Antimicrobial Materials and Surface

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antimicrobial Materials and Surfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 42342

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Aix Marseille Université, Institut de Chimie Radicalaire (ICR), UMR 7273, 13397 Marseille, France
Interests: synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial copolymers and organic materials

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Guest Editor
Institut FEMTO-ST, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6174, 25000 Besançon, France
Interests: self-assembled monolayers; surface modification; grafted anti-microbial peptides; bacterial biofilms; antibacterial surfaces; peptides modifications; peptides chirality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial materials and surfaces are able to kill microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and viruses, limiting the spread of hospital-associated infections, which account for more than 100,000 deaths per year worldwide. Apart from the health applications, antimicrobial activity is also present in numerous objects surrounding us such as food packaging, plastics, and textiles. To acquire antimicrobial activity, materials and surfaces have to be functionalized in a variety of different processes such as (i) their coating with antibiotics, metals, or metallic nanoparticles such as copper, silver, or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); (ii) the incorporation into the materials of cationic polymers; or (iii) the use of photocatalytic molecules conferring self-cleaning activity to surfaces and materials.

In this Special Issue entitled “Antimicrobial Materials and Surfaces”, we invite authors to submit articles covering all aspects of this theme, including new materials, new molecules, new technology, new activities, as well as a deeper characterization of already-known antimicrobial materials and surfaces.

Dr. Marc Maresca
Dr. Catherine Lefay
Dr. Vincent Humblot
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial surface
  • antimicrobial material
  • functionalized surface
  • functionalized material
  • antibiotic resistance
  • antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)
  • cationic polymers

