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Review

When It Comes to an End: Oxidative Stress Crosstalk with Protein Aggregation and Neuroinflammation Induce Neurodegeneration

by 1,2,* and 1,2,3,*
1
Instituto Teófilo Hernando y Departamento de Farmacología y Terapéutica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Servicio de Farmacología Clínica, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Química Médica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IQM-CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080740
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 27 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of neurons in the brain or spinal cord that leads to a loss of function of the affected areas. The lack of effective treatments and the ever-increasing life expectancy is raising the number of individuals affected, having a tremendous social and economic impact. The brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage given the high energy demand, low levels of antioxidant defenses, and high levels of metal ions. Driven by age-related changes, neurodegeneration is characterized by increased oxidative stress leading to irreversible neuronal damage, followed by cell death. Nevertheless, neurodegenerative diseases are known as complex pathologies where several mechanisms drive neuronal death. Herein we discuss the interplay among oxidative stress, proteinopathy, and neuroinflammation at the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we discuss the use of the Nrf2-ARE pathway as a potential therapeutic strategy based on these molecular mechanisms to develop transformative medicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; oxidative stress; protein aggregates; neuroinflammation; Nrf2-ARE pathway; reactive species; redox signaling neurodegenerative diseases; oxidative stress; protein aggregates; neuroinflammation; Nrf2-ARE pathway; reactive species; redox signaling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Michalska, P.; León, R. When It Comes to an End: Oxidative Stress Crosstalk with Protein Aggregation and Neuroinflammation Induce Neurodegeneration. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 740. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080740

AMA Style

Michalska P, León R. When It Comes to an End: Oxidative Stress Crosstalk with Protein Aggregation and Neuroinflammation Induce Neurodegeneration. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(8):740. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080740

Chicago/Turabian Style

Michalska, Patrycja, and Rafael León. 2020. "When It Comes to an End: Oxidative Stress Crosstalk with Protein Aggregation and Neuroinflammation Induce Neurodegeneration" Antioxidants 9, no. 8: 740. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080740

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