What’s New: Natural and Synthetic Antibacterials and/or Agents with Multiple Activities? 2nd Volume

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 14825

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We have published one successful Special Issue “What’s New: Natural and Synthetic Antibacterials and/or Agents with Multiple Activities?” This result encouraged us to open a second volume on the same topic.

As a continuation of the Special Issues published in 2021, this second volume will welcome the study and biological evaluation of new natural and synthetic compounds, showing antibacterial activity along with other activities, such as antitumoral, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and so on.

Prof. Dr. Maria Stefania Sinicropi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural antibacterials
  • synthetic antibacterials
  • antitumorals
  • antivirals
  • antioxidants
  • antifungals
  • anti-inflammatory

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2896 KiB  
Article
Effects of Monensin and Rapamycin Combination Therapy on Tumor Growth and Apoptosis in a Xenograft Mouse Model of Neuroblastoma
by Sema Serter Kocoglu, Fatma Bahar Sunay and Pakize Nur Akkaya
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12060995 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor originating from the neural crest. New treatment options are needed to improve treatment outcomes and the survival of patients with neuroblastoma. Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic with antiparasitic, antibacterial, and anticancer properties isolated from Streptomyces [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor originating from the neural crest. New treatment options are needed to improve treatment outcomes and the survival of patients with neuroblastoma. Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic with antiparasitic, antibacterial, and anticancer properties isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of single and combined monensin and rapamycin treatments on mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway-mediated apoptosis and tumor growth in an SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell xenograft model. Control, monensin, rapamycin, and monensin + rapamycin groups were formed in the xenograft neuroblastoma model obtained from CD1 nude mice, and tumor volumes and animal weights were recorded throughout the treatment. In xenograft neuroblastoma tumor tissues, apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) and cleaved-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry, and PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase)/AKT/mTOR expression was determined by the immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. The combination of monensin and rapamycin was to reduce the growth of xenograft neuroblastoma tumor tissues, trigger apoptosis, and suppress the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR. A significant increase in apoptotic cell rate was demonstrated in the combination group, supported by cleaved-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry results. In addition, it was reported that the combination treatment regime triggered apoptosis by reducing the expression of phosphorylated PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Our preclinical results may be a precursor to develop new therapeutic approaches to treat neuroblastoma. Full article
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20 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Novel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Ruthenium (II) Complexes, “Precious” Tools with Antibacterial, Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties
by Jessica Ceramella, Rubina Troiano, Domenico Iacopetta, Annaluisa Mariconda, Michele Pellegrino, Alessia Catalano, Carmela Saturnino, Stefano Aquaro, Maria Stefania Sinicropi and Pasquale Longo
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040693 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene (Ru-NHC) complexes show interesting physico-chemical properties as catalysts and potential in medicinal chemistry, exhibiting multiple biological activities, among them anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Herein, we designed and synthesized a new series of Ru-NHC complexes and evaluated their biological [...] Read more.
Ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene (Ru-NHC) complexes show interesting physico-chemical properties as catalysts and potential in medicinal chemistry, exhibiting multiple biological activities, among them anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Herein, we designed and synthesized a new series of Ru-NHC complexes and evaluated their biological activities as anticancer, antibacterial, and antioxidant agents. Among the newly synthesized complexes, RANHC-V and RANHC-VI are the most active against triple-negative human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231. These compounds were selective in vitro inhibitors of the human topoisomerase I activity and triggered cell death by apoptosis. Furthermore, the Ru-NHC complexes’ antimicrobial activity was studied against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, revealing that all the complexes possessed the best antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, at a concentration of 25 µg/mL. Finally, the antioxidant effect was assessed by DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, resulting in a higher ability for inhibiting the ABTS•+, with respect to the well-known antioxidant Trolox. Thus, this work provides encouraging insights for further development of novel Ru-NHC complexes as potent chemotherapeutic agents endowed with multiple biological properties. Full article
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12 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study on the Action of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Treating the Most Common Bacterial Contaminants and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Derby in Poultry Litter
by Michela Galgano, Francesco Pellegrini, Giuseppe Fracchiolla, Daniela Mrenoshki, Aya Attia Koraney Zarea, Angelica Bianco, Laura Del Sambro, Loredana Capozzi, Antonella Schiavone, Medhat S. Saleh, Michele Camero, Maria Tempesta, Francesco Cirone, Domenico Buonavoglia, Annamaria Pratelli and Alessio Buonavoglia
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030436 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in poultry farms is linked to the increase in multi-resistant bacteria. Accordingly, based on the antimicrobial properties of Thyme Essential Oil (TEO), the present study evaluated the effects of TEO on the reduction of common microbial contaminants and [...] Read more.
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in poultry farms is linked to the increase in multi-resistant bacteria. Accordingly, based on the antimicrobial properties of Thyme Essential Oil (TEO), the present study evaluated the effects of TEO on the reduction of common microbial contaminants and Salmonella on poultry litter. A litter bulk sample was collected in a broiler farm and qualitative/quantitative investigations identified Escherichia coli and Mammaliicoccus lentus. The experimental contamination with Salmonella Derby wild strain was also performed. All pathogens showed phenotypic and genotypic resistance to different classes of antibiotics. The litter, split in different units, was treated with aqueous solutions of TEO at different concentrations (5% to 1.25%), demonstrating its effectiveness in reducing the total number of bacteria. The strongest antibacterial action was observed at the lowest concentration against Enterobacteriaceae, with a growth reduction compared to the positive control of 73.3% and 77.8% against E. coli and Salmonella Derby, respectively, while towards M. lentus the reduction was 50%. Our data confirm the antimicrobial activity of TEO and suggest its possible application for the treatment of poultry litter as an effective and natural approach for the prevention of diseases caused by the most common bacteria that colonize poultry farms, counteracting the onset of antibiotic resistance. Full article
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17 pages, 4392 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Catechol-Containing Biopolymer Poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric Acid] from Different Medicinal Plants of Boraginaceae Family
by Vakhtang Barbakadze, Maia Merlani, Lali Gogilashvili, Lela Amiranashvili, Anthi Petrou, Athina Geronikaki, Ana Ćirić, Jasmina Glamočlija and Marina Soković
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020285 - 1 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1358
Abstract
This study reports the antimicrobial activities of the biopolymers poly[3-(3,4-dihydoxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDHPGA) and poly[2-methoxycarbonyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)oxirane] (PMDHPO), extracted from the six plants of Boraginaceae family: Symphytum asperum (SA), S. caucasicum (SC), S. gr and iflorum (SG), Anchusa italica ( [...] Read more.
This study reports the antimicrobial activities of the biopolymers poly[3-(3,4-dihydoxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDHPGA) and poly[2-methoxycarbonyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)oxirane] (PMDHPO), extracted from the six plants of Boraginaceae family: Symphytum asperum (SA), S. caucasicum (SC), S. gr and iflorum (SG), Anchusa italica (AI), Cynoglosum officinale (CO), and Borago officinalis (BO) collected in various parts of Georgia. The study revealed that the antibacterial activities were moderate, and biopolymers from only three plants showed activities against all tested bacteria. Biopolymers from CO stems as well as SC and AI did not show any activity except low activity against a resistant P. aeruginosa strain, which was the most resistant among all three resistant strains. On the other hand, the antifungal activity was better compared to the antibacterial activity. Biopolymers from BO stems exhibited the best activities with MIC/MFC at 0.37–1.00 mg/mL and 0.75–1.5 mg/L, respectively, followed by those from SG stems. Biopolymers from SC and AI roots showed antifungal activities against all six fungi, in contrast to the antibacterial activity, while biopolymers from CO stems and SA roots had activities against four fungi and one fungus, respectively. The sugar-based catechol-containing biopolymers from BO stems demonstrated the best activities among all tested biopolymers against T. viride, P. funiculosum, P. cyclpoium var verucosum, and C. albicans (MIC 0.37 mg/mL). In addition, biopolymers from SG stems were half as active against A. fumigatus and T. viride as ketoconazole. Biopolymers from all plant materials except for CO stems showed higher potency than ketoconazole against T. viride. For the first time, it was shown that all plant materials exhibited better activity against C. albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal species. Full article
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14 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Dinactin: A New Antitumor Antibiotic with Cell Cycle Progression and Cancer Stemness Inhibiting Activities in Lung Cancer
by Anchalee Rawangkan, Pattama Wongsirisin, Grissana Pook-In, Achiraya Siriphap, Atchariya Yosboonruang, Anong Kiddee, Jureeporn Chuerduangphui, Nanthawan Reukngam, Acharaporn Duangjai, Surasak Saokaew and Ratsada Praphasawat
Antibiotics 2022, 11(12), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11121845 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is one of the most complex diseases, despite the existence of effective treatments such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for chemo- and radio-resistance, metastasis, and cancer recurrence, finding new [...] Read more.
Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is one of the most complex diseases, despite the existence of effective treatments such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for chemo- and radio-resistance, metastasis, and cancer recurrence, finding new therapeutic targets for CSCs is critical. Dinactin is a natural secondary metabolite produced by microorganisms. Recently, dinactin has been revealed as a promising antitumor antibiotic via various mechanisms. However, the evidence relating to cell cycle progression regulation is constrained, and effects on cancer stemness have not been elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the new function of dinactin in anti-NSCLC proliferation, focusing on cell cycle progression and cancer stemness properties in Lu99 and A549 cells. Flow cytometry and immunoblotting analyses revealed that 0.1–1 µM of dinactin suppresses cell growth through induction of the G0/G1 phase associated with down-regulation of cyclins A, B, and D3, and cdk2 protein expression. The tumor-sphere forming capacity was used to assess the effect of dinactin on the cancer stemness potential in NSCLC cells. At a concentration of 1 nM, dinactin reduced both the number and size of the tumor-spheres. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that dinactin suppressed sphere formation by significantly reducing expression of CSC markers (i.e., ALDH1A1, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2) in Lu99 cells. Consequently, dinactin could be a promising strategy for NSCLC therapy targeting CSCs. Full article
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13 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Evaluated In Vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
by Michela Galgano, Paolo Capozza, Francesco Pellegrini, Marco Cordisco, Alessio Sposato, Sabina Sblano, Michele Camero, Gianvito Lanave, Giuseppe Fracchiolla, Marialaura Corrente, Francesco Cirone, Adriana Trotta, Maria Tempesta, Domenico Buonavoglia and Annamaria Pratelli
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070979 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3480
Abstract
The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a reduction in antibiotic effectiveness and an increase in mortality rates. Essential oils (EOs), known for their therapeutic efficacy, can be configured as novel broad-spectrum biocides. Accordingly, the bacteriostatic–bactericidal activity [...] Read more.
The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a reduction in antibiotic effectiveness and an increase in mortality rates. Essential oils (EOs), known for their therapeutic efficacy, can be configured as novel broad-spectrum biocides. Accordingly, the bacteriostatic–bactericidal activity of Citrus Lemon (LEO), Pinus Sylvestris (PEO), Foeniculum Vulgaris (FEO), Ocimum Basilicum (BEO), Melissa Officinalis (MEO), Thymus Vulgaris (TEO), and Zingiber Officinalis Rosc. (GEO), at concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 40% (v/v), were tested in vitro against different E. coli and S. aureus strains using minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The chemical compositions of the EOs were analyzed using GC/MS. The major components of all seven tested oils were limonene, α-pinene, anethole, estragole, citral, thymol, and zingiberene, respectively. We found that the bacteriostatic–bactericidal activity of the EOs was related to their chemotypes and concentrations, as well as the strain of the bacteria. A dose–effect correlation was found when testing GEO against S. aureus strains, whilst FEO was found to have no activity regardless of concentration. PEO, MEO, and BEO were found to have bactericidal effect with a MIC and MBC of 1.25% (v/v) against S. aureus strains, and LEO was found to have values of 1.25% (v/v) and 5% (v/v) against ATCC and clinical isolate, respectively. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of TEO was not related to oil concentration and the complete inhibition of growth across all E. coli and S. aureus was observed. Although preliminary, our data demonstrate the efficacy of EOs and pave the way for further investigations on their potential synergistic use with traditional drugs in the human and veterinary fields. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 8613 KiB  
Review
Biological Activities of Ruthenium NHC Complexes: An Update
by Alessia Catalano, Annaluisa Mariconda, Maria Stefania Sinicropi, Jessica Ceramella, Domenico Iacopetta, Carmela Saturnino and Pasquale Longo
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020365 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes have unique physico-chemical properties as catalysts and a huge potential in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, exhibiting a variety of notable biological activities. In this review, the most recent studies on ruthenium NHC complexes are summarized, focusing specifically [...] Read more.
Ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes have unique physico-chemical properties as catalysts and a huge potential in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, exhibiting a variety of notable biological activities. In this review, the most recent studies on ruthenium NHC complexes are summarized, focusing specifically on antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Ruthenium NHC complexes are generally active against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes and are seldom active against Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The antiproliferative activity was tested against cancer cell lines of human colon, breast, cervix, epidermis, liver and rat glioblastoma cell lines. Ruthenium NHC complexes generally demonstrated cytotoxicity higher than standard anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism of action of these interesting compounds. Full article
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