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2244 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity of an SiO2 Nanoparticular Coating to Prevent Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products
by Sahra Fonseca, Marie-Pierre Cayer, K. M. Tanvir Ahmmed, Nima Khadem-Mohtaram, Steve J. Charette and Danny Brouard
Antibiotics 2022, 11(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11010107 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Technological innovations and quality control processes within blood supply organizations have significantly improved blood safety for both donors and recipients. Nevertheless, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains non-negligible. Applying a nanoparticular, antibacterial coating at the surface of medical devices is a promising strategy [...] Read more.
Technological innovations and quality control processes within blood supply organizations have significantly improved blood safety for both donors and recipients. Nevertheless, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains non-negligible. Applying a nanoparticular, antibacterial coating at the surface of medical devices is a promising strategy to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we characterized the antibacterial activity of an SiO2 nanoparticular coating (i.e., the “Medical Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Coating” [MAAC]) applied on relevant polymeric materials (PM) used in the biomedical field. Electron microscopy revealed a smoother surface for the MAAC-treated PM compared to the reference, suggesting antiadhesive properties. The antibacterial activity was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in accordance with ISO 22196. Bacterial growth was significantly reduced for the MAAC-treated PVC, plasticized PVC, polyurethane and silicone (90–99.999%) in which antibacterial activity of ≥1 log reduction was reached for all bacterial strains tested. Cytotoxicity was evaluated following ISO 10993-5 guidelines and L929 cell viability was calculated at ≥90% in the presence of MAAC. This study demonstrates that the MAAC could prevent bacterial contamination as demonstrated by the ISO 22196 tests, while further work needs to be done to improve the coating processability and effectiveness of more complex matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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15 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Photosensitizing Material Based on Conjugated Zn(II) Porphyrins
by Sofía C. Santamarina, Daniel A. Heredia, Andrés M. Durantini and Edgardo N. Durantini
Antibiotics 2022, 11(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11010091 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
The widespread use of antibiotics has led to a considerable increase in the resistance of microorganisms to these agents. Consequently, it is imminent to establish new strategies to combat pathogens. An alternative involves the development of photoactive polymers that represent an interesting strategy [...] Read more.
The widespread use of antibiotics has led to a considerable increase in the resistance of microorganisms to these agents. Consequently, it is imminent to establish new strategies to combat pathogens. An alternative involves the development of photoactive polymers that represent an interesting strategy to kill microbes and maintain aseptic surfaces. In this sense, a conjugated polymer (PZnTEP) based on Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-(ethynyl)phenyl]porphyrin (ZnTEP) was obtained by the homocoupling reaction of terminal alkyne groups. PZnTEP exhibits a microporous structure with high surface areas allowing better interaction with bacteria. The UV-visible absorption spectra show the Soret and Q bands of PZnTEP red-shifted by about 18 nm compared to those of the monomer. Also, the conjugate presents the two red emission bands, characteristic of porphyrins. This polymer was able to produce singlet molecular oxygen and superoxide radical anion in the presence of NADH. Photocytotoxic activity sensitized by PZnTEP was investigated in bacterial suspensions. No viable Staphylococcus aureus cells were detected using 0.5 µM PZnTEP and 15 min irradiation. Under these conditions, complete photoinactivation of Escherichia coli was observed in the presence of 100 mM KI. Likewise, no survival was detected for E. coli incubated with 1.0 µM PZnTEP after 30 min irradiation. Furthermore, polylactic acid surfaces coated with PZnTEP were able to kill efficiently these bacteria. This surface can be reused for at least three photoinactivation cycles. Therefore, this conjugated photodynamic polymer is an interesting antimicrobial photoactive material for designing and developing self-sterilizing surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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18 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Anti-Colonization Effect of Au Surfaces with Self-Assembled Molecular Monolayers Functionalized with Antimicrobial Peptides on S. epidermidis
by Eskil André Karlsen, Wenche Stensen, Eric Juskewitz, Johan Svenson, Mattias Berglin and John Sigurd Mjøen Svendsen
Antibiotics 2021, 10(12), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121516 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
Medical devices with an effective anti-colonization surface are important tools for combatting healthcare-associated infections. Here, we investigated the anti-colonization efficacy of antimicrobial peptides covalently attached to a gold model surface. The gold surface was modified by a self-assembled polyethylene glycol monolayer with an [...] Read more.
Medical devices with an effective anti-colonization surface are important tools for combatting healthcare-associated infections. Here, we investigated the anti-colonization efficacy of antimicrobial peptides covalently attached to a gold model surface. The gold surface was modified by a self-assembled polyethylene glycol monolayer with an acetylene terminus. The peptides were covalently connected to the surface through a copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-acetylene coupling (CuAAC). The anti-colonization efficacy of the surfaces varied as a function of the antimicrobial activity of the peptides, and very effective surfaces could be prepared with a 6 log unit reduction in bacterial colonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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15 pages, 2200 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Degradability of Copper Alloy Surfaces and Its Correlation to Antibacterial Activity
by Akiko Yamamoto, Shinji Tanaka and Keiichiro Ohishi
