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Review

How Do We Determine the Efficacy of an Antibacterial Surface? A Review of Standardised Antibacterial Material Testing Methods

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Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
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(Industrial Microbiological Services Ltd.) IMSL, Pale Lane, Hartley Whitney, Hants RG27 8DH, UK
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(Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) BAM, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin, Germany
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Sirris, Wetenschapspark 3, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
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Department of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
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Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc Maresca, Catherine Lefay and Vincent Humblot
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091069
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Materials and Surface)
Materials that confer antimicrobial activity, be that by innate property, leaching of biocides or design features (e.g., non-adhesive materials) continue to gain popularity to combat the increasing and varied threats from microorganisms, e.g., replacing inert surfaces in hospitals with copper. To understand how efficacious these materials are at controlling microorganisms, data is usually collected via a standardised test method. However, standardised test methods vary, and often the characteristics and methodological choices can make it difficult to infer that any perceived antimicrobial activity demonstrated in the laboratory can be confidently assumed to an end-use setting. This review provides a critical analysis of standardised methodology used in academia and industry, and demonstrates how many key methodological choices (e.g., temperature, humidity/moisture, airflow, surface topography) may impact efficacy assessment, highlighting the need to carefully consider intended antimicrobial end-use of any product. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial materials; antimicrobial testing; 22196; antimicrobial surfaces; antibacterial coatings antimicrobial materials; antimicrobial testing; 22196; antimicrobial surfaces; antibacterial coatings
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cunliffe, A.J.; Askew, P.D.; Stephan, I.; Iredale, G.; Cosemans, P.; Simmons, L.M.; Verran, J.; Redfern, J. How Do We Determine the Efficacy of an Antibacterial Surface? A Review of Standardised Antibacterial Material Testing Methods. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091069

AMA Style

Cunliffe AJ, Askew PD, Stephan I, Iredale G, Cosemans P, Simmons LM, Verran J, Redfern J. How Do We Determine the Efficacy of an Antibacterial Surface? A Review of Standardised Antibacterial Material Testing Methods. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091069

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cunliffe, Alexander J., Peter D. Askew, Ina Stephan, Gillian Iredale, Patrick Cosemans, Lisa M. Simmons, Joanna Verran, and James Redfern. 2021. "How Do We Determine the Efficacy of an Antibacterial Surface? A Review of Standardised Antibacterial Material Testing Methods" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1069. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091069

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