Rise of Antibiotic Resistance: Mechanisms Involved and Solutions to Tackle It

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3632

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine and established unprecedented patterns in public and animal health. However, their misuse has exposed bacteria to selective pressure, leading to the development of critical and therapeutically untreatable bacterial resistance. Our current arsenal of effective antibiotics, accompanied by the lack of alternatives, is prompting the beginning of the “post-antibiotic era”, which threatens all the achievements of modern medicine. The worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria is increasingly drawing global attention from authorities and the media due to its potentially catastrophic implications. The pharmaceutical industry’s limited interest in the discovery of new antibiotics or developing new therapeutic strategies is a critical issue, despite the impact such new developments could have on investment returns. Bacteria have demonstrated a rapid ability to develop resistance mechanisms to every new antibiotic. Considerable technological advances, particularly these omics, have allowed for thorough investigations into and characterization of the mode of action and resistance of antibiotics. However, considering the rate of demand, such advances seem to be insufficient in discovering novel antibiotics. Specific and targeted actions are needed to ensure antibiotic sustainability and halt the advance of the “post-antibiotic era”. While the discovery of innovative therapeutic solutions and comprehension of their mechanism of action is fundamental, patient access requirements need to be properly integrated. SARS-COV-2 highlighted the existing interactions between viral and bacterial/fungal infections. However, both the COVID-19 pandemic and Ukrainian/Russian conflict causing a shortage in amoxicillin have presented an unfortunate realization of what the global health situation may become once all commercial antibiotics are unable to treat bacterial infections.

The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics will encourage the scientific community and stakeholders to present and discuss recent advances in antibiotic research.

Submissions are welcome on the following topics:

  • Epidemiology, Prevalence and Mechanisms of Microbial Resistance.
  • Making Old Antibiotics Great Again: How to Reverse Resistance to Antibiotics.
  • New Antimicrobial Approaches, Targets and Mechanisms of Action.
  • Social Challenges and Political Strategies to Prevent Antibiotic Resistance.
  • Antimicrobial Testing and Rapid Diagnostics.
  • Impact of Inter-relationship between Viral and Bacterial Infections.

Dr. Marc Maresca
Dr. Manuel Simões
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibiotic
  • antimicrobial molecules
  • drug resistance
  • repurposing
  • mode of action
  • antibiotic stewardship