Antibiotics 2021, 10(12), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121439 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Copper (Cu) and its alloys have bactericidal activity known as “contact killing” with degradation of nucleic acids inside the bacteria, which is beneficial to inhibit horizontal gene transfer (HGF). In order to understand the nucleic acid degradability of Cu and its alloy surfaces, [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu) and its alloys have bactericidal activity known as “contact killing” with degradation of nucleic acids inside the bacteria, which is beneficial to inhibit horizontal gene transfer (HGF). In order to understand the nucleic acid degradability of Cu and its alloy surfaces, we developed a new in vitro method to quantitatively evaluate it by a swab method under a “dry” condition and compared it with that of commercially available antibacterial materials such as antibacterial stainless steel, pure silver, and antibacterial resins. As a result, only Cu and its alloys showed continuous degradation of nucleic acids for up to 6 h of contact time. The nucleic acid degradability levels of the Cu alloys and other antibacterial materials correlate to their antibacterial activities evaluated by a film method referring to JIS Z 2801:2012 for Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Nucleic acid degradation by copper (I) and (II) chlorides was confirmed at the ranges over 10 mM and 1–20 mM, respectively, suggesting that the copper ion release may be responsible for the degradation of the nucleic acids on Cu and its alloy surfaces. In conclusion, the higher Cu content in the alloys gave higher nucleic acid degradability and higher antibacterial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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20 pages, 7584 KiB  
Article
Mechanistic Study of the Kinetic Phenomena Influencing the Bacteriostatic Action of Silver Ions in Agar Bioassays
by Louis Cornette de Saint Cyr, Guillaume Ramadier, Azariel Ruiz Valencia, Jean-Pierre Méricq and Laurence Soussan
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040368 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Bacteriostatic action of a biocidal agent results from the cumulative impact of different kinetics, including those of bacterial growth, mass transfer of the agent and its antibacterial action against the targeted bacteria. Current studies on bacteriostatic effects always directly consider the combination of [...] Read more.
Bacteriostatic action of a biocidal agent results from the cumulative impact of different kinetics, including those of bacterial growth, mass transfer of the agent and its antibacterial action against the targeted bacteria. Current studies on bacteriostatic effects always directly consider the combination of these kinetics at given times, without discrimination between each other. This work introduces a novel approach, consisting of first studying independently, by the experiment and the model, the different kinetics involved, and then in coupling these kinetics to obtain a model that will be confronted with experimental data. An agar diffusion test with silver ions against Escherichia coli bacteria was implemented herein to assess the relevance of this approach. This work achieved to characterize the different kinetics and to propose a dynamic model combining them, which fits the experimental data with a silver diffusivity in the biofilm fixed to 7.0 ± 0.1 × 10−12 m2 s−1. This study also proves that the diffusive phenomenon was limiting the bacteriostatic action of silver ions over the test duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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27 pages, 8065 KiB  
Article
Vapor Phosphorylation of Cellulose by Phosphorus Trichlo-Ride: Selective Phosphorylation of 6-Hydroxyl Function—The Synthesis of New Antimicrobial Cellulose 6-Phosphate(III)-Copper Complexes
by Marcin H. Kudzin, Zdzisława Mrozińska and Paweł Urbaniak
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020203 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
This research is focused on a synthesis of copper-cellulose phosphates antimicrobial complexes. Vapor-phase phosphorylations of cellulose were achieved by exposing microcrystalline cellulose to phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) vapors. The cellulose-O-dichlorophosphines (Cell-O-PCl2) formed were hydrolyzed to cellulose- [...] Read more.
This research is focused on a synthesis of copper-cellulose phosphates antimicrobial complexes. Vapor-phase phosphorylations of cellulose were achieved by exposing microcrystalline cellulose to phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) vapors. The cellulose-O-dichlorophosphines (Cell-O-PCl2) formed were hydrolyzed to cellulose-O-hydrogenphosphate (P(III)) (Cell-O-P(O)(H)(OH)), which, in turn, were converted into corresponding copper(II) complexes (Cell-O-P(O)(H)(OH)∙Cu2+). The analysis of the complexes Cell-O-P(O)(H)(OH)∙Cu2+ covered: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic absorption spectrometry with flame excitation (FAAS), and bioactivity tests against representative Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The antimicrobial tests of synthesized Cell-O-P(O)(H)(OH)∙Cu2+ revealed their potential applications as an antibacterial material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Worst-Case Scenario Method Adapted to the Healthcare Environment for Testing the Antibacterial Effect of Brass Surfaces and Implementation on Hospital Antibiotic-Resistant Strains
by Emilie Dauvergne, Corinne Lacquemant, Crespin Adjidé and Catherine Mullié
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050245 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3296
Abstract
The evaluation of antibacterial activity of metal surfaces can be carried out using various published guidelines which do not always agree with each other on technical conditions and result interpretation. Moreover, these technical conditions are sometimes remote from real-life ones, especially those found [...] Read more.
The evaluation of antibacterial activity of metal surfaces can be carried out using various published guidelines which do not always agree with each other on technical conditions and result interpretation. Moreover, these technical conditions are sometimes remote from real-life ones, especially those found in health-care facilities, and do not include a variety of antibiotic-resistant strains. A worst-case scenario protocol adapted from published guidelines was validated on two reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048). This protocol was designed to be as close as possible to a healthcare facility environment, including a much shorter exposure-time than the one recommended in guidelines, and evaluated the impact of parameters such as the method used to prepare inocula, seed on the surface, and recover bacteria following exposure. It was applied to a panel of 12 antibiotic-resistant strains (methicillin resistant, vancomycin-resistant, beta-lactamase, and carbapenemase producing strains as well as efflux pump-overexpressing ones) chosen as representative of the main bacteria causing hospital acquired infections. Within a 5-min exposure time, the tested brass surface displayed an antibacterial effect meeting a reduction cut-off of 99% compared to stainless steel, whatever the resistance mechanism harbored by the bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)

Review

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32 pages, 12671 KiB  
Review
Strategies for Antimicrobial Peptides Immobilization on Surfaces to Prevent Biofilm Growth on Biomedical Devices
by Mathieu Nicolas, Bruno Beito, Marta Oliveira, Maria Tudela Martins, Bruno Gallas, Michèle Salmain, Souhir Boujday and Vincent Humblot
Antibiotics 2022, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11010013 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 7210
Abstract
Nosocomial and medical device-induced biofilm infections affect millions of lives and urgently require innovative preventive approaches. These pathologies have led to the development of numerous antimicrobial strategies, an emergent topic involving both natural and synthetic routes, among which some are currently under testing [...] Read more.
Nosocomial and medical device-induced biofilm infections affect millions of lives and urgently require innovative preventive approaches. These pathologies have led to the development of numerous antimicrobial strategies, an emergent topic involving both natural and synthetic routes, among which some are currently under testing for clinical approval and use. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ideal candidates for this fight. Therefore, the strategies involving surface functionalization with AMPs to prevent bacterial attachment/biofilms formation have experienced a tremendous development over the last decade. In this review, we describe the different mechanisms of action by which AMPs prevent bacterial adhesion and/or biofilm formation to better address their potential as anti-infective agents. We additionally analyze AMP immobilization techniques on a variety of materials, with a focus on biomedical applications. Furthermore, we summarize the advances made to date regarding the immobilization strategies of AMPs on various surfaces and their ability to prevent the adhesion of various microorganisms. Progress toward the clinical approval of AMPs in antibiotherapy is also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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14 pages, 622 KiB  
Review
How Do We Determine the Efficacy of an Antibacterial Surface? A Review of Standardised Antibacterial Material Testing Methods
by Alexander J. Cunliffe, Peter D. Askew, Ina Stephan, Gillian Iredale, Patrick Cosemans, Lisa M. Simmons, Joanna Verran and James Redfern
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091069 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 8504
Abstract
Materials that confer antimicrobial activity, be that by innate property, leaching of biocides or design features (e.g., non-adhesive materials) continue to gain popularity to combat the increasing and varied threats from microorganisms, e.g., replacing inert surfaces in hospitals with copper. To understand how [...] Read more.
Materials that confer antimicrobial activity, be that by innate property, leaching of biocides or design features (e.g., non-adhesive materials) continue to gain popularity to combat the increasing and varied threats from microorganisms, e.g., replacing inert surfaces in hospitals with copper. To understand how efficacious these materials are at controlling microorganisms, data is usually collected via a standardised test method. However, standardised test methods vary, and often the characteristics and methodological choices can make it difficult to infer that any perceived antimicrobial activity demonstrated in the laboratory can be confidently assumed to an end-use setting. This review provides a critical analysis of standardised methodology used in academia and industry, and demonstrates how many key methodological choices (e.g., temperature, humidity/moisture, airflow, surface topography) may impact efficacy assessment, highlighting the need to carefully consider intended antimicrobial end-use of any product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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25 pages, 4528 KiB  
Review
A Review on Revolutionary Natural Biopolymer-Based Aerogels for Antibacterial Delivery
by Esam Bashir Yahya, Fauziah Jummaat, A. A. Amirul, A. S. Adnan, N. G. Olaiya, C. K. Abdullah, Samsul Rizal, M. K. Mohamad Haafiz and H. P. S. Abdul Khalil
Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100648 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 7109
Abstract
A biopolymer-based aerogel has been developed to become one of the most potentially utilized materials in different biomedical applications. The biopolymer-based aerogel has unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties and these properties are used in tissue engineering, biosensing, diagnostic, medical implant and drug [...] Read more.
A biopolymer-based aerogel has been developed to become one of the most potentially utilized materials in different biomedical applications. The biopolymer-based aerogel has unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties and these properties are used in tissue engineering, biosensing, diagnostic, medical implant and drug delivery applications. Biocompatible and non-toxic biopolymers such as chitosan, cellulose and alginates have been used to deliver antibiotics, plants extract, essential oils and metallic nanoparticles. Antibacterial aerogels have been used in superficial and chronic wound healing as dressing sheets. This review critically analyses the utilization of biopolymer-based aerogels in antibacterial delivery. The analysis shows the relationship between their properties and their applications in the wound healing process. Furthermore, highlights of the potentials, challenges and proposition of the application of biopolymer-based aerogels is explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
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