Special Issue "Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 47543

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Barone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemical Sciences “A. Rossi-Fanelli”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: insulin signaling; insulin resistance; aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Down syndrome; neurodegeneration; mitochondrial bioenergetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marzia Perluigi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Interests: oxidative stress; autophagy; Down syndrome; redox proteomics; energy metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increased oxidative stress levels have been found to greatly contribute to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Down syndrome, and Huntington disease. Loss of physiological equilibrium between antioxidant and pro-oxidant stimuli, which normally contribute to the maintenance of low free radical levels, leads to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are toxic for brain cells in several ways. Indeed, augmented ROS/RNS production is responsible for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids damage, which accumulates within the cells and disrupts cellular homeostasis. Perturbation of mitochondrial activity further boosts ROS/RNS production, finally resulting in impaired metabolic pathways normally fueling brain cells’ energetic needs. In that frame, neurons display a distinctive bioenergetic metabolism, and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate is particularly elevated to sustain the high ATP (energy) expenditure. These features contribute to the exquisite sensitivity of the brain to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. Recent findings suggest the crucial role of metabolic networks in the regulation of neuronal tolerance against oxidative stress. Furthermore, emerging evidence highlights the impact of metabolism and redox signaling on genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Collectively, these elements indicate the extraordinary complexity of the multileveled molecular mechanisms deployed by brain cells to cope with oxidative stress.

This research topic will discuss preclinical and clinical evidence highlighting the central role of oxidative stress in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and which are current strategies adopted to protect the brain.

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Barone
Prof. Dr. Marzia Perluigi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Oxidative stress
  • Antioxidants
  • Brain metabolism
  • Autophagy
  • Proteosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Parkinson disease
  • Down syndrome
  • Huntington disease
  • Neurodevelopment

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Research

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Article
Native α-Synuclein, 3-Nitrotyrosine Proteins, and Patterns of Nitro-α-Synuclein-Immunoreactive Inclusions in Saliva and Submandibulary Gland in Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050715 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Background. Salivary α-synuclein (aSyn) and its nitrated form, or 3-nitrotyrosine-α-synuclein (3-NT-αSyn), hold promise as biomarkers for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Nitrative stress that is characterized by an excess of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (3-NT-proteins) has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in IPD. The objective [...] Read more.
Background. Salivary α-synuclein (aSyn) and its nitrated form, or 3-nitrotyrosine-α-synuclein (3-NT-αSyn), hold promise as biomarkers for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Nitrative stress that is characterized by an excess of 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (3-NT-proteins) has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism in IPD. The objective is to study the pathological role of native αSyn, 3-NT-αSyn, and 3-NT-proteins in the saliva and submandibulary glands of patients with IPD. Methods. The salivary and serum αSyn and 3-NT-proteins concentration is evaluated with ELISA in patients and controls. Correlations of αSyn and 3-NT-proteins content with clinical features of the disease are examined. Immunohistochemical 3-NT-αSyn expression in submandibulary gland sections is analyzed. Results. (a) Salivary concentration and saliva/serum ratios of native αSyn and 3-NT-proteins are similar in patients and controls; (b) salivary αSyn and 3-NT-proteins do not correlate with any clinical feature; and (c) three patterns of 3-NT-αSyn-positive inclusions are observed on histological sections: rounded “Lewy-type” aggregates of 10–25 µm in diameter, coarse deposits with varied morphology, and spheroid inclusions or bodies of 3–5 µm in diameter. “Lewy-type” and coarse inclusions are observed in the interlobular connective tissue of the gland, and small-sized bodies are located within the cytoplasm of duct cells. “Lewy-type” inclusions are only observed in patients, and the remaining patterns of inclusions are observed in both the patients and controls. Conclusions. The patients’ saliva presents a similar concentration of native αSyn and 3-nitrotyrosine-proteins than that of the controls, and no correlations with clinical features are found. These findings preclude the utility of native αSyn in the saliva as a biomarker, and they indicate the absence of nitrative stress in the saliva and serum of patients. As regards nitrated αSyn, “Lewy-type” inclusions expressing 3-NT-αSyn are observed in the patients, not the controls—a novel finding that suggests that a biopsy of the submandibulary gland, if proven safe, could be a useful technique for diagnosing IPD. Finally, to our knowledge, this is also the first description of 3-NT-αSyn-immunoreactive intracytoplasmic bodies in cells that are located outside the nervous system. These intracytoplasmic bodies are present in duct cells of submandibulary gland sections from all subjects regardless of their pathology, and they can represent an aging or involutional change. Further immunostaining studies with different antibodies and larger samples are needed to validate the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Subchronic N-acetylcysteine Treatment Decreases Brain Kynurenic Acid Levels and Improves Cognitive Performance in Mice
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020147 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
The tryptophan (Trp) metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an α7-nicotinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. Elevated brain KYNA levels are commonly seen in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases and may be related to cognitive impairments. Recently, we showed that N-acetylcysteine [...] Read more.
The tryptophan (Trp) metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an α7-nicotinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. Elevated brain KYNA levels are commonly seen in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases and may be related to cognitive impairments. Recently, we showed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), KYNA’s key biosynthetic enzyme, and reduces KYNA neosynthesis in rats in vivo. In this study, we examined if repeated systemic administration of NAC influences brain KYNA and cognitive performance in mice. Animals received NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 days. Redox markers, KYNA levels, and KAT II activity were determined in the brain. We also assessed the effect of repeated NAC treatment on Trp catabolism using brain tissue slices ex vivo. Finally, learning and memory was evaluated with and without an acute challenge with KYNA’s bioprecursor L-kynurenine (Kyn; 100 mg/kg). Subchronic NAC administration protected against an acute pro-oxidant challenge, decreased KYNA levels, and lowered KAT II activity and improved memory both under basal conditions and after acute Kyn treatment. In tissue slices from these mice, KYNA neosynthesis from Trp or Kyn was reduced. Together, our data indicate that prolonged treatment with NAC may enhance memory at least in part by reducing brain KYNA levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Derived Motor Neurons from Patients with Riboflavin Transporter Deficiency
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121252 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD) is a childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness and motor neuron degeneration. Since riboflavin plays key functions in biological oxidation-reduction reactions, energy metabolism pathways involving flavoproteins are affected in RTD. We recently generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) [...] Read more.
Riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD) is a childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness and motor neuron degeneration. Since riboflavin plays key functions in biological oxidation-reduction reactions, energy metabolism pathways involving flavoproteins are affected in RTD. We recently generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from affected individuals as an in vitro model of the disease and documented mitochondrial impairment in these cells, dramatically impacting cell redox status. This work extends our study to motor neurons (MNs), i.e., the cell type most affected in patients with RTD. Altered intracellular distribution of mitochondria was detected by confocal microscopic analysis (following immunofluorescence for superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), as a dual mitochondrial and antioxidant marker), and βIII-Tubulin, as a neuronal marker. We demonstrate significantly lower SOD2 levels in RTD MNs, as compared to their healthy counterparts. Mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities were also assessed by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, we investigated the effects of combination treatment using riboflavin and N-acetylcysteine, which is a widely employed antioxidant. Overall, our findings further support the potential of patient-specific RTD models and provide evidence of mitochondrial alterations in RTD-related iPSC-derived MNs—emphasizing oxidative stress involvement in this rare disease. We also provide new clues for possible therapeutic strategies aimed at correcting mitochondrial defects, based on the use of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Proteomics Study of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Down Syndrome Children
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111112 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans, which results from the triplication of chromosome 21. To search for biomarkers for the early detection and exploration of the disease mechanisms, here, we [...] Read more.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans, which results from the triplication of chromosome 21. To search for biomarkers for the early detection and exploration of the disease mechanisms, here, we investigated the protein expression signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in DS children compared with healthy donors (HD) by using an in-depth label-free shotgun proteomics approach. Identified proteins are found associated with metabolic pathways, cellular trafficking, DNA structure, stress response, cytoskeleton network, and signaling pathways. The results showed that a well-defined number of dysregulated pathways retain a prominent role in mediating DS pathological features. Further, proteomics results are consistent with published study in DS and provide evidences that increased oxidative stress and the increased induction of stress related response, is a participant in DS pathology. In addition, the expression levels of some key proteins have been validated by Western blot analysis while protein carbonylation, as marker of protein oxidation, was investigated. The results of this study propose that PBMCs from DS children might be in an activated state where endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased production of radical species are one of the primary events contributing to multiple DS pathological features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Interleukin-4-Mediated Oxidative Stress Is Harmful to Hippocampal Neurons of Prothrombin Kringle-2-Lesioned Rat In Vivo
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111068 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of reactive microglia/macrophages-derived interleukin-4 (IL-4) on hippocampal neurons in prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2)-lesioned rats. pKr-2 was unilaterally injected into hippocampus in the absence or presence of IL-4 neutralizing antibody (IL-4Nab). Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant loss of Nissl [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effects of reactive microglia/macrophages-derived interleukin-4 (IL-4) on hippocampal neurons in prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2)-lesioned rats. pKr-2 was unilaterally injected into hippocampus in the absence or presence of IL-4 neutralizing antibody (IL-4Nab). Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant loss of Nissl+ and NeuN+ cells and activation of microglia/macrophages (increase in reactive OX-42+ and OX-6+ cells) in the hippocampus at 7 days after pKr-2 injection. The levels of IL-4 expression were upregulated in the reactive OX-42+ microglia/macrophages as early as 1 day, maximal at 3 days and maintained up to 7 days after pKr-2 injection. Treatment with IL-4Nab significantly increased neuronal survival in pKr-2-treated CA1 layer of hippocampus in vivo. Accompanying neuroprotection, IL-4 neutralization inhibited activation of microglia/macrophages, reactive oxygen species-derived oxidative damages, production of myeloperoxidase- and inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived reactive nitrogen species and nitrosative damages as analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hydroethidine histochemistry. These results suggest that endogenous IL-4 expressed on reactive microglia/macrophages mediates oxidative/nitrosative stress and play a critical role on neurodegeneration of hippocampal CA1 layer in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Disrupted Mitochondrial and Metabolic Plasticity Underlie Comorbidity between Age-Related and Degenerative Disorders as Parkinson Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111063 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (iPD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are chronic, multisystemic, and degenerative diseases associated with aging, with eventual epidemiological co-morbidity and overlap in molecular basis. This study aims to explore if metabolic and mitochondrial alterations underlie the previously reported epidemiologic [...] Read more.
Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (iPD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are chronic, multisystemic, and degenerative diseases associated with aging, with eventual epidemiological co-morbidity and overlap in molecular basis. This study aims to explore if metabolic and mitochondrial alterations underlie the previously reported epidemiologic and clinical co-morbidity from a molecular level. To evaluate the adaptation of iPD to a simulated pre-diabetogenic state, we exposed primary cultured fibroblasts from iPD patients and controls to standard (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose concentrations to further characterize metabolic and mitochondrial resilience. iPD fibroblasts showed increased organic and amino acid levels related to mitochondrial metabolism with respect to controls, and these differences were enhanced in high glucose conditions (citric, suberic, and sebacic acids levels increased, as well as alanine, glutamate, aspartate, arginine, and ornithine amino acids; p-values between 0.001 and 0.05). The accumulation of metabolites in iPD fibroblasts was associated with (and probably due to) the concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction observed at enzymatic, oxidative, respiratory, and morphologic level. Metabolic and mitochondrial plasticity of controls was not observed in iPD fibroblasts, which were unable to adapt to different glucose conditions. Impaired metabolism and mitochondrial activity in iPD may limit energy supply for cell survival. Moreover, reduced capacity to adapt to disrupted glucose balance characteristic of T2DM may underlay the co-morbidity between both diseases. Conclusions: Fibroblasts from iPD patients showed mitochondrial impairment, resulting in the accumulation of organic and amino acids related to mitochondrial metabolism, especially when exposed to high glucose. Mitochondrial and metabolic defects down warding cell plasticity to adapt to changing glucose bioavailability may explain the comorbidity between iPD and T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
CDDO-Me Distinctly Regulates Regional Specific Astroglial Responses to Status Epilepticus via ERK1/2-Nrf2, PTEN-PI3K-AKT and NFκB Signaling Pathways
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101026 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxo-oleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester (CDDO-Me) is a triterpenoid analogue of oleanolic acid. CDDO-Me shows anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, CDDO-Me has antioxidant properties, since it activates nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a key player of redox homeostasis. In the present [...] Read more.
2-Cyano-3,12-dioxo-oleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester (CDDO-Me) is a triterpenoid analogue of oleanolic acid. CDDO-Me shows anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, CDDO-Me has antioxidant properties, since it activates nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is a key player of redox homeostasis. In the present study, we evaluated whether CDDO-Me affects astroglial responses to status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity) in the rat hippocampus in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of reactive astrogliosis and astroglial apoptosis. Under physiological conditions, CDDO-Me increased Nrf2 expression in the hippocampus without altering activities (phosphorylations) of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and AKT. CDDO-Me did not affect seizure activity in response to pilocarpine. However, CDDO-Me ameliorated reduced astroglial Nrf2 expression in the CA1 region and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (ML), and attenuated reactive astrogliosis and ML astroglial apoptosis following SE. In CA1 astrocytes, CDDO-Me inhibited the PI3K/AKT pathway by activating PTEN. In contrast, CDDO-ME resulted in extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2)-mediated Nrf2 upregulation in ML astrocytes. Furthermore, CDDO-Me decreased nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) phosphorylation in both CA1 and ML astrocytes. Therefore, our findings suggest that CDDO-Me may attenuate SE-induced reactive astrogliosis and astroglial apoptosis via regulation of ERK1/2-Nrf2, PTEN-PI3K-AKT, and NFκB signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Environmental Enrichment Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Alters Detoxifying Enzymes in an A53T α-Synuclein Transgenic Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100928 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Although environmental enrichment (EE) is known to reduce oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the metabolic alternations for detoxifying endogenous and xenobiotic compounds according to various brain regions are not fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to further understand the role of EE [...] Read more.
Although environmental enrichment (EE) is known to reduce oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease (PD), the metabolic alternations for detoxifying endogenous and xenobiotic compounds according to various brain regions are not fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to further understand the role of EE on detoxifying enzymes, especially those participating in phase I of metabolism, by investigating the levels of enzymes in various brain regions such as the olfactory bulb, brain stem, frontal cortex, and striatum. Eight-month-old transgenic PD mice with the overexpression of human A53T α-synuclein and wild-type mice were randomly allocated to either standard cage condition or EE for 2 months. At 10 months of age, the expression of detoxifying enzymes was evaluated and compared with wild-type of the same age raised in standard cages. EE improved neurobehavioral outcomes such as olfactory and motor function in PD mice. EE-treated mice showed that oxidative stress was attenuated in the olfactory bulb, brain stem, and frontal cortex. EE also reduced apoptosis and induced cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of PD mice. The overexpression of detoxifying enzymes was observed in the olfactory bulb and brain stem of PD mice, which was ameliorated by EE. These findings were not apparent in the other experimental regions. These results suggest the stage of PD pathogenesis may differ according to brain region, and that EE has a protective effect on the PD pathogenesis by decreasing oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100906 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the aetiology of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a potent antioxidant and is associated with neurological and cognitive function. In this study we assessed the ascorbate status of a cohort of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the aetiology of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a potent antioxidant and is associated with neurological and cognitive function. In this study we assessed the ascorbate status of a cohort of people with Parkinson’s disease (n = 215), aged 50–90 years, compared with a cohort of age matched healthy controls (n = 48). The study sample’s cognitive status ranged from normal to mild cognitive impairment and dementia. There was no difference between the Parkinson’s disease and healthy control groups with respect to mean ascorbate status, however, a higher proportion of participants with Parkinson’s disease had hypovitaminosis C (i.e., <23 μmol/L) compared with healthy controls (20% vs. 8%, respectively). Within the Parkinson’s disease group, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores correlated positively with ascorbate concentrations, with higher ascorbate status associated with better cognitive function (r = 0.14, p = 0.045). Participants with hypovitaminosis C had significantly lower MoCA scores relative to participants with ascorbate concentrations >23 µmol/L (p = 0.014). Ascorbate concentrations were significantly lower in the cognitively impaired subgroup compared with the normal cognition subgroup in the Parkinson’s disease cohort (p = 0.03). In contrast, urate showed an inverse correlation with cognitive function (r = −0.19, p = 0.007), with higher urate concentrations observed in the cognitively impaired subgroup compared with the normal cognition subgroup (p = 0.015). There was an inverse association between ascorbate status and urate concentrations (r = −0.15, p = 0.017). Plasma protein carbonyls, a measure of systemic oxidative stress, were not significantly different between the Parkinson’s disease cohort and healthy controls, and there was no association with cognitive function (r = 0.09, p = 0.19) or with ascorbate status (r = −0.05, p = 0.45). Overall, our study showed ascorbate status was positively associated with cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting that longitudinal studies investigating the temporal sequence of cognitive decline and ascorbate status are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
BVR-A Deficiency Leads to Autophagy Impairment through the Dysregulation of AMPK/mTOR Axis in the Brain—Implications for Neurodegeneration
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080671 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Biliverdin reductase-A (BVR-A) impairment is associated with increased accumulation of oxidatively-damaged proteins along with the impairment of autophagy in the brain during neurodegenerative disorders. Reduced autophagy inhibits the clearance of misfolded proteins, which then form neurotoxic aggregates promoting neuronal death. The aim of [...] Read more.
Biliverdin reductase-A (BVR-A) impairment is associated with increased accumulation of oxidatively-damaged proteins along with the impairment of autophagy in the brain during neurodegenerative disorders. Reduced autophagy inhibits the clearance of misfolded proteins, which then form neurotoxic aggregates promoting neuronal death. The aim of our study was to clarify the role for BVR-A in the regulation of the mTOR/autophagy axis by evaluating age-associated changes (2, 6 and 11 months) in cerebral cortex samples collected from BVR-A knock-out (BVR-A−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. Our results show that BVR-A deficiency leads to the accumulation of oxidatively-damaged proteins along with mTOR hyper-activation in the cortex. This process starts in juvenile mice and persists with aging. mTOR hyper-activation is associated with the impairment of autophagy as highlighted by reduced levels of Beclin-1, LC3β, LC3II/I ratio, Atg5–Atg12 complex and Atg7 in the cortex of BVR-A−/− mice. Furthermore, we have identified the dysregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a critical event driving mTOR hyper-activation in the absence of BVR-A. Overall, our results suggest that BVR-A is a new player in the regulation of autophagy, which may be targeted to arrive at novel therapeutics for diseases involving impaired autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Profiles of Novel 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080650 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and irreversible pathological process that has become the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Currently, it is considered a multifactorial disease where oxidative stress and chronic neuroinflammation play a crucial role in its onset and development. Its characteristic neuronal loss [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and irreversible pathological process that has become the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Currently, it is considered a multifactorial disease where oxidative stress and chronic neuroinflammation play a crucial role in its onset and development. Its characteristic neuronal loss has been related to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is related to the over-activity of GSK-3β, a kinase that participates in several pathological mechanisms including neuroinflammation. Neuronal loss is also related to cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis dysregulation that triggers apoptosis and free radicals production, contributing to oxidative damage and, finally, neuronal death. Under these premises, we have obtained a new family of 4,7-dihydro-2H-pyrazolo[3–b]pyridines as multitarget directed ligands showing potent antioxidant properties and able to scavenge both oxygen and nitrogen radical species, and also, with anti-inflammatory properties. Further characterization has demonstrated their capacity to inhibit GSK-3β and to block L-type voltage dependent calcium channels. Novel derivatives have also demonstrated an interesting neuroprotective profile on in vitro models of neurodegeneration. Finally, compound 4g revokes cellular death induced by tau hyperphosphorylation in hippocampal slices by blocking reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In conclusion, the multitarget profile exhibited by these compounds is a novel therapeutic strategy of potential interest in the search of novel treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Glutathione S-Transferase Rescues Motor Neuronal Toxicity in Fly Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070615 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is involved in the pathology of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43-mediated ALS models in mice, Drosophila melanogaster, and zebrafish exhibit dysfunction of locomotor function, defective neuromuscular junctions, and motor neuron defects. There is currently [...] Read more.
Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is involved in the pathology of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43-mediated ALS models in mice, Drosophila melanogaster, and zebrafish exhibit dysfunction of locomotor function, defective neuromuscular junctions, and motor neuron defects. There is currently no effective cure for ALS, and the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43 in ALS remain poorly understood. In this study, a genetic screen was performed to identify modifiers of human TDP-43 (hTDP-43) in a Drosophila model, and glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GstO2) was found to be involved in hTDP-43 neurotoxicity. GstO2 overexpressed on recovered defective phenotypes resulting from hTDP-43, including defective neuromuscular junction (NMJ) boutons, degenerated motor neuronal axons, and reduced larvae and adult fly locomotive activity, without modulating the levels of hTDP-43 protein expression. GstO2 modulated neurotoxicity by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by hTDP-43 in the Drosophila model of ALS. Our results demonstrated that GstO2 was a key regulator in hTDP-43-related ALS pathogenesis and indicated its potential as a therapeutic target for ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Plant-Derived Natural Biomolecule Picein Attenuates Menadione Induced Oxidative Stress on Neuroblastoma Cell Mitochondria
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060552 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Several bioactive compounds are in use for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Historically, willow (salix sp.) bark has been an important source of salisylic acid and other natural compounds with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties. Among [...] Read more.
Several bioactive compounds are in use for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Historically, willow (salix sp.) bark has been an important source of salisylic acid and other natural compounds with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties. Among these, picein isolated from hot water extract of willow bark, has been found to act as a natural secondary metabolite antioxidant. The aim of this study was to investigate the unrevealed pharmacological action of picein. In silico studies were utilized to direct the investigation towards the neuroprotection abilities of picein. Our in vitro studies demonstrate the neuroprotective properties of picein by blocking the oxidative stress effects, induced by free radical generator 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione, MQ), in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Several oxidative stress-related parameters were evaluated to measure the protection for mitochondrial integrity, such as mitochondrial superoxide production, mitochondrial activity (MTT), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and live-cell imaging. A significant increase in the ROS level and mitochondrial superoxide production were measured after MQ treatment, however, a subsequent treatment with picein was able to mitigate this effect by decreasing their levels. Additionally, the mitochondrial activity was significantly decreased by MQ exposure, but a follow-up treatment with picein recovered the normal metabolic activity. In conclusion, the presented results demonstrate that picein can significantly reduce the level of MQ-induced oxidative stress on mitochondria, and thereby plays a role as a potent neuroprotectant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Article
Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Migraine Patients without Aura: A Pilot Study
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060494 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Background: Migraine is one of the most common disorders and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still under research, oxidative stress being emphasized as an important contributor. This study aimed to analyze the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and oxidative/anti-oxidant balance in migraine patients. [...] Read more.
Background: Migraine is one of the most common disorders and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still under research, oxidative stress being emphasized as an important contributor. This study aimed to analyze the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and oxidative/anti-oxidant balance in migraine patients. Methods: Two groups of subjects were evaluated: a group of patients with migraine and a control group of healthy volunteers. RNFL thickness was assessed for all subjects by the ocular coherence tomography spectral domain (OCT-SD). The oxidative stress parameter, namely nitric oxide (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total oxidative stress (TOS) were assessed. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was evaluated by assessing the level of catalase, and total anti-oxidative (TOS) capacity. Migraine severity was graded using the Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) questionnaire. Results: All the oxidative stress parameters (NOx, MDA, and TOS) were significantly increased, and both parameters for anti-oxidative status were significantly decreased in the migraine group compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Significant correlations with all the quadrants and different oxidative stress parameters were found, most involved being temporal quadrant. A significant positive correlation between catalase and macular RNFL thickness (inner ring, temporal quadrant) in migraine patients, for both eyes, was observed (p = 0.014 for the right eye and p = 0.12 for the left eye). Conclusion: The assessment of the oxidative stress/anti-oxidative balance together with RFLN thickness can constitute a promising method to evaluate the progression of the diseases. It can also contribute to the estimation of the efficiency of various therapies targeting oxidative stress and associated inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)

Review

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Review
Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Parkinson’s Disease—Is 2-Methoxyestradiol a Missing Piece?
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020248 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Mitochondria, as “power house of the cell”, are crucial players in cell pathophysiology. Beyond adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, they take part in a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulation of cell signaling and cell death. Dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics may lead to [...] Read more.
Mitochondria, as “power house of the cell”, are crucial players in cell pathophysiology. Beyond adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, they take part in a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulation of cell signaling and cell death. Dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics may lead to cancers and neurodegeneration; however, the fusion/fission cycle allows mitochondria to adapt to metabolic needs of the cell. There are multiple data suggesting that disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis can lead to Parkinson’s disease (PD) development. 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2) and potential anticancer agent, was demonstrated to inhibit cell growth of hippocampal HT22 cells by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) production and oxidative stress at both pharmacologically and also physiologically relevant concentrations. Moreover, 2-ME was suggested to inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis and to be a dynamic regulator. This review is a comprehensive discussion, from both scientific and clinical point of view, about the influence of 2-ME on mitochondria and its plausible role as a modulator of neuron survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
The Role of Bilirubin and the Other “Yellow Players” in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090900 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Bilirubin is a yellow endogenous derivate of the heme catabolism. Since the 1980s, it has been recognized as one of the most potent antioxidants in nature, able to counteract 10,000× higher intracellular concentrations of H2O2. In the recent years, [...] Read more.
Bilirubin is a yellow endogenous derivate of the heme catabolism. Since the 1980s, it has been recognized as one of the most potent antioxidants in nature, able to counteract 10,000× higher intracellular concentrations of H2O2. In the recent years, not only bilirubin, but also its precursor biliverdin, and the enzymes involved in their productions (namely heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase; altogether the “yellow players”—YPs) have been recognized playing a protective role in diseases characterized by a chronic prooxidant status. Based on that, there is an ongoing effort in inducing their activity as a therapeutic option. Nevertheless, the understanding of their specific contributions to pathological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in these diseases are limited. In this review, we will focus on the most recent evidence linking the role of the YPs specifically to neurodegenerative and neurological conditions. Both the protective, as well as potentially worsening effects of the YP’s activity will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
The BACH1/Nrf2 Axis in Brain in Down Syndrome and Transition to Alzheimer Disease-Like Neuropathology and Dementia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090779 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability that is associated with an increased risk to develop early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia (AD). The brain neuropathological features include alteration of redox homeostasis, mitochondrial deficits, inflammation, accumulation of both amyloid beta-peptide oligomers [...] Read more.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability that is associated with an increased risk to develop early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia (AD). The brain neuropathological features include alteration of redox homeostasis, mitochondrial deficits, inflammation, accumulation of both amyloid beta-peptide oligomers and senile plaques, as well as aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein-containing neurofibrillary tangles, among others. It is worth mentioning that some of the triplicated genes encoded are likely to cause increased oxidative stress (OS) conditions that are also associated with reduced cellular responses. Published studies from our laboratories propose that increased oxidative damage occurs early in life in DS population and contributes to age-dependent neurodegeneration. This is the result of damaged, oxidized proteins that belong to degradative systems, antioxidant defense system, neuronal trafficking. and energy metabolism. This review focuses on a key element that regulates redox homeostasis, the transcription factor Nrf2, which is negatively regulated by BACH1, encoded on chromosome 21. The role of the Nrf2/BACH1 axis in DS is under investigation, and the effects of triplicated BACH1 on the transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 are still unknown. In this review, we discuss the physiological relevance of BACH1/Nrf2 signaling in the brain and how the dysfunction of this system affects the redox homeostasis in DS neurons and how this axis may contribute to the transition of DS into DS with AD neuropathology and dementia. Further, some of the evidence collected in AD regarding the potential contribution of BACH1 to neurodegeneration in DS are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
ROS Generation in Microglia: Understanding Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080743 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 137 | Viewed by 5738
Abstract
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are a global public health burden with poorly understood aetiology. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are undoubtedly hallmarks of neurodegeneration, contributing to disease progression. Protein aggregation and neuronal damage result in the activation of disease-associated microglia (DAM) [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are a global public health burden with poorly understood aetiology. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are undoubtedly hallmarks of neurodegeneration, contributing to disease progression. Protein aggregation and neuronal damage result in the activation of disease-associated microglia (DAM) via damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAM facilitate persistent inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking DAM activation and OS have not been well-defined; thus targeting these cells for clinical benefit has not been possible. In microglia, ROS are generated primarily by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of NOX2 in DAM is associated with DAMP signalling, inflammation and amyloid plaque deposition, especially in the cerebrovasculature. Additionally, ROS originating from both NOX and the mitochondria may act as second messengers to propagate immune activation; thus intracellular ROS signalling may underlie excessive inflammation and OS. Targeting key kinases in the inflammatory response could cease inflammation and promote tissue repair. Expression of antioxidant proteins in microglia, such as NADPH dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), is promoted by transcription factor Nrf2, which functions to control inflammation and limit OS. Lipid droplet accumulating microglia (LDAM) may also represent a double-edged sword in neurodegenerative disease by sequestering peroxidised lipids in non-pathological ageing but becoming dysregulated and pro-inflammatory in disease. We suggest that future studies should focus on targeted manipulation of NOX in the microglia to understand the molecular mechanisms driving inflammatory-related NOX activation. Finally, we discuss recent evidence that therapeutic target identification should be unbiased and founded on relevant pathophysiological assays to facilitate the discovery of translatable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
When It Comes to an End: Oxidative Stress Crosstalk with Protein Aggregation and Neuroinflammation Induce Neurodegeneration
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080740 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of neurons in the brain or spinal cord that leads to a loss of function of the affected areas. The lack of effective treatments and the ever-increasing life expectancy is raising the number of individuals [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of neurons in the brain or spinal cord that leads to a loss of function of the affected areas. The lack of effective treatments and the ever-increasing life expectancy is raising the number of individuals affected, having a tremendous social and economic impact. The brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage given the high energy demand, low levels of antioxidant defenses, and high levels of metal ions. Driven by age-related changes, neurodegeneration is characterized by increased oxidative stress leading to irreversible neuronal damage, followed by cell death. Nevertheless, neurodegenerative diseases are known as complex pathologies where several mechanisms drive neuronal death. Herein we discuss the interplay among oxidative stress, proteinopathy, and neuroinflammation at the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we discuss the use of the Nrf2-ARE pathway as a potential therapeutic strategy based on these molecular mechanisms to develop transformative medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Exploring the Use of Dimethyl Fumarate as Microglia Modulator for Neurodegenerative Diseases Treatment
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080700 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
The maintenance of redox homeostasis in the brain is critical for the prevention of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs acting on brain redox balance can be promising for the treatment of neurodegeneration. For more than four decades, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and other [...] Read more.
The maintenance of redox homeostasis in the brain is critical for the prevention of the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs acting on brain redox balance can be promising for the treatment of neurodegeneration. For more than four decades, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and other derivatives of fumaric acid ester compounds have been shown to mitigate a number of pathological mechanisms associated with psoriasis and relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently, DMF has been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect on the central nervous system (CNS), possibly through the modulation of microglia detrimental actions, observed also in multiple brain injuries. In addition to the hypothesis that DMF is linked to the activation of NRF2 and NF-kB transcription factors, the neuroprotective action of DMF may be mediated by the activation of the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant pathway and the regulation of brain iron homeostasis. This review will focus on the role of DMF as an antioxidant modulator in microglia processes and on its mechanisms of action in the modulation of different pathways to attenuate neurodegenerative disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Neuroinflammation: Intertwined Roads to Neurodegeneration
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080647 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 3220
Abstract
Oxidative stress develops as a response to injury and reflects a breach in the cell’s antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the fine-tuning of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is crucial for preserving cell’s homeostasis. Mitochondria are a major source and an immediate target of ROS. [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress develops as a response to injury and reflects a breach in the cell’s antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the fine-tuning of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is crucial for preserving cell’s homeostasis. Mitochondria are a major source and an immediate target of ROS. Under different stimuli, including oxidative stress and impaired quality control, mitochondrial constituents (e.g., mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) are displaced toward intra- or extracellular compartments. However, the mechanisms responsible for mtDNA unloading remain largely unclear. While shuttling freely within the cell, mtDNA can be delivered into the extracellular compartment via either extrusion of entire nucleoids or the generation and release of extracellular vesicles. Once discarded, mtDNA may act as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and trigger an innate immune inflammatory response by binding to danger-signal receptors. Neuroinflammation is associated with a large array of neurological disorders for which mitochondrial DAMPs could represent a common thread supporting disease progression. The exploration of non-canonical pathways involved in mitochondrial quality control and neurodegeneration may unveil novel targets for the development of therapeutic agents. Here, we discuss these processes in the setting of two common neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) and Down syndrome, the most frequent progeroid syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Potential Role of Phenolic Extracts of Mentha in Managing Oxidative Stress and Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070631 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
With an increase in the longevity and thus the proportion of the elderly, especially in developed nations, there is a rise in pathological conditions that accompany ageing, such as neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive and [...] Read more.
With an increase in the longevity and thus the proportion of the elderly, especially in developed nations, there is a rise in pathological conditions that accompany ageing, such as neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive and memory decline. The pathophysiology of the disease is poorly understood, with several factors contributing to its development, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, cholinergic neuronal apoptotic death, and the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain. Current medications are only palliative and cannot stop or reverse the progression of the disease. Recent clinical trials of synthetic compounds for the treatment of AD have failed because of their adverse effects or lack of efficacy. Thus, there is impetus behind the search for drugs from natural origins, in addition to the discovery of novel, conventional therapeutics. Mints have been used traditionally for conditions relevant to the central nervous system. Recent studies showed that mint extracts and/or their phenolic constituents have a neuroprotective potential and can target multiple events of AD. In this review, we provide evidence of the potential role of mint extracts and their derivatives as possible sources of treatments in managing AD. Some of the molecular pathways implicated in the development of AD are reviewed, with focus on apoptosis and some redox pathways, pointing to mechanisms that may be modulated for the treatment of AD, and the need for future research invoking knowledge of these pathways is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Nrf2 Inducer Dimethyl Fumarate in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070630 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) represents debilitating conditions characterized by degeneration of neuronal cells in specific brain areas, causing disability and death in patients. In the pathophysiology of NDs, oxidative stress, apoptosis and neuroinflammation have a key role, as demonstrated by in vivo and in [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) represents debilitating conditions characterized by degeneration of neuronal cells in specific brain areas, causing disability and death in patients. In the pathophysiology of NDs, oxidative stress, apoptosis and neuroinflammation have a key role, as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro models. Therefore, the use of molecules with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities represents a possible strategy for the treatment of NDs. Many studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of fumaric acid esters (FAEs) to counteract neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Among these molecules, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) showed a valid therapeutic approach to slow down neurodegeneration and relieve symptoms in patients with NDs. DMF is a methyl ester of fumaric acid and acts as modulator of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway as well as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) translocation. Therefore, this review aims to examine the potential beneficial effects of DMF to counteract oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with NDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Citrus Flavonoid Hesperetin: Special Focus on Neurological Disorders
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070609 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3473
Abstract
Neurodegenerative disorders have emerged as a serious health issue in the current era. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These diseases involve progressive impairment of neurodegeneration and memory impairment. A wide [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative disorders have emerged as a serious health issue in the current era. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These diseases involve progressive impairment of neurodegeneration and memory impairment. A wide range of compounds have been identified as potential neuroprotective agents against different models of neurodegeneration both in vivo and in vitro. Hesperetin, a flavanone class of citrus flavonoid, is a derivative of hesperidin found in citrus fruits such as oranges, grapes, and lemons. It has been extensively reported that hesperetin exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases. In this systematic review, we have compiled all the studies conducted on hesperetin in both in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have used an approach to lessen the bias in each study, providing a least biased, broad understanding of findings and impartial conclusions of the strength of evidence and the reliability of findings. In this review, we collected different papers from a wide range of journals describing the beneficial effects of hesperetin on animal models of neurodegeneration. Our results demonstrated consistent neuroprotective effects of hesperetin against different models of neurodegeneration. In addition, we have summarized its underlying mechanisms. This study provides the foundations for future studies and recommendations of further mechanistic approaches to conduct preclinical studies on hesperetin in different models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
The Role of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070597 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3523
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by progressive neurodegeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons with abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in substantia nigra (SN). Studies have suggested the potential involvement of dopamine, iron, calcium, mitochondria and neuroinflammation in contributing to overwhelmed oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by progressive neurodegeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons with abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in substantia nigra (SN). Studies have suggested the potential involvement of dopamine, iron, calcium, mitochondria and neuroinflammation in contributing to overwhelmed oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in PD. Function studies on PD-causative mutations of SNCA, PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2, FBXO7 and ATP13A2 further indicate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, it is reasonable that molecules involved in oxidative stress, such as DJ-1, coenzyme Q10, uric acid, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosin, homocysteine, retinoic acid/carotenes, vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase and products of lipid peroxidation, could be candidate biomarkers for PD. Applications of antioxidants to modulate oxidative stress could be a strategy in treating PD. Although a number of antioxidants, such as creatine, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, pioglitazone, melatonin and desferrioxamine, have been tested in clinical trials, none of them have demonstrated conclusive evidence to ameliorate the neurodegeneration in PD patients. Difficulties in clinical studies may be caused by the long-standing progression of neurodegeneration, lack of biomarkers for premotor stage of PD and inadequate drug delivery across blood–brain barrier. Solutions for these challenges will be warranted for future studies with novel antioxidative treatment in PD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Review
Control of Reactive Oxygen Species for the Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease: The Possible Application of Flavonoids
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070583 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense systems, and it can be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The application of antioxidants, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense systems, and it can be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The application of antioxidants, which can defend against oxidative stress, is able to detoxify the reactive intermediates and prevent neurodegeneration resulting from excessive ROS production. There are many reports showing that numerous flavonoids, a large group of natural phenolic compounds, can act as antioxidants and the application of flavonoids has beneficial effects in the adult brain. For instance, it is well known that the long-term consumption of the green tea-derived flavonoids catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can attenuate the onset of PD. Also, flavonoids such as ampelopsin and pinocembrin can inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death through the regulation of gene expression of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Additionally, it is well established that many flavonoids exhibit anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects through cellular signaling pathways, such as those involving (ERK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and (Akt), resulting in neuroprotection. In this review article, we have described the oxidative stress involved in PD and explained the therapeutic potential of flavonoids to protect the nigrostriatal DA system, which may be useful to prevent PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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