At present, various tissue engineering strategies have been developed for multiple tissue regeneration and integrative structure formations. However, the regenerations of tooth-supportive structures are still limited and challenging due to the micro-interfacial compartmentalization of multiple tissues, their integrations for systematic responses, and spatiotemporal organizations of engineered tissues. Here, we investigated the scaffold prototype as the regeneration platform of the periodontal complex (cementum-periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone). Based on the tooth image dataset, the prototype scaffold was designed with individual periodontal tissues while using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and solvent-casting method with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). The architecture was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and biological assessments were performed with human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells by confocal microscope. In particular, the angulations and deformations of hPDL cells on PDL architectures were analyzed while using nuclear aspect ratio (NAR = 2.319 ± 0.273) and nuclear shape index (NSI (circularity) = 0.546 ± 0.0273). In in-vitro, designed surface microgroove patterns facilitated angular organizations of hPDL cells (frequency of 0–10° angulations = 75 ± 9.54 out of 97.3 ± 2.52) for seven days. The prototype scaffolding system showed geometric adaptation to the digitized image dataset, hPDL orientations on microgroove-patterned surface, and architectural compartmentalizations for periodontal tissue regeneration.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited