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Article

Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson’s Disease

1
Nutrition in Medicine Research Group, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
2
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
3
New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
4
Centre for Postgraduate Nursing Studies, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
5
School of Psychology, Speech, and Hearing, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100906
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 20 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the aetiology of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a potent antioxidant and is associated with neurological and cognitive function. In this study we assessed the ascorbate status of a cohort of people with Parkinson’s disease (n = 215), aged 50–90 years, compared with a cohort of age matched healthy controls (n = 48). The study sample’s cognitive status ranged from normal to mild cognitive impairment and dementia. There was no difference between the Parkinson’s disease and healthy control groups with respect to mean ascorbate status, however, a higher proportion of participants with Parkinson’s disease had hypovitaminosis C (i.e., <23 μmol/L) compared with healthy controls (20% vs. 8%, respectively). Within the Parkinson’s disease group, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores correlated positively with ascorbate concentrations, with higher ascorbate status associated with better cognitive function (r = 0.14, p = 0.045). Participants with hypovitaminosis C had significantly lower MoCA scores relative to participants with ascorbate concentrations >23 µmol/L (p = 0.014). Ascorbate concentrations were significantly lower in the cognitively impaired subgroup compared with the normal cognition subgroup in the Parkinson’s disease cohort (p = 0.03). In contrast, urate showed an inverse correlation with cognitive function (r = −0.19, p = 0.007), with higher urate concentrations observed in the cognitively impaired subgroup compared with the normal cognition subgroup (p = 0.015). There was an inverse association between ascorbate status and urate concentrations (r = −0.15, p = 0.017). Plasma protein carbonyls, a measure of systemic oxidative stress, were not significantly different between the Parkinson’s disease cohort and healthy controls, and there was no association with cognitive function (r = 0.09, p = 0.19) or with ascorbate status (r = −0.05, p = 0.45). Overall, our study showed ascorbate status was positively associated with cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease, suggesting that longitudinal studies investigating the temporal sequence of cognitive decline and ascorbate status are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbate; ascorbic acid; Parkinson’s disease; cognitive impairment; MoCA; antioxidant; oxidative stress vitamin C; ascorbate; ascorbic acid; Parkinson’s disease; cognitive impairment; MoCA; antioxidant; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spencer, E.S.; Pitcher, T.; Veron, G.; Hannam, T.; MacAskill, M.; Anderson, T.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.; Carr, A.C. Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson’s Disease. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 906. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100906

AMA Style

Spencer ES, Pitcher T, Veron G, Hannam T, MacAskill M, Anderson T, Dalrymple-Alford J, Carr AC. Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson’s Disease. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(10):906. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100906

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spencer, Emma S., Toni Pitcher, Gabriel Veron, Tracey Hannam, Michael MacAskill, Tim Anderson, John Dalrymple-Alford, and Anitra C. Carr 2020. "Positive Association of Ascorbate and Inverse Association of Urate with Cognitive Function in People with Parkinson’s Disease" Antioxidants 9, no. 10: 906. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100906

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