Special Issue "The Equal Power of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance: The Continuing Development of New Knowledge"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. John E. Gustafson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 246C Noble Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-3035, USA
Interests: antibiotic resistance; the effects of essential oils/antiseptics/disinfectants on bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus; Elizabethkingia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Antibiotics (ECA 2021) will be held from 8 to 17 May 2021, as a result of the great interest from the community in this Conference Series. The e-conference will be hosted on sciforum.net, an online platform developed by MDPI for scholarly exchange and collaboration.

Many scientists, industry leaders, and government officials are in open discussion about a “postantibiotic era”, at a time when all participants need to remain enthusiastic about new discoveries and maintain funding for the research required to tackle antibiotic resistance. There are few branches of science similar to antibiotic and antibiotic-resistance research, since these efforts require drawing from the strengths of a myriad of scientific disciplines to overcome one of the greatest threats facing humanity.

This premier virtual event, sponsored and supported by MPDI and the journal Antibiotics, hopes to inform and engage participants on a wide variety of subjects associated with antimicrobials, such as:

  • Advances in research on new and current antibiotics and related bioactive medicinal agents;
  • Antibiotic administration, drug–drug interactions, and pharmacodynamics;
  • Biochemical and genetics studies on micro-organisms for improved antibiotics;
  • Uses of antibiotics, including on animals and in agriculture;
  • Clinical trials;
  • New methods for assaying and evaluating antibiotics;
  • The production and characterization of antibiotics;
  • Classes of antibiotics;
  • Antibiotic resistance and misuse;
  • Natural antibiotics;
  • Epidemiology of antimicrobial use;
  • Antimicrobial stewardship;
  • Qualitative and quantitative research exploring the determinants of antimicrobial use and resistance;
  • Prescribing sciences;
  • Antiviral therapeutics;
  • Vaccines.

This Special Issue welcomes selected papers from the ECA 2021 that promote and advance the exciting and rapidly changing field.

Submitted contributions will be subjected to peer review and, upon acceptance, will be published with the aim of rapidly and widely disseminating research results, developments, and applications.

It should be noted that submitted manuscripts should have at least 50% additional, new, and unpublished material as compared to the ECA 2021 published paper.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. John E. Gustafson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Impact of Cefazolin Shortage on Clinical Outcomes of Adult Patients with Bacteremia Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a Tertiary Care University Hospital
Antibiotics 2021, 10(10), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101247 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Cefazolin is an essential antibiotic used for treating bacteremia; in particular, it is recommended as a first-line agent for infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcusaureus (MSSA). In March 2019, problems with a major antibiotic supplier caused a critical shortage of cefazolin in Japan; [...] Read more.
Cefazolin is an essential antibiotic used for treating bacteremia; in particular, it is recommended as a first-line agent for infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcusaureus (MSSA). In March 2019, problems with a major antibiotic supplier caused a critical shortage of cefazolin in Japan; however, the impact of the cefazolin shortage on clinical outcomes remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the cefazolin shortage in patients with MSSA bacteremia. Data from 75 patients were compared between the pre-shortage (March 2018–January 2019, n = 39) and post-shortage (March 2019–January 2020, n = 36) periods. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics between the two groups, and the cefazolin shortage did not worsen clinical outcomes such as adverse drug reactions, treatment failure, and 30-day mortality. In the post-shortage group, ampicillin/sulbactam and benzylpenicillin were more frequently administered as alternative antibiotics for empirical and definitive therapy (10% vs. 31%, p = 0.042; 0% vs. 19%, p = 0.004, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the broad-spectrum antibiotics for definitive therapy, such as antipseudomonal penicillin, were associated with treatment failure in patients with MSSA bacteremia (OR = 17, p = 0.003). Hence, narrow-spectrum antibiotics should be prescribed for MSSA bacteremia as alternatives during a cefazolin shortage. Full article
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Article
Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Patients: A 10-Year Study on Their Epidemiology and Antibiotic Resistance Based on the WHO Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) Classification
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091098 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
The ageing of the population—especially in developed countries—has brought on many societal challenges and has significantly contributed to the burden on healthcare infrastructures worldwide. Elderly persons (aged ≥ 65 years) are at higher risk for developing UTIs, due to a range of intrinsic [...] Read more.
The ageing of the population—especially in developed countries—has brought on many societal challenges and has significantly contributed to the burden on healthcare infrastructures worldwide. Elderly persons (aged ≥ 65 years) are at higher risk for developing UTIs, due to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, and they often delay seeking treatment. A retrospective observational study was performed regarding the epidemiology and resistance of UTIs in elderly patients. Identification of the isolates was carried out using VITEK 2 ID/AST and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance in these isolates was assessed based on EUCAST guidelines, and were grouped into the WHO AWaRe (Access, Watch, Reserve) classification of antimicrobials. During the 10-year study period, n = 4214 (421.4 ± 118.7/year) and n = 4952 (495.2 ± 274.6) laboratory-confirmed UTIs were recorded in inpatients and outpatients, respectively. The causative agents showed differentiation among outpatients and inpatients: Escherichia coli (48.14% vs. 25.65%; p = 0.001), Enterococcus spp. (20.15% vs. 21.52%; p > 0.05), Klebsiella spp. (16.28% vs. 16.26%; p > 0.05), Pseudomonas spp. (4.40%vs. 13.36%; p = 0.001); Proteus-Providencia-Morganella group (4.56% vs. 10.96%; p = 0.001); Candida spp. (0.53% vs. 5.98%; p = 0.001); Citrobacter-Enterobacter-Serratia group (1.90% vs. 2.71%; p < 0.05). Significantly higher resistance rates were observed in inpatient isolates for many Access and Watch antibiotics compared to isolates of outpatient origin; in addition, resistance rates were higher in these uropathogens compared to the previously recorded rates in the region. More care should be taken for the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs affecting elderly patients, as they represent a particularly vulnerable patient population. Full article
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