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Review

Control of Reactive Oxygen Species for the Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease: The Possible Application of Flavonoids

by 1,†, 1,†, 2,† and 1,3,4,*
1
School of Life Sciences, BK21 plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea
3
Institute of Life Science & Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
4
Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070583
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 3 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense systems, and it can be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The application of antioxidants, which can defend against oxidative stress, is able to detoxify the reactive intermediates and prevent neurodegeneration resulting from excessive ROS production. There are many reports showing that numerous flavonoids, a large group of natural phenolic compounds, can act as antioxidants and the application of flavonoids has beneficial effects in the adult brain. For instance, it is well known that the long-term consumption of the green tea-derived flavonoids catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can attenuate the onset of PD. Also, flavonoids such as ampelopsin and pinocembrin can inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death through the regulation of gene expression of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Additionally, it is well established that many flavonoids exhibit anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects through cellular signaling pathways, such as those involving (ERK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and (Akt), resulting in neuroprotection. In this review article, we have described the oxidative stress involved in PD and explained the therapeutic potential of flavonoids to protect the nigrostriatal DA system, which may be useful to prevent PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; reactive oxygen species; flavonoid; neuroprotection; neuro-inflammation Parkinson’s disease; reactive oxygen species; flavonoid; neuroprotection; neuro-inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, T.Y.; Leem, E.; Lee, J.M.; Kim, S.R. Control of Reactive Oxygen Species for the Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease: The Possible Application of Flavonoids. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 583. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070583

AMA Style

Kim TY, Leem E, Lee JM, Kim SR. Control of Reactive Oxygen Species for the Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease: The Possible Application of Flavonoids. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(7):583. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Tae Y., Eunju Leem, Jae M. Lee, and Sang R. Kim 2020. "Control of Reactive Oxygen Species for the Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease: The Possible Application of Flavonoids" Antioxidants 9, no. 7: 583. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070583

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