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The Pseudolesions of the Oral Mucosa: Differential Diagnosis and Related Systemic Conditions

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70124 Bari, Italy
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy
Department of Head and Neck, Oral Surgery and Implantology Unit, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2412;
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sciences in Dentistry)
Pseudolesions are defined as physiological or paraphysiological changes of the oral normal anatomy that can easily be misdiagnosed for pathological conditions such as potentially malignant lesions, infective and immune diseases, or neoplasms. Pseudolesions do not require treatment and a surgical or pharmacological approach can constitute an overtreatment indeed. This review aims to describe the most common pseudolesions of oral soft tissues, their possible differential diagnosis and eventual related systemic diseases or syndromes. The pseudolesions frequently observed in clinical practice and reported in literature include Fordyce granules, leukoedema, geographic tongue, fissured tongue, sublingual varices, lingual fimbriae, vallate papillae, white and black hairy tongue, Steno’s duct hypertrophy, lingual tonsil, white sponge nevus, racial gingival pigmentation, lingual thyroid, and eruptive cyst. They could be misdiagnosed as oral potential malignant disorders, candidiasis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-related affections, oral autoimmune diseases, or benign and malignant tumors. In some cases, pseudolesions feature in a syndromic panel, for example, fissured tongue in Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome. It is strictly fundamental for dentists to know and to distinguish oral pseudolesions from pathological conditions, in order to avoid overtreatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral pseudolesion; geographic tongue; Fordyce granules; differential diagnosis oral pseudolesion; geographic tongue; Fordyce granules; differential diagnosis
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della Vella, F.; Lauritano, D.; Lajolo, C.; Lucchese, A.; Di Stasio, D.; Contaldo, M.; Serpico, R.; Petruzzi, M. The Pseudolesions of the Oral Mucosa: Differential Diagnosis and Related Systemic Conditions. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2412.

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