were randomly divided into a control group (n = 22) [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effectiveness of employing a patient simulator with an integrated visual feedback mechanism to improve the light-curing skills of dental students. A total of 44 third-year dental students were randomly divided into a control group (n = 22) and a training group (n = 22). Both groups light-cured a simulated restoration in tooth 27 in a patient simulator (MARC Patient Simulator, BlueLight Analytics, Halifax, Canada) by using the same curing device for 10 s. Delivered irradiances were recorded in real time by the built-in spectrophotometer. After measuring the baseline irradiances for both groups, the training group received detailed light-curing instructions and hands-on training with immediate visual feedback using the patient simulator. The irradiance of the training group was re-measured after the training. Both groups then attended a 26-day preclinical course, which involved placing 30 composite restorations. Upon completion of this course, the light-curing performance of both groups was re-assessed. The data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Friedman’s ANOVA, and the Mann-Whitney U-test at an overall level of significance of α = 0.05. At baseline, the control and the training group delivered statistically similar irradiances with similar data scattering. In the training group, data scattering was considerably reduced after the hands-on training with the patient simulator. After the 26-day preclinical course, the irradiance of the training group was significantly higher and considerably less scattered compared to the control group. In conclusion, training with the patient simulator improved the light-curing performance of the dental students, mainly by helping them to deliver light energy more consistently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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14 pages, 1570 KiB  
Article
Is Topical Application of Hyaluronic Acid in Oral Lichen Planus Effective? A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study
by Corinna Bruckmann, Rudolf Seemann, Klemens Rappersberger, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan, Hady Haririan and Gabriella Dvorak
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 7988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10227988 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects and, thus, could be promising in the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of topical hyaluronic acid, compared to placebo, on salivary levels of calprotectin, [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects and, thus, could be promising in the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of topical hyaluronic acid, compared to placebo, on salivary levels of calprotectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and bacteria, as well as clinical and subjective parameters. Fourteen patients with confirmed OLP were included. After random selection, patients started with either 0.2% hyaluronic acid or a placebo gel for 6 weeks. Following a wash-out period, the groups changed the application. Whole saliva, clinical parameters, and questionnaires were evaluated before and after the intervention, as well as after the crossover phase. Salivary calprotectin, IL-6, and inflammation-related bacteria were determined by ELISA and PCR, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical or subjective outcome parameters, salivary levels of IL-6, calprotectin, or bacteria after the application of hyaluronic acid, compared to placebo. However, only nine patients completed the study, as five out of seven patients starting with placebo were lost to follow-up. Significant effects of HA on inflammatory mediators and clinical parameters in OLP patients could not be proven, although a trend in clinical severity improvement could be observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 1874 KiB  
Article
Effects of Changes in the Frankfort Horizontal Plane Definition on the Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Evaluation of Symmetry
by Utkarsh Mangal, Jae Joon Hwang, Heon Jo, Sung Min Lee, Yun-Hoa Jung, Bong-Hae Cho, Jung-Yul Cha and Sung-Hwan Choi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 7956; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10227956 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6184
Abstract
The plane formed by the intersection of bilateral porions (PoR and PoL) and left orbitale (OrL) is conventionally defined as the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane. We aim to test the influence of the FH plane definition on a 3D cephalometric assessment. We selected [...] Read more.
The plane formed by the intersection of bilateral porions (PoR and PoL) and left orbitale (OrL) is conventionally defined as the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane. We aim to test the influence of the FH plane definition on a 3D cephalometric assessment. We selected 38 adult patients (20 males, 18 females; average age: 22.87 ± 5.17 years) without any gross asymmetry from retrospective records and traced and analyzed their cone-beam computed tomographic images. The findings were categorized into the following four groups: FH1: conventional; FH2: PoR, PoL, right orbitale (OrR); FH3: OrR, OrL, PoL; FH4: OrR, OrL, PoR. The average menton (Me) deviation from the MSP was statistically significant for the FH1 group (0.56 ± 0.27 mm; p < 0.001), compared to the FH3 (1.37 ± 1.23 mm) and FH4 (1.33 ± 1.16 mm) groups. The spatial orientation level (SOL) of the FH plane showed a marked difference (p < 0.05) between the FH2 (0.602° ± 0.503°) and FH4 (0.944° ± 0.778°) groups. The SOL of the MSP was comparatively small (p < 0.001) for FH2 (0.015° ± 0.023°) in comparison to both FH 3 (0.644° ± 0.546°) and FH 4 (0.627° ± 0.516°). Therefore, the FH plane definition can significantly influence the interpretation of cephalometric findings. Future studies should focus on standardization to improve the reliability and reproducibility of 3D cephalometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Masticatory Muscle Function Using Digital versus Traditional Techniques for Mockup Fabrication: A Controlled Prospective Study
by Simona Tecco, Francesca Cattoni, Atanaz Darvizeh, Floriana Bosco, Vincenzo Sanci, Alessandro Nota, Giorgio Gastaldi and Enrico Felice Gherlone
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6013; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10176013 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Background: the aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to analyze the effect of digital and traditional mockup on masticatory muscle activity in patients with teeth wear, rehabilitated with an increase of occlusal vertical dimension. Subjects and Methods: a sample of 22 adult [...] Read more.
Background: the aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to analyze the effect of digital and traditional mockup on masticatory muscle activity in patients with teeth wear, rehabilitated with an increase of occlusal vertical dimension. Subjects and Methods: a sample of 22 adult patients who were about to receive a prosthetic rehabilitation was divided into a study group (3M; 9F; mean age 42 ± 0.8 years), treated using the digital mockup; and a control group (2M; 8F; mean age 37 ± 0.5 years), treated using the conventional technique (traditional) mockup. Electromyographic activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles were evaluated before the beginning of the treatment (T0), at mockup insertion (T1), after treatment (T2) and each lapse of time lasted 2–5 months. Results: the comparison between the two groups at different time gaps revealed that at ∆1 (T1–T0) only the impact index (IMP) showed significant difference and no other significant variation was observed between the two groups at ∆2 (T2–T1) and ∆3 (T2–T0). It concludes that traditional and digital methods generally have nonsignificant differences. Conclusions: both methods seem to be effective in prosthetic rehabilitation and give comparable effects on masticatory muscles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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7 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Working Length Transfer in the Endodontic Clinical Practice: A Comparative Study
by Mario Alovisi, Mario Dioguardi, Massimo Carossa, Giuseppe Troiano, Maria Chiara Domini, Davide Salvatore Paolino, Giorgio Chiandussi and Elio Berutti
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5824; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175824 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The present paper evaluated the accuracy of two different methods for transferring working length (WL) between manual endodontic instruments and nickel–titanium (NiTi) shaping files. Thirty root canals of extracted permanent teeth were used. Root canals were divided according to canal length (CL) and [...] Read more.
The present paper evaluated the accuracy of two different methods for transferring working length (WL) between manual endodontic instruments and nickel–titanium (NiTi) shaping files. Thirty root canals of extracted permanent teeth were used. Root canals were divided according to canal length (CL) and canal curvature (CC). The reference cusp and the root end were flattened to provide reproducible and accurate measurements. During shaping, the WL measurements were obtained with manual k-files (KF) and transferred to WaveOne (W1) NiTi reciprocating files using the traditional method with the endodontic ruler (method I) and an alternative clinical procedure based on the comparison of the instruments side by side from tip to shank (method II). For each file and each tested method, two measures were taken by two examiners using Rhino (ver. 4.0, McNeel, Seattle, WA, USA) software for a total of 360 (30 × 3 × 2 × 2) measures. Analysis of variance was performed by taking the difference in length (Delta WL, DWL) between files used for the same canal. The difference between methods I and II for WL transfer was found to be statistically significant (df = 1; F = 71.52; p < 0.001). The DWL absolute values obtained with method II were found to be closer to 0 mm (i.e., same length as corresponding KF) than those obtained with method I. Both CL (df = 2; F = 1.27; p = 0.300) and CC (df = 1; F = 2.22; p = 0.149) did not significantly influence WL measurements. With respect to WL transfer, method II seemed to better preserve the correct WL transfer between instruments during the clinical endodontic procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 7822 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Properties of Novel Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-SZ) with Nano Calcium Oxide Derived from Cockle Shells and Commercial Source for Dental Application
by Abbas Ibrahim Hussein, Ahmad Nazeer Che Mat, Nur Ain Adila Abd Wahab, Ismail Ab. Rahman, Adam Husein and Zuryati Ab-Ghani
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5751; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175751 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3614
Abstract
Various oxides are used to stabilize zirconium oxide (ZrO2), but their superior hardness causes wear of the machining tool. Calcia-doped zirconia has been studied but reports on properties suitable for dental application are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to fabricate and [...] Read more.
Various oxides are used to stabilize zirconium oxide (ZrO2), but their superior hardness causes wear of the machining tool. Calcia-doped zirconia has been studied but reports on properties suitable for dental application are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to fabricate and characterize zirconia stabilized by calcium oxide (CaO) derived from cockle shells and compare it with zirconia stabilized by commercial CaO, sintered at different temperatures. In this study, 176 pressed pellets of zirconia mixed with CaO either derived from cockle shells or commercial CaO were sintered between 1200 and 1500 °C to produce calcia-doped zirconia. Characterizations were made with SEM and XRD. Specimens were subjected to density, compressive and flexural strength, and Vickers hardness testing. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. XRD revealed the zirconia was stabilized into tetragonal and cubic phases (Ca-SZ). Ca-SZ cockle shells (CS) and Ca-SZ commercial (CC) have average particle sizes of 267 nm and 272 nm, respectively, with similar surface roughness. At 1400 °C sintering temperature, flexural strengths were 1165 and 1152 MPa, compressive strengths were 4914 and 4913 MPa, and Vickers hardness were 977 and 960 MPa for Ca-SZ(CS) and Ca-SZ(CC), respectively. Both Ca-SZ materials showed no significant difference in most properties (p < 0.05) when sintered at different temperatures. The fully sintered Ca-SZ is less hard compared to the ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Ce-TZP) available on the market. Thus, Ca-SZ may be used as an alternative to the current zirconia available on the market for dental application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Association between Anatomical Variations and Maxillary Canine Impaction: A Retrospective Study in Orthodontics
by Marco Pasini, Maria Rita Giuca, Sara Ligori, Stefano Mummolo, Fabiana Fiasca, Giuseppe Marzo and Vincenzo Quinzi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5638; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165638 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate whether or not there is a higher prevalence of skeletal abnormalities in subjects with maxillary canine impaction (MCI). This retrospective study was performed on 67 subjects with maxillary canine impaction (test group) and on 67 patients without dental [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate whether or not there is a higher prevalence of skeletal abnormalities in subjects with maxillary canine impaction (MCI). This retrospective study was performed on 67 subjects with maxillary canine impaction (test group) and on 67 patients without dental displacement (control group). Sella turcica bridging (SB), ponticulus posticus (PP), atlas posterior arch deficiency (APAD) and the morphology of sella turcica and pterygopalatine fissure were evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square, Mann–Whitney test and multivariate logistic models; the level of significance was p < 0.05. Results showed that in the test and control groups 87% and 62.7% of patients had SB, respectively. PP was observed in 60% of patients in the test group and in 16.4% of patients in the control group. APAD was observed in 9% of test group and in 4.5% of the control group. Skeletal anomalies were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in subjects with MCI. A significant difference between the groups was observed in regards to the shape of the pterygopalatine fissure, found to be less wide and longer in the test group. SB, PP and APAD were higher in subjects with MCI; furthermore, an elongated pterygopalatine fissure was significantly associated with MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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9 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Detectability of Osseous Lesions with a Pre-Programmed Low-Dose Protocol for Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
by Quirin Döbelin, Bernd Stadlinger, Daniel B. Wiedemeier, Dominique Bichsel, Martin Rücker and Silvio Valdec
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4961; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144961 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic reliability of a pre-set, manufacturer-specific, low-dose mode against a standard-dose mode in the detection of four different osseous lesions in the mandible with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Four types of lesions (periapical lesion, extended periodontal [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic reliability of a pre-set, manufacturer-specific, low-dose mode against a standard-dose mode in the detection of four different osseous lesions in the mandible with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Four types of lesions (periapical lesion, extended periodontal gap, recession of the buccal lamella, sequestrum/fracture) were prepared on 40 pig mandibles. CBCT images were obtained from each mandible, with both the low-dose and standard-dose modes using the Orthophos SL CBCT device (Dentsply-Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). Twelve assessors quantitatively (detection of lesions) and qualitatively (assessment of detectability) evaluated the CBCT images in SIDEXIS 4 (Dentsply-Sirona) using a study-specific digital examination tool. A correct diagnosis was achieved in almost 71% (LD: 70.8%; SD: 70.9%) of 1920 lesions, without a statistically significant difference between the low-dose and standard-dose mode. This finding was consistent across all four lesion types. In conclusion, while low-dose mode and standard-dose mode CBCT scans performed similarly in the detection of four prepared lesions of the mandible, the former may be a promising, user-friendly alternative method of obtaining radiation-optimized, three-dimensional images in accordance with the As Low As Diagnostically Acceptable (ALADA) principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1796 KiB  
Article
Alterations in Surface Roughness and Chemical Characteristics of Sandblasted and Acid-Etched Titanium Implants after Irradiation with Different Diode Lasers
by Hak-Ki Kim, Su-Yeon Park, Keunbada Son, Yong-Gun Kim, Won-Jae Yu, Kyu-Bok Lee and Jae-Mok Lee
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124167 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser irradiation with different wavelengths on the surface roughness (Ra) and chemical composition of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implants. Three types of diode lasers with different wavelengths were irradiated on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser irradiation with different wavelengths on the surface roughness (Ra) and chemical composition of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implants. Three types of diode lasers with different wavelengths were irradiated on the titanium implants at output powers of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 W. The mean Ra values for all spots were measured using a scanning probe microscope. Analysis of variance tests were performed to verify the differences in the Ra between groups according to the type of lasers or power out (α = 0.05). For analyzing chemical composition, atomic and weight percent ratios of titanium, oxygen, and carbon were measured using energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The mean Ra of titanium disc was higher in the 3.0-W output than in 1.0-W or 2.0-W output, but there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). In EDS analysis, it was difficult to find a clear difference in the titanium, oxygen, and carbon element ratios between the laser-irradiated and nonirradiated groups. The irradiation of diode laser with 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 W output for 15 s decontaminated the SLA titanium surface without damage. However, additional clinical trials will be needed to verify the results of the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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7 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Usefulness of CBCT and MRI in TMD Patients According to Clinical Symptoms and Age
by Kug Jin Jeon, Chena Lee, Yoon Joo Choi and Sang-Sun Han
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3599; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103599 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3959
Abstract
Recently, the number of patients who visit the hospital with symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) has been gradually increasing, and the need for special imaging such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing for accurate diagnosis and [...] Read more.
Recently, the number of patients who visit the hospital with symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) has been gradually increasing, and the need for special imaging such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to help the image guideline by comparing the usefulness of CBCT and MRI according to the clinical symptoms of TMD patients and further examining whether the usefulness varies with age. A total of 473 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) with clinical symptoms of TMD who underwent both CBCT and MRI examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical symptoms included pain, sound and limited mouth opening. The CBCT findings included sclerosis, flattening, erosion and osteophyte, while the MRI findings were defined as disc deformity, disc derangement or joint effusion. Joints were divided according to the presence of CBCT and MRI findings as follows: type I (neither CBCT nor MRI findings), type II (only CBCT findings), type III (only MRI findings) and type IV (both CBCT and MRI findings). We assessed the usefulness of the two imaging modalities by comparing the frequency of those four groups according to clinical symptoms and age. In TMD patients with the clinical symptoms, MRI and CBCT are complementary, but if it is difficult to choose the first of these two modalities, MRI is more recommended, and the younger the patient, the more the MRI is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 1449 KiB  
Article
Effects of Trueness and Surface Microhardness on the Fitness of Ceramic Crowns
by Kunhee Lee, Keunbada Son and Kyu-bok Lee
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051858 - 9 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the fitness, surface microhardness, and trueness of crowns fabricated from three types of dental ceramic blocks (HASS Rosetta, IPS e.max CAD, and VITA Suprinity) and analyze the correlations between them. A crown was first designed in computer-aided design [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the fitness, surface microhardness, and trueness of crowns fabricated from three types of dental ceramic blocks (HASS Rosetta, IPS e.max CAD, and VITA Suprinity) and analyze the correlations between them. A crown was first designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software. To create a crown designed model (CDM), the design file was extracted from the CAD software, and a lithium disilicate block was processed from the file with a milling machine. To create a crown scanned model (CSM), the inside of the fabricated crown was digitized using a contact scanner. Using three-dimensional (3D) inspection software (Geomagic Control X; 3D Systems), the CDM and CSM were then superimposed, and their 3D trueness was analyzed. To measure the surface microhardness of the blocks, the specimens were polished and subjected to the Vickers hardness test. The fitness of the fabricated crowns was evaluated by applying a modified silicone replica technique. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the correlations between trueness, surface microhardness, and fitness. In addition, the significance of differences between the three types of dental ceramic blocks was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences in the trueness, surface microhardness, and marginal fit were observed between ceramic blocks of different types. There were also positive correlations between trueness, surface microhardness, marginal fit, and internal fit. While the marginal fit of crowns fabricated from each of the three types of ceramic blocks was in the clinically permitted range (<120 µm), there were differences in the trueness and surface microhardness, depending on the type of block. However, crowns fabricated from each of the three materials have surface microhardness that is clinically applicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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17 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Application Protocol of Simplified and Universal Adhesives on the Dentin Bonding Performance
by Anna Zecin-Deren, Monika Lukomska-Szymanska, Agata Szczesio-Wlodarczyk, Ireneusz Piwonski, Jerzy Sokolowski and Barbara Lapinska
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010124 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4437
Abstract
Contemporary adhesives use etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and multimode adhesive strategies. Simplified and universal adhesives present lower bond strength to dentin than conventional, two-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bonding performance of simplified and universal adhesives to dentin after modifying [...] Read more.
Contemporary adhesives use etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and multimode adhesive strategies. Simplified and universal adhesives present lower bond strength to dentin than conventional, two-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bonding performance of simplified and universal adhesives to dentin after modifying their application protocol (multiplying applications and extending application time). Adhesive layer thickness (ALT) and shear bond strength (SBS), as well as the correlation between these parameters was calculated. Two universal (Single Bond Universal and Prime & Bond One Select) and two self-etch adhesives (Adper Easy One and Xeno V) were tested. Significant differences in ALT were detected between the adhesives, as well as within the same adhesive between study groups. Tested adhesives presented the thinnest adhesive layer when applied 2 times in 20 s. Single Bond Universal obtained the highest SBS results of all adhesives. Most adhesives (except for Prime & Bond One Select) obtained the highest SBS, when applied two or three times in 40 or 60 s, respectively. No correlation between the ALT and SBS was found. The study showed that increasing the number of applications and extending the application time of self-etch and universal adhesives can be recommended to improve their performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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11 pages, 6485 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Five Intraoral Scanners and Two Laboratory Scanners for a Complete Arch: A Comparative In Vitro Study
by Byung-hyun Kang, Keunbada Son and Kyu-bok Lee
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010074 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4380
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of five different intraoral scanners and two different laboratory scanners for a complete arch. A computer-aided design (CAD) reference model (CRM) was obtained using industrial scanners. A CAD test model (CTM) was obtained using five types [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of five different intraoral scanners and two different laboratory scanners for a complete arch. A computer-aided design (CAD) reference model (CRM) was obtained using industrial scanners. A CAD test model (CTM) was obtained using five types of intraoral scanners (CS3500, CS3600, Trios2, Trios3, and i500) and two types of laboratory scanners (3shape E1 and DOF) (N = 20). In addition, the CRM and CTM were superimposed using a 3D inspection software (Geomagic control X; 3D Systems) and 3D analysis was performed. In the 3D analysis, the accuracy was measured by the type of tooth, the anterior and posterior region, and the overall region. As for the statistical analysis of the accuracy, the differences were confirmed using the Kruskal–Wallis H test (α = 0.05). Also, the differences between the groups were analyzed by post-hoc tests including Mann–Whitney U-test and Bonferroni correction method (α = 0.0017). There was a significant difference in the scanning accuracy of the complete arch according to the type of scanner (P < 0.001). The i500 Group showed the lowest accuracy (143 ± 69.6 µm), while the 3Shape E1 Group was the most accurate (14.3 ± 0.3 µm). Also, the accuracy was lower in the posterior region than in the anterior region in all types of scanners (P < 0.001). Scanning accuracy of the complete arch differed depending on the type of scanner. While three types of intraoral scanners (CS3500, CS3600, Trios3) can be recommended for scanning of a complete arch, the two remaining types of intraoral scanners (Trios2 and i500) cannot be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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12 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity and Impact of Different Antiseptics on Biofilm-Contaminated Implant Surfaces
by Marco Lollobrigida, Simone Filardo, Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Giuseppina Bozzuto, Agnese Molinari, Luca Lamazza, Iole Vozza and Alberto De Biase
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5467; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245467 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Several antiseptic agents have been proposed for the treatment of peri-implantitis as a complementary therapeutic strategy in addition to mechanical devices. The aim of this study was to compare six different antiseptics, as well as alternative formulations of the same chemical agent, with [...] Read more.
Several antiseptic agents have been proposed for the treatment of peri-implantitis as a complementary therapeutic strategy in addition to mechanical devices. The aim of this study was to compare six different antiseptics, as well as alternative formulations of the same chemical agent, with respect to their decontamination efficacy and impact on chemical properties of the implant surface. Titanium disks with a micro-rough surface, previously contaminated with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans biofilms, were treated for 2 min with different antiseptics (liquid sodium hypochlorite 5.25%, gel sodium hypochlorite 5.25%, liquid chlorhexidine 0.2%, gel chlorhexidine 1%, gel citric acid 40%, and gel orthophosphoric acid 37%) or sterile saline solution (control) and their antibacterial activity as well as their ability to remove biofilm were assessed by viable bacterial count and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis was also performed on non-contaminated disks after exposure to the antiseptics, in order to detect any change in the elemental composition of the titanium surface. All the antimicrobial formulations examined were effective against P. gingivalis and S. mutans biofilms. SEM analysis revealed however that liquid sodium hypochlorite 5.25% was more effective in dissolving biofilm residues. Spectroscopic analysis detected traces of the antiseptics, probably due to insufficient rinsing of the titanium surfaces. In conclusion, since gel formulations of these antiseptic agents possessed a similar antibacterial activity to the liquid formulations, these may be proposed as alternative treatments given their properties to avoid overflows and increase contact time without significant side effects on the bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1469 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Vapor Lock Effect Removal in Endo Training Blocks: Manual Dynamic Agitation versus Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation
by Mario Dioguardi, Vito Crincoli, Diego Sovereto, Giorgia Apollonia Caloro, Riccardo Aiuto, Gaetano Illuzzi, Vito Carlo Alberto Caponio, Giuseppe Troiano, Alfredo De Lillo, Domenico Ciavarella and Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5411; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245411 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5433
Abstract
Root canal cleaning plays an important role in endodontics. In most cases, root canal cleaning is performed using irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite or EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The efficacy of these irrigants may be compromised by different phenomena, such as vapor lock. Different [...] Read more.
Root canal cleaning plays an important role in endodontics. In most cases, root canal cleaning is performed using irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite or EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). The efficacy of these irrigants may be compromised by different phenomena, such as vapor lock. Different methods can be used to overcome this problem; in this paper, we compare the efficacy of two such methods: manual dynamic agitation (MDA) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). We shaped 50 endo training blocks, which were divided into two groups of 25 samples each, into MDA or PUI groups. In both groups, the vapor lock was produced by delivering a watery solution using a disposable syringe with a tip-opened needle. Using the MDA technique, vapor lock was removed in 15/25 cases. The PUI technique produced the same results in 17/25 cases, where vapor lock was only reduced, not removed. The MDA method produced an average reduction in vapor lock of 80%, whereas the PUI method yielded a 55% reduction. The differences among groups were assessed through a Mann–Whitney U test, and the results had a p-value of 0.0013, which was considered to be statistically significant. The MDA method was able to effectively remove vapor lock. PUI, however, was only able to reduce but not remove vapor lock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1908 KiB  
Communication
Prototype Development for the Periodontal Model System with the Spatial Compartmentalization by the Additive Manufacturing
by Chan Ho Park
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4687; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214687 - 4 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
At present, various tissue engineering strategies have been developed for multiple tissue regeneration and integrative structure formations. However, the regenerations of tooth-supportive structures are still limited and challenging due to the micro-interfacial compartmentalization of multiple tissues, their integrations for systematic responses, and spatiotemporal [...] Read more.
At present, various tissue engineering strategies have been developed for multiple tissue regeneration and integrative structure formations. However, the regenerations of tooth-supportive structures are still limited and challenging due to the micro-interfacial compartmentalization of multiple tissues, their integrations for systematic responses, and spatiotemporal organizations of engineered tissues. Here, we investigated the scaffold prototype as the regeneration platform of the periodontal complex (cementum-periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone). Based on the tooth image dataset, the prototype scaffold was designed with individual periodontal tissues while using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and solvent-casting method with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). The architecture was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and biological assessments were performed with human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells by confocal microscope. In particular, the angulations and deformations of hPDL cells on PDL architectures were analyzed while using nuclear aspect ratio (NAR = 2.319 ± 0.273) and nuclear shape index (NSI (circularity) = 0.546 ± 0.0273). In in-vitro, designed surface microgroove patterns facilitated angular organizations of hPDL cells (frequency of 0–10° angulations = 75 ± 9.54 out of 97.3 ± 2.52) for seven days. The prototype scaffolding system showed geometric adaptation to the digitized image dataset, hPDL orientations on microgroove-patterned surface, and architectural compartmentalizations for periodontal tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Strength and Flexural Modulus of Different Periodontal Splint Materials: An In Vitro Study
by Shahabe Saquib, AlQarni Abdullah, Das Gotam, Naqash Talib, Sibghatullah Muhammad and AlHaid Sultana
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4197; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194197 - 8 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
Splinting of the mobile teeth is a critical part of periodontal management to improve the prognosis and longevity of stable results of periodontally compromised teeth with increased mobility. Different types of splints are used in the dental field based on their mechanical and [...] Read more.
Splinting of the mobile teeth is a critical part of periodontal management to improve the prognosis and longevity of stable results of periodontally compromised teeth with increased mobility. Different types of splints are used in the dental field based on their mechanical and physical properties.The objective of the current in vitro study was to evaluate the flexure strength and flexural modulus of different types of splinting materials, such as: composite block, ligature wire, Ribbond®, InFibra®, and F-splint-Aid® bonded utilizing Flowable composites resin material. Seventy-five bar specimens were prepared with the dimensions of 25 × 4 × 2 mm, utilizing split metallic mold. Specimens were divided equally (n = 15) into five groups (one control group, four test groups). Different layers of splinting material were placed in between the layers of composite before curing. All the specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test by using a universal testing machine to calculate the flexural strength and flexural modulus. The entire data was subjected to statistical tests to evaluate the significance. Specimens from composite block groups showed the least mean value for flexural strength (89.15 ± 9.70 MPa) and flexural modulus (4.310 ± 0.912 GPa). Whereas, the highest mean value for flexural strength (168.04 ± 45.95 MPa) and flexural modulus (5.861 ± 0.501 GPa) were recorded by Ribbond® specimens. Inter group comparison of flexural strength showed statistically significant differences (P-value < 0.05), whereas comparison of flexural modulus showed non-significant difference among the groups (P-value > 0.05). Within the limitation of the present study, it was concluded that the Ribbond® exhibits maximum flexural strength and flexural modulus, whereas the composite blocks recorded the least values. Still, the decision making depends on the clinical scenario and the unique characteristic of each splint material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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14 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mother’s Age and Pathology on Functional Behavior of Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells—Hints for Bone Regeneration
by Maria Matteo, Elisa Beccia, Annalucia Carbone, Stefano Castellani, Lucio Milillo, Dorina Lauritano, Sante Di Gioia, Antonella Angiolillo and Massimo Conese
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173471 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) are used increasingly in regenerative medicine applications, including dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate if hAMSCs from aged and pathological mothers could be affected in their phenotype and functional behavior. hAMSCs were isolated from [...] Read more.
Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) are used increasingly in regenerative medicine applications, including dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate if hAMSCs from aged and pathological mothers could be affected in their phenotype and functional behavior. hAMSCs were isolated from placentas of women aged younger than 40 years (Group 1, n = 7), older than 40 years (Group 2, n = 6), and with pre-eclampsia (Group 3, n = 5). Cell yield and viability were assessed at isolation (p0). Cell proliferation was evaluated from p0 to p5. Passage 2 was used to determine the phenotype, the differentiation capacity, and the adhesion to machined and sandblasted titanium disks. hAMSCs recovered from Group 3 were fewer than in Group 1. Viability and doubling time were not different among the three groups. Percentages of CD29+ cells were significantly lower in Group 3, while percentages of CD73+ cells were significantly lower in Groups 2 and 3 as compared with Group 1. hAMSCs from Group 2 showed a significant lower differentiation capacity towards chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. hAMSCs from Group 3 adhered less to titanium surfaces. In conclusion, pathology can affect hAMSCs in phenotype and functional behavior and may alter bone regeneration capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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7 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of High-Speed Handpiece Cutting Efficiency According to Bur Eccentricity: An In Vitro Study
by Duk-Yeon Kim, Keunbada Son and Kyu-bok Lee
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3395; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163395 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the cutting efficiency and bur eccentricity of high-speed handpieces. The prepared lithium disilicate samples were digitized using a 3D model scanner (reference model, RM) (n = 45), and the lithium disilicate samples were cut using [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the cutting efficiency and bur eccentricity of high-speed handpieces. The prepared lithium disilicate samples were digitized using a 3D model scanner (reference model, RM) (n = 45), and the lithium disilicate samples were cut using three high-speed handpieces. To evaluate the cutting efficiency, the cut lithium disilicate sample was digitized (cutting model, CM), and the RM and CM were superimposed using a 3D analysis software. Bur eccentricity of the high-speed handpieces was measured using dedicated equipment. Statistical analyses were performed using an analysis software. The statistical differences in pairwise comparisons (α = 0.05) were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis and post hoc tests. The S-max M600 obtained a cutting efficiency of 6.13 mm3. TG-98 and TRAUS ATN-400 showed similar efficiencies of 2.914 and 3.05 mm3, respectively. There was a significant difference in the cutting efficiency of the S-max M600 compared with TG-98 and TRAUS ATN-400 (p < 0.001). S-max M600 had an eccentricity of 3.507 µm. TG-98 and TRAUS ATN-400 had eccentricities of 5.99 and 7.767 µm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the eccentricity among all the high-speed handpieces (p < 0.001). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

14 pages, 483 KiB  
Review
Environmental Disinfection Strategies to Prevent Indirect Transmission of SARS-CoV2 in Healthcare Settings
by Dorina Lauritano, Giulia Moreo, Luisa Limongelli, Michele Nardone and Francesco Carinci
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6291; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186291 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
(1) Introduction: The novel respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is rapidly spreading in many countries and represents a public health emergency of international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs from person-to-person via respiratory droplets (direct transmission route), [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: The novel respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is rapidly spreading in many countries and represents a public health emergency of international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs from person-to-person via respiratory droplets (direct transmission route), leading to the onset of mild or severe symptoms or even causing death. Since COVID-19 is able to survive also on inanimate surfaces for extended periods, constituting an indirect transmission route, healthcare settings contaminated surfaces should be submitted to specific disinfection protocols. Our review aimed to investigate the existing disinfection measures of healthcare settings surfaces, preventing the nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Materials and Methods: We conducted electronic research on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library, and 120 items were screened for eligibility. Only 11 articles were included in the review and selected for data extraction. (3) Results: All the included studies proposed the use of ethanol at different concentrations (70% or 75%) as a biocidal agent against SARS-CoV-2, which has the capacity to reduce the viral activity by 3 log10 or more after 1 min of exposure. Other disinfection protocols involved the use of chlorine-containing disinfectant, 0.1% and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium in combination with 75% ethanol, isopropyl alcohol 70%, glutardialdehyde 2%, ultraviolet light (UV-C) technology, and many others. Two studies suggested to use the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered disinfectants, while one article chooses to follow the WST-512-2016 Guidance of Environmental and Surfaces Cleaning, Disinfection and Infection Control in Hospitals. (4) Conclusion: Different surface disinfection methods proved to reduce the viral activity of SARS-CoV-2, preventing its indirect nosocomial transmission. However, more specific cleaning measures, ad hoc for the different settings of the healthcare sector, need to be formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 438 KiB  
Review
Diagnostic Performance of Serological Assays in the Detection of SARS-CoV-2: A Review
by Francesco Carinci, Giulia Moreo, Luisa Limongelli, Tiziano Testori and Dorina Lauritano
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4506; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134506 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Introduction: The gold-standard method for diagnosis of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) foresees the examination of respiratory tract swabs by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Another group of diagnostic tests, developed to overcome the limitations [...] Read more.
Introduction: The gold-standard method for diagnosis of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) foresees the examination of respiratory tract swabs by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Another group of diagnostic tests, developed to overcome the limitations of RT-PCR, includes the serological assays, which have the purpose of detecting the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection (IgM and IgG titers). The aim of this review was to establish the diagnostic capability of the existing serological tests in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: Electronic research was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Cochrane Library, and only 10 articles, testing 10 different types of serological assays, met the inclusion criteria and were consequently submitted to quality assessment and data extraction. Quantitative data about the sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive value and IgM/IgG titer provided by each antibody test were reported in our review. Results: Almost all the serological tests used in the included items were recorded to ensure high sensitivity and specificity, identifying the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with certain COVID-19 diagnosis (confirmed by RT-PCR) and in participants with suspected infection (SARS-CoV-2 clinical diagnosis and/or RT-PCR negative subjects). Conclusions: Serological tests may represent reliable diagnostic tools in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and they could be implemented complementary to real-time RT-PCR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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8 pages, 1898 KiB  
Review
The Pseudolesions of the Oral Mucosa: Differential Diagnosis and Related Systemic Conditions
by Fedora della Vella, Dorina Lauritano, Carlo Lajolo, Alberta Lucchese, Dario Di Stasio, Maria Contaldo, Rosario Serpico and Massimo Petruzzi
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122412 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 13593
Abstract
Pseudolesions are defined as physiological or paraphysiological changes of the oral normal anatomy that can easily be misdiagnosed for pathological conditions such as potentially malignant lesions, infective and immune diseases, or neoplasms. Pseudolesions do not require treatment and a surgical or pharmacological approach [...] Read more.
Pseudolesions are defined as physiological or paraphysiological changes of the oral normal anatomy that can easily be misdiagnosed for pathological conditions such as potentially malignant lesions, infective and immune diseases, or neoplasms. Pseudolesions do not require treatment and a surgical or pharmacological approach can constitute an overtreatment indeed. This review aims to describe the most common pseudolesions of oral soft tissues, their possible differential diagnosis and eventual related systemic diseases or syndromes. The pseudolesions frequently observed in clinical practice and reported in literature include Fordyce granules, leukoedema, geographic tongue, fissured tongue, sublingual varices, lingual fimbriae, vallate papillae, white and black hairy tongue, Steno’s duct hypertrophy, lingual tonsil, white sponge nevus, racial gingival pigmentation, lingual thyroid, and eruptive cyst. They could be misdiagnosed as oral potential malignant disorders, candidiasis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-related affections, oral autoimmune diseases, or benign and malignant tumors. In some cases, pseudolesions feature in a syndromic panel, for example, fissured tongue in Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome. It is strictly fundamental for dentists to know and to distinguish oral pseudolesions from pathological conditions, in order to avoid overtreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

9 pages, 7720 KiB  
Case Report
Different Resorptive Patterns of Two Avulsed and Replanted Upper Central Incisors Based on Scanning Electron Microscopy and Stereomicroscopic Analysis: A Case Report
by Marta Mazur, Roberto Marasca, Livia Ottolenghi, Iole Vozza, Francesco Covello, Andrea Zupancich, Emanuela Cristiani and Alessia Nava
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3551; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103551 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Dental trauma resulting in permanent tooth avulsion commonly affects the young population. The prognosis of replantation after avulsion depends on the natural history of inflammatory and replacement resorption. Several risk factors for type and onset of external resorption have been defined. This case [...] Read more.
Dental trauma resulting in permanent tooth avulsion commonly affects the young population. The prognosis of replantation after avulsion depends on the natural history of inflammatory and replacement resorption. Several risk factors for type and onset of external resorption have been defined. This case study describes different resorptive patterns observed in two upper central incisors belonging to a single individual, avulsed in the same moment, and replanted after thirty-six hours of dry storage. The roots were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscope imaging, to obtain an in-depth analysis of the resorptive pattern. The aim of this report is to: (i) underline the high variability in the incidence of root resorption after replantation across and within types of teeth and resorption; and (ii) underline the possible concurrence of different factors affecting the onset and type of resorptive pattern. In conclusion, an unpredictable pattern of resorption may account for the poor prognosis when teeth are replanted outside the current recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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13 pages, 1821 KiB  
Case Report
Does Apical Papilla Survive and Develop in Apical Periodontitis Presence after Regenerative Endodontic Procedures?
by Paulo J. Palma, João Martins, Patrícia Diogo, Diana Sequeira, João Carlos Ramos, Aníbal Diogenes and João Miguel Santos
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193942 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 6035
Abstract
Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have emerged as a treatment option for immature necrotic teeth to allow the reestablishment of a newly formed vital tissue and enable continued root development. The apical papilla stem cells (SCAPs) play an important role in physiologic root development [...] Read more.
Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have emerged as a treatment option for immature necrotic teeth to allow the reestablishment of a newly formed vital tissue and enable continued root development. The apical papilla stem cells (SCAPs) play an important role in physiologic root development and may also contribute to further root development during REPs. The goal of these case reports is to show evidence of the apical papilla survival and development, in human teeth with apical periodontitis, after REPs, with 5-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. In the first case, an 11-year-old girl with acute apical abscess of tooth 15 was referred for a REP. Treatment was performed with an intracanal medication followed by induction of a blood clot and a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) cervical barrier. The 5-year follow-up showed an appreciable increase in root length as well as root canal thickness. In case 2, a 16-year-old girl was referred for endodontic treatment of tooth 21. The parents of the patient recalled a previous dental trauma (no specified on the patient records) on tooth 21 at age 7. The dental history reports a previous endodontic treatment failure and presence of a long-standing sinus tract. A mineralized tissue beyond the root apical portion could be seen at the preoperative X-ray. Nonsurgical root canal retreatment with an apical barrier was suggested as the treatment plan and accepted by the patient. After 2 weeks, the patient was recalled for a follow-up appointment presenting spontaneous pain, swelling, and sinus tract. Apical surgery was performed. Histopathological assessment of the apical root fragment collected showed the presence of dentin, cementum and pulp tissue, including odontoblasts. The 5-year follow-up depicted complete apical healing. The present case reports support survival and continued potential differentiation of the apical papilla after endodontic infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
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