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
Listeria monocytogenes from Food Products and Food Associated Environments: Antimicrobial Resistance, Genetic Clustering and Biofilm Insights
by Adriana Silva, Vanessa Silva, João Paulo Gomes, Anabela Coelho, Rita Batista, Cristina Saraiva, Alexandra Esteves, Ângela Martins, Diogo Contente, Lara Diaz-Formoso, Luis M. Cintas, Gilberto Igrejas, Vítor Borges and Patrícia Poeta
Antibiotics 2024, 13(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13050447 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen, exhibits high adaptability to adverse environmental conditions and is common in the food industry, especially in ready-to-eat foods. L. monocytogenes strains pose food safety challenges due to their ability to form biofilms, increased resistance to disinfectants, and [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen, exhibits high adaptability to adverse environmental conditions and is common in the food industry, especially in ready-to-eat foods. L. monocytogenes strains pose food safety challenges due to their ability to form biofilms, increased resistance to disinfectants, and long-term persistence in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes in food and related environmental products collected from 2014 to 2022 and assess antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation abilities. L. monocytogenes was identified in 13 out of the 227 (6%) of samples, 7 from food products (meat preparation, cheeses, and raw milk) and 6 from food-processing environments (slaughterhouse-floor and catering establishments). All isolates exhibited high biofilm-forming capacity and antibiotic susceptibility testing showed resistance to several classes of antibiotics, especially trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Genotyping and core-genome clustering identified eight sequence types and a cluster of three very closely related ST3 isolates (all from food), suggesting a common contamination source. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis revealed resistance genes conferring resistance to fosfomycin (fosX), lincosamides (lin), fluoroquinolones (norB), and tetracycline (tetM). In addition, the qacJ gene was also detected, conferring resistance to disinfecting agents and antiseptics. Virulence gene profiling revealed the presence of 92 associated genes associated with pathogenicity, adherence, and persistence. These findings underscore the presence of L. monocytogenes strains in food products and food-associated environments, demonstrating a high virulence of these strains associated with resistance genes to antibiotics, but also to disinfectants and antiseptics. Moreover, they emphasize the need for continuous surveillance, effective risk assessment, and rigorous control measures to minimize the public health risks associated to severe infections, particularly listeriosis outbreaks. A better understanding of the complex dynamics of pathogens in food products and their associated environments can help improve overall food safety and develop more effective strategies to prevent severe health consequences and economic losses. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
Design and Synthesis of Novel Amino and Acetamidoaurones with Antimicrobial Activities
by Attilio Di Maio, Hamza Olleik, Elise Courvoisier-Dezord, Sophie Guillier, Fabienne Neulat-Ripoll, Romain Haudecoeur, Jean-Michel Bolla, Magali Casanova, Jean-François Cavalier, Stéphane Canaan, Valérie Pique, Yolande Charmasson, Elias Baydoun, Akram Hijazi, Josette Perrier, Marc Maresca and Maxime Robin
Antibiotics 2024, 13(4), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13040300 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The development of new and effective antimicrobial compounds is urgent due to the emergence of resistant bacteria. Natural plant flavonoids are known to be effective molecules, but their activity and selectivity have to be increased. Based on previous aurone potency, we designed new [...] Read more.
The development of new and effective antimicrobial compounds is urgent due to the emergence of resistant bacteria. Natural plant flavonoids are known to be effective molecules, but their activity and selectivity have to be increased. Based on previous aurone potency, we designed new aurone derivatives bearing acetamido and amino groups at the position 5 of the A ring and managing various monosubstitutions at the B ring. A series of 31 new aurone derivatives were first evaluated for their antimicrobial activity with five derivatives being the most active (compounds 10, 12, 15, 16, and 20). The evaluation of their cytotoxicity on human cells and of their therapeutic index (TI) showed that compounds 10 and 20 had the highest TI. Finally, screening against a large panel of pathogens confirmed that compounds 10 and 20 possess large spectrum antimicrobial activity, including on bioweapon BSL3 strains, with MIC values as low as 0.78 µM. These results demonstrate that 5-acetamidoaurones are far more active and safer compared with 5-aminoaurones, and that benzyloxy and isopropyl substitutions at the B ring are the most promising strategy in the exploration of new antimicrobial aurones. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 1266 KiB  
Review
RND Efflux Pump Induction: A Crucial Network Unveiling Adaptive Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Negative Bacteria
by Marine Novelli and Jean-Michel Bolla
Antibiotics 2024, 13(6), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13060501 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
The rise of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria presents a grave challenge to global public health, with antimicrobial resistance ranking as the third leading cause of mortality worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance is crucial for developing effective treatments. Efflux pumps, particularly those [...] Read more.
The rise of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria presents a grave challenge to global public health, with antimicrobial resistance ranking as the third leading cause of mortality worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance is crucial for developing effective treatments. Efflux pumps, particularly those of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily, play a significant role in expelling molecules from bacterial cells, contributing to the emergence of multi-drug resistance. These are transmembrane transporters naturally produced by Gram-negative bacteria. This review provides comprehensive insights into the modulation of RND efflux pump expression in bacterial pathogens by numerous and common molecules (bile, biocides, pharmaceuticals, additives, plant extracts, etc.). The interplay between these molecules and efflux pump regulators underscores the complexity of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The clinical implications of efflux pump induction by non-antibiotic compounds highlight the challenges posed to public health and the urgent need for further investigation. By addressing antibiotic resistance from multiple angles, we can mitigate its impact and preserve the efficacy of antimicrobial therapies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop