Special Issue "Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant-Derived Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Edoardo Napoli
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry – Italian National Research Council (ICB-CNR)
Interests: Essential oils, Phytochemistry, Chemistry of Natural Compounds
Dr. Maura Di Vito
Website
Guest Editor
Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-Alimentari (DISTAL) - University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and Istituto di Microbiologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Rome, Italy and Dip. di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Interests: Essential oils, Microbiology, Human physio-pathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Essential oils extracted by distillation or hydrodistillation of aromatic plants are a complex mixture of volatile compounds with several biological activities. Their efficacy as antimicrobial agents is related to the activity of several components belonging to different chemical families that can act both in synergy with each other and with other antibiotics. The antibiotic resistance detected among pathogens is quick rising in the latest years, and the control of some of these microorganisms is becoming a planetary emergency for human and animal health. The control of the microbial growth is a problem of great importance also for the food industry (food deterioration and shelf life extension) and for the world of cultural heritage (indoor and outdoor phenomena of biodeterioration). Essential oils can play an important role in this scenario, due their recognized broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the main subject of this Special Issue includes any essential oil-based approach to control microrganisms in areas such as human and veterinary medicine, entomology, food industry, agriculture, and cultural heritage. In addition, manuscripts concerning other essential oils areas of interest are welcome, such as:

  • Chemical composition of essential oils from endemic and rare medicinal/aromatic plants;
  • Innovative formulations and nanoformulations of essential oils;
  • Applications in human and veterinary medicine: e.g. anticancer, antiviral, antinflammatory, analgesic activities of essential oils;
  • Use of essential oils as animal feeding supplements;
  • Toxicological studies.

Dr. Edoardo Napoli
Dr. Maura Di Vito
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Essential oils
  • antibacterial activity
  • antifungal activity
  • anticancer activity
  • nanoformulations
  • toxicology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Studying the Gene Expression of Penicillium rubens Under the Effect of Eight Essential Oils
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060343 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their beneficial properties against a broad range of microorganisms. For the better understanding of their mechanism of action in fungi, a microarray approach was used in order to evaluate the gene expression of Penicillium chrysogenum (recently renamed [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are well-known for their beneficial properties against a broad range of microorganisms. For the better understanding of their mechanism of action in fungi, a microarray approach was used in order to evaluate the gene expression of Penicillium chrysogenum (recently renamed P. rubens) exposed to the indirect contact (vapors) of eight EOs. The selection of assayed EOs was based on their antifungal activity. The extraction of RNA and the microarray hybridization procedure were optimized for the analysis of P. rubens. Gene ontology annotation was performed to investigate the functional analysis of the genes. To uncover the metabolic pathway of these differentially expressed genes, they were mapped into the KEGG BRITE pathway database. The transcriptomic analysis showed that, from a total of 12,675 genes, only 551 genes are annotated, and the other 12,124 genes encoded hypothetical proteins. Further bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that 1350 genes were upregulated and 765 downregulated at least with half (four) of the utilizing EOs. A microarray investigation has confirmed the main impact of EOs to metabolic processes in P. rubens involved in vital functions. Presumably, this is the first time that a microarray hybridization analysis was performed in order to evaluate the gene expression of P. rubens exposed to various EOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological, Chemical, and Genetic Characteristics of Korean Native Thyme Bak-Ri-Hyang (Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.)
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060289 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Bak-ri-hyang (Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.) is an important medicinal and aromatic plant in Korea. T. quinquecostatus population and is always mixed with other thyme cultivars during cultivation and marketing. Hence, this study aimed to determine the genetic variability and the essential oil composition [...] Read more.
Bak-ri-hyang (Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.) is an important medicinal and aromatic plant in Korea. T. quinquecostatus population and is always mixed with other thyme cultivars during cultivation and marketing. Hence, this study aimed to determine the genetic variability and the essential oil composition of three Korean native thyme, T. quinquecostatus cultivars collected from the Wolchul, Jiri, and Odae mountains, in comparison with six commercial thyme cultivars (T. vulgaris), to distinguish Bak-ri-hyang from other thyme cultivars. The composition of essential oils obtained from nine individuals was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was accomplished using 16 different primers. The GC–MS analysis revealed that Wolchul, creeping, golden, and orange cultivars belong to the geraniol chemotype. Whereas the Odae, lemon, and silver cultivars belong to the thymol chemotype. Further, linalool was the most abundant component in carpet and Jiri cultivars. The RAPD analysis demonstrated that all thyme cultivars showed characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. In total, 133 bands were obtained using 16 primers, and 124 bands were polymorphic, corresponding to 93.2% polymorphism. Cluster analysis of RAPD markers established the presence of clear separation from nine thyme cultivars. The highest dissimilarity and similarity coefficient of the RAPD markers were 0.58 and 0.98, respectively. According to the RAPD patterns, the nine thyme cultivars could be divided into two major clusters. Among three Korean cultivars, the Wolchul and Odae cultivars were placed into the same cluster, but they did not show identical clustering with their essential oil compositions. The findings of the present study suggest that RAPD analysis can be a useful tool for marker-assisted identification of T. quinquecostatus from other Thymus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Oregano Essential Oil May Replace Antibiotics in Lamb Diets: Effects on Meat Quality
Antibiotics 2020, 9(5), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050248 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and monensin sodium on the oxidative stability, colour, texture, and the fatty acid profile of lamb meat (m. Longissimus lumborum). Twenty Dorper x Pelibuey lambs were randomly divided into [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) and monensin sodium on the oxidative stability, colour, texture, and the fatty acid profile of lamb meat (m. Longissimus lumborum). Twenty Dorper x Pelibuey lambs were randomly divided into five treatments; control (CON), monensin sodium (SM, Rumensin 200® 33 mg/kg), a low level of OEO (LO, 0.2 g/kg dry matter (DM)), a medium level of OEO (MO, 0.3g/ kg DM), and a high level of OEO (HO, 0.4 g/kg DM). Dietary supplementation of OEO at any concentration lowered the compression strength in comparison with CON and SM. MO had the highest a* values (7.99) and fatty acid concentration (C16:1n7, C18:1n9c, C18:1n6c, C20:1n9, and C18:2n6c) during storage for 7 d at 3 °C. Lipid oxidation was not promoted (p > 0.05) by the moderated supplementation of oregano essential oil; however, OEO at 0.3 g/kg DM showed a slight lipid pro-oxidant effect. Dietary supplementation of MO and SM had the same effect on colour, tenderness, and the fatty acid profile of lamb (L. lumborum). It was demonstrated that oregano essential oil was beneficial for lambs feeding, and it could be a natural alternative to replace monensin in lamb diets with improvements in the quality of the meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Frankincense Oils from Boswellia sacra Grown in Different Locations of the Dhofar Region (Oman)
Antibiotics 2020, 9(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9040195 - 20 Apr 2020
Abstract
Frankincense essential oils from Boswellia sacra have been commonly used to treat microbial infections from as early as the 11th century. The main feature of the plant is its gum resin, from which it is possible to obtain essential oils. In the present [...] Read more.
Frankincense essential oils from Boswellia sacra have been commonly used to treat microbial infections from as early as the 11th century. The main feature of the plant is its gum resin, from which it is possible to obtain essential oils. In the present study, we focused on the comparative study of the oils extracted from the resins of three different Boswellia sacra cultivars (Najdi, Sahli and Houjri). From each of frankincense resin three successive essential oil samples (Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3) were obtained. Houjri gum resin gave the lowest percentage (5%) of total essential oil content but showed the maximum number of volatile components in all three grades. Najdi Grade 2 essential oil showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 52 mg/mL toward relevant pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and samples from Grade 2 of Sahily and Houjiri were particularly active against a dermatological strain Propionibacterium acnes, displaying MIC values of 0.264 and 0.66 mg/mL, respectively. Data obtained from in vitro studies showed that all essential oils had a significant antifungal effect against Candida albicans and Malassezia furfur, showing MIC values ranging from 54.56 to 0.246 mg/mL. This work aims to increase the number of substances available in the fight against pathogens and to combat the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance, encouraging the use of alternative resources, especially in non-clinical settings (farms, food processing, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Glucosyltransferase Activity and Glucan Production as an Antibiofilm Mechanism of Lemongrass Essential Oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7
Antibiotics 2020, 9(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9030102 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to disinfection is associated with its ability to form biofilms, mainly constituted by glucans produced by glucosyltransferases. Citral and geraniol, terpenes found in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (EO), have proven antibacterial activity against planktonic E. [...] Read more.
The resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to disinfection is associated with its ability to form biofilms, mainly constituted by glucans produced by glucosyltransferases. Citral and geraniol, terpenes found in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (EO), have proven antibacterial activity against planktonic E. coli; however, no information was found about their efficacy and mode of action against E. coli biofilms. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of C. citratus EO, citral, and geraniol on glucans production and glucosyltransferase activity as anti-biofilm mechanism against E. coli was evaluated. EO, citral, and geraniol inhibited the planktonic growth of E. coli (minimal inhibitory concentration or MIC= 2.2, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/mL, respectively) and the bacterial adhesion (2.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/mL, respectively) on stainless steel. All compounds decreased the glucans production; citral and geraniol acted as uncompetitive inhibitors of glucosyltransferase activity (The half maximal inhibitory concentrations or IC50 were 8.5 and 6.5 µM, respectively). The evidence collected by docking analysis indicated that both terpenes could interact with the helix finger of the glucosyltransferase responsible for the polymer production. In conclusion, C. citratus EO, citral, and geraniol inhibited glucosyltransferase activity, glucans production, and the consequent biofilm formation of E. coli O157:H7